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tv   Fault Lines  Al Jazeera  February 21, 2016 4:30am-5:01am EST

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the island. reminder you can keep up-to-date with all our top stories vee athe website at >> we're in the eastern part of the democratic republic of congo. it's one of the least developed countries in the world, but there's an estimated $24 trillion worth of minerals here. tantalum, tungsten, tin, and gold have all been linked to violence in eastern congo by rebel groups and the congolese army. >> millions of people have been killed in the congo over the past decade. i want to see peace in the
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congo. >> the same minerals are used to make common electronics,that are sold all over the world. but in 2010, after months of lobbying by advocacy groups an obscure resolution called section 1502, was dropped into the dodd-frank wall street reform act. it means publicly traded companies are now required to track whether their products contain conflict minerals from congo. some of the top tech brands are taking credit for reducing violence here -- with the world's largest chip-maker intel even claiming that some of their products are now "100% conflict free". >> "we're proud to say the world's first commercially available conflict free microprocessors do just that". >> but how sure can they be? fault lines travels to eastern congo to investigate.
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john kanyoni is the owner of a leading trading house in goma. he makes his living selling tin and tantalum to international companies. in 2010 he warned that the dodd- frank law would backfire... but he says he was up against a powerful lobby. >> imagine that you have angelina jolie at your door. you are a very big u.s. company, george clooney at your door saying you guys, you're the ones fueling the armed groups there. do you think that for the reputation of those companies they would be still sourcing from this region? they said ok we are stopping and that's what happened. >> soon after the law passed, companies took their business elsewhere. sales of tin ore from this province plummeted by more than
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90%. >> ah the containers. >> that's the material ready to be exported. we are doing almost 2 containers while we used to do 8 containers per month. >> the only way john, or anyone in congo -- can now legally export to the u.s. is by opting into a system that traces the origin of the minerals. >> yes i can show you some. these are the tags. >> so these tags are attached to the bags of minerals that come here? >> yes. >> at mines that are determined to be "conflict free" bags of minerals are tagged with a numeric code. >> so this entire traceability system rests on these tags? >> yes. >> exporters have to pay fees to take part in the tagging system, an extra cost that's passed all the way down to the miners. >> we're working now at 20% of our normal capacity.
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>> international prices have also dropped recently, compounding the losses from the dodd-frank law. >> how do you survive? i mean you must have lost so much money. >> a lot of money. so those who did that feeling that they helped congo, they didn't help congo at all. it harmed thousands and thousands of congolese. you completely killed the business, if that was really your aim, you did very well, but you didn't, you didn't help drc at all. you didn't. >> the tagging system has been criticized for being not only expensive but also slow to implement. >> we're on our way to meet maxie muwonge, who helps the drc government determine which sites can be certified conflict free. >> the reality is that artisanal mining is the subsistence way
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most of the communities in eastern congo survive. for them it is from the soil to the pocket to the stomach. >> how many mine sites have been certified? >> 160 mine sites have been validated in eastern congo. >> in the whole country? >> in the whole country, this is less than 10%... >> of the total number of mines... >> of the potential of artisanal mining. >> you said only 160 mines are certified and that's where the tags come from? >> yeah the tags... >> those are the minerals that are actually tagged? >> yes >> so the rest of the mines in the country how do they sell their minerals if they don't have tags? >> well uh this is a good question for government. >> if 90 percent of the mines in eastern congo aren't yet certified to use the tagging system, what's happening to all of those minerals? we got a tip about a mine in a place called nyabibwe, the
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very first in eastern congo to be certified as conflict free. we stopped within sight of it but weren't able to get close. until last year nyabibwe was part of a project piloted by companies like philips, intel, and motorola that was held up as proof minerals could be traced from mine to export. but a source told us that untagged minerals had been brough there illegally, mixed in with the tagged minerals, and passed off as conflict-free. to find out more, we headed to a remote mining village called numbi - a 6 hour drive even deeper into the mountains. >> we're just arriving in numbi. it's one of the largest mines in the area and the most recent one to be certified. >> it's been four years since u.n. forces and the congolese army cleared
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this area of armed groups, but it's only recently been designated "conflict free". in numbi, we met ombeni chikala, a supervisor at a local tin mine. for 15 years, he's made his living as a miner starting as a digger and working his way up. >> on the day we visited ombeni's mine site, agents logged and tagged a 6 kilo bag of tin, a process required for every single mineral shipment leaving congo to be legally sold in the west.
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>> have you heard of the dodd-frank law? >> what do you think of it? >> are miners across this region affected by the system of traceability and by the dodd-frank law? >> jean ngerageze is the president of a local mining cooperative.
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>> we asked jean how miners here were able to make a living before the site was certified. >> did you have the same system six months ago? >> nyabibwe is the mine that was held up as a model by western companies. >> so before this mine was certified, minerals would be brought there and tagged as if they were part of nyabibwe's production?
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>> we're in bukavu, the capital of south kivu to meet with abbas kayonga. abbas heads the the anti-fraud division of the ministry of mines here. when we told him we'd heard minerals had been tagged and sold illegally in nyabibwe, he said the site is currently under investigation. >> what can you tell us about incidents of fraud in numbi and nyabibwe?
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>> so you're saying the amount that's produced in nyabibwe is not very high, but the amount that is exported is very high. >> abbas and his agents track minerals from uncertified mines that arrive in the city. he told us that in the last 7 months they've intercepted 52 tons of illegal tin. he took us to a boat landing along lake kivu, one of the major conduits for mineral smuggling here. >> and how do your agents find out about this?
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>> and it takes place in little boats like this? >> are most of the minerals that are smuggled across, are they tagged or untagged? >> untagged. >> and where are they going? what's the no 1 destination? >> back in goma we tracked down a government whistleblower who asked to remain anonymous. he gave us more information about how smuggling takes place across the land border with rwanda. he described how minerals travel through checkpoints with impunity and, in some cases,
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women are paid to conceal them under their dresses. >> what happens to the minerals once they get to rwanda? >> we wanted to test if we too could buy tags on the black market. national defense that rub ishg o was talking about? >> marco rubio for president >> for g.o.p. presidential candidates being on the ground, talking veterans, listening to the issues is one of the most important tactics in their hunt
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for delegates u if you're a veteran or you have a family member that is serving now or in the past, can you raise your hand so we can thank you some in that's unbelievable. >> here in south carolina there are eight military bases across the state and of the nearly five million residents here, over veterans. >> the fraud at the veterans administration is beyond belief. we're going to straighten it out, but we will make the be. >> from donald trump to ted cruz, the millitary and veteran affairs has been at the top of their list of talking points >> we have seen moralee in the military plummet. we have seen a commander in chief that does not stand with the service men and women that does not believe in their mission. >> lieutenant colonel is a veteran of afghanistan and is
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listening closely right? >> well, you know, i think they're all saying the right things, about you the proof is in the pudding. so we will see. i can't judge until they get into office >> our army is smaller than it has been since the second world war >> a packed town hall. marco rubio told the crowd he wanted an regan-style rebuild of national security and vowed to win the war on terror >> if we catch any terrorists alive, they won't have the right to remain silent, and they're going to go to guantanamo. a tone repeated by front runners on the trail >> veterans die waiting for dock force on simple things. they wait in rooms for five days, four days, six days, die. >> in over haul to the scandal
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veteran affairs, an end to delays, every candidate on the trail with their own spin. >> there are good people at the va. we thank them and celebrate them, but if you're not going a good job at the va when i'm president, you will be fired >> i think that's a good idea. start from scratch and seep what the needs are. >> a key issue in the south carolina primary, one that-- south carolina, one that would be going all the way. >> that veteran that we spoke to in the story that you guys just watched, guess what, he was undecided yesterday between marco rubio and ted cruz and isn't that indicative of what we're seeing tonight in the horse road accident race here. -- horse race here. >> you're right. in the latest polling we have 7% in now. donald trump is the winner so the associated press says. did you ever think you would
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hear yourself say that, but a real dog-fight with 7% reporting between ted cruz at 22% roughly, marco rubio roughly at 21%. a lot at stake here for second place. do you remember back in iowa when marco rubio came in third place he gave what bewildered a lot of people a victory speech, calling that a victory. do you expect that he could get away with that expectations game again tonight? what do you think we can expect from marco rubio when he appears before that crowd behind you? >> i think he will come out here with his fists up blazing. this guy has been excited all week. he really has thought he had a fighting chance to be in close contention with donald trump and beat ted cruz. i know the crowd here is clearly going to energyise the situation. the governor is here. her endorsement was massive as far as getting faith into marco rubio here.
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he is playing more to the undecided group. as we talked to the veteran yesterday, he wasn't sure. he didn't want to take that chance on donald trump. so he was making that decision today. i think you will see marco rubio coming out hard here. >> thank you. adam, more shifts under the feet of the political structure and establishment tonight from south carolina yes. absolutely. thank you for that. let's hit the reset button here and bring you up-to-date on the very latest in the race. dlt is the projected winner there in south carolina. marco rubio and ted cruz battling it out for second place. former florida
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now, this is in addition to the $4.5 billion that we have already donated in humanitarian assistance to deal with the problem of syrian refugees. refugees. more than any other donor in the world. as part of that effort we agreed
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to extend humanitarian access to humanitarian supplies in syria. syria. earlier this week limited humanitari humanitarian aid entered the areas for the first time in a while. . >> some people had received aid - had not received aid literally for years. through efforts from the international syria support group, the humanitarian task force, more areas will receive help in the coming days and weeks, and that progress will be regularized. this access specifically called for in u.n. resolution 2254, and we intend to see that this