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tv   Lassina Zerbo  Al Jazeera  November 11, 2019 5:32pm-6:01pm +03

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during over 3 decades in power and the co-leader of cambodia's dissolved opposition party is that the french ambassador day after being released from house arrest and is still unable to take part in politics or leave the country after spain 2nd general election this year the ruling socialists have won the largest share of the vote but falling short of a majority the far right vox party saw its support surge pro separatists protesters from catalonia have blocked a major highway that connects the spanish region with france latin america's longest serving leader has resigned following protests against his reelection in bolivia the u.s. is calling for civilian leadership to maintain control during the transition it's talk to al-jazeera now stay with us. on counting the cost it's the birthplace of neo liberalism but will it also be the death of it we're taking a look at the doctrine and the protests in chile against it and money makes the
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world go around but maybe there's such a thing as the wrong kind of investment. counting the cost on al-jazeera. to. see. the 6945 an american b. 29 bomber dropped the 1st ever atomic bomb over the japanese city of hiroshima. at least 140000 people were killed in the attack. tens of thousands more died later because of the effects of radiation ever since the end of the 2nd world war there's been an international consensus and effort to contain the spread of nuclear weapons. the global community has created several organizations and signed treaties to prevent potential nuclear attacks as of today 9 countries have admitted to possessing nuclear weapons but only 5
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a part of the 1968 nuclear nonproliferation treaty which calls on its signatories to open the doors for inspection by the international atomic energy agency the i.a.e.a. is one of the organizations promoting the peaceful use of nuclear technology while a 996 treaty banned all nuclear tests for both civilian and military purposes but there are 12 states which have neither signed nor ratified the treaty among them of 3 with nuclear weapons north korea india and pakistan. with north korea launching missiles and the growing conflict between india and pakistan and the world prevent a nuclear attack the executive secretary of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty organization dr list seen as servo talks to al-jazeera. listeners a executive secretary for the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty organization
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thank you for talking to al-jazeera. can we start really with the thought that peace and stability was hard for to the 2nd world war 2 nuclear bombs hit japan in august sucky and hiroshima and it brought the stark reality of what nuclear warfare could do to this planet for the global community to come together and say we shouldn't ever use these in war or conflict. many decades have passed since that agreement to search and certainly since that incident how problematic has proliferation and nuclear development become in the decades following the 2nd world war to where we are now in 2019 you put it right it's been nearly 75 years that the 2 bombs were detonated in the moment there's that you and since then there's been a lot of discussion international agreement the nonproliferation treaty the
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comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty and many desire money and nonproliferation of agreement to try and. find a way to stop what the world's saw as very devastating for all of us for our planet and how could we prepare the next generation for a more peaceful and world that has been the challenge for the past years but as we succeeded in we are facing the same situation as if we were the day after the 2 want to bomb we must now there's a need oshima because today still the most crucial political moral and social challenge is how to stop a nuclear explosion from happening on this planet again indeed and various politicians on various continents have their own issues and worries concerns and needs regarding either nuclear technology or nuclear armament so let's begin in the
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middle east because the collapse of the iran nuclear agreement has been headline news for at least since president trump came into power forcing really the european signatories to that document to generally take sides it's still a difficult situation how do you read it at this moment it is a difficult situation for all of them for us for europe and for you on foreign ministers that if you gave the keynote speech that. the opening of the minix security conference call group one of the thing that he said was to sum up the situation in the middle east i think shouldn't be taken in the 0 sum game because you have to find a deal where everyone feel victorious that's what a great deal could be but a deal is never perfect the deal is perfect what iran is looking at today despite the situation in the us is that europe stand on its commitment that's what foreign
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ministers that it is talking about but we have to find a situation where we put i mean we sacrifice our pride and ego to a certain extent and then to look at the interests of humanity the interests of the international community and that's a difficult task but it's a task that is possible and that we have to strive for if it is a task that is possible how does your organization fit into that considering the u.n. are involved and various other interested parties and stakeholders who are dare i say whispering in the is various allies whether it be the u.s. whether it be the european partners or even the role precisely soiler think our the musicians like the overall u.n. context we hear to contribute to peace and stability. but we can only contribute if people take us seriously i mean if you take the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty this treaty is long do but this treaty has been seen as one of the more idea
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too. nuclear armament treaty on earth today but you have 134 countries that have signed up to destry t. 168 that are that if i and yet this treaty is still pending that if occasion in the middle east iran egypt and israel are all signed a treaty we can create through this treaty a condition of dialogue dialogue understanding which of trust because it always start in the middle east with mr us or destroy us and that's one thing that foreign ministers that he was talking about again do you think there is a way forward for both iran and the us to try and find. a meeting point a middle ground where they can discuss because at the moment they seem just so to the viewer at home just poles apart. i think there is if you look at what happened in north korea i mean for long people never thought that there would be an opportunity of dialogue between the u.s.
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and north korea why shouldn't we think that there is a possibility between iran and the u.s. i think both sides of shown interest in finding the solution. and finding an opportunity for dialogue bourse president trump president run the other express their will to to sit on a table or around the table to discuss but they've all given some conditions it's the condition that basically make me say that sometime we have to sacrifice our pride and then put ego a little bit behind and then look at the international community's interests i think there is a way to approach this issue in a way where everyone feels comfortable does the fact that saudi arabia for example is currently talking to the u.s. about nuclear capability and nuclear armaments because there have been talks in washington they haven't quite meet reached the point for any sort of formal agreement because riyadh to doesn't want to sign up to the checks and balances
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required to have nuclear material or nuclear development on its soil for civilian purposes to be developed for military military purposes and that worries the u.s. to give them that i don't feed what is only the u.s. a few when you talk about checks and balances when you talk about nuclear. nonproliferation in the context a geopolitical context we're living in now if you don't get those check and balance right i think it's a door open for many many situation that will be uncontrollable so how do we ask you know one side of the world to say you you can only do this and then to the other side will love. to say you can go forward without signing the check and balance that goes with the i mean the framework of nonproliferation and design them and i think that's something that is key it's key for us but is key for the international community is through the many agreement that are still standing saudi says it wants to have
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a nuclear capability to counter iran i think justified in their concern for what iran has developed over the past few decades iran us all is that no intention to develop nuclear weapons they say they have the right to nuclear capability for peaceful uses there is a framework to control this under the n.p.t. and then there is an agency that deal with this issue i think as long as we get iran to comply with the agreement that is set for to making sure that they don't pass that limit where the perception will be that they have the intention of developing nuclear weapons of whom we are in good books what we have to do is to make sure there is a strict compliance to those agreement that are set for the g c p o e being one of them and in many other international agreement you mentioned the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty you know i've always argued that within the
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way we could have included the sea to bt as part of the deal since you're on as always argued that the have no intention to build a nuclear weapon but in the disappear here you have 2 major country that are not about to fire the confidence of nuclear test ban treaty so how do you come and tell somebody that you know i want your doorstep to be clean and then when mine is not clean that's a situation that probably put the city between the difficult institutions of the j.c. i mean because that in the water at the moment. i wouldn't think so i think there is still hope let's hope that. people come to sense and as i said that we put we sacrifice our pride to a certain extent and then we find room for dialogue you touched on or north korea and of course that sort of links into the us is that achieved both to iran and north korea with iran that says they have no desire for a nuclear weapon the u.s. has come down on them quite heavily yet with north korea who openly say we do have
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a nuclear arsenal and we do have the missiles that could possibly be or carry a nuclear warhead the u.s. is happy to talk and to negotiate and to accommodate pyongyang i think soil your you're touching exactly one of the challenges that you know people like myself having when we talk to. you both in the developing world i mean people always tell me exactly what you said north korea is showing muscles with regard to nuclear weapon capability and iran isn't at this level yet because they haven't tested so far so why are we treating those 2 differently in one hand we have north korea that has shown some culpability with regard to possess a nuclear weapon and trinity to talk to them and then come this question does it mean that you need to shore. muscles before people agree to sit on the table with
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you that's a question that many young people are asking me and i have no answer to this question except in saying that you know we will try and encourage dialogue both with iran and north korea even if they're in the different situation how unpredictable is north korea in terms of the diplomatic attitude you experienced i wouldn't say that north korea is unpredictable i wouldn't say this even predictable to the viewer at home and to the ordinary person whether they're in mumbai in edinburgh or in islamabad new delhi or johannesburg i'll put it the other i would say those who are dealing with north korea are too predictable that's the way i would put it north korea can be perceived unpredictable but when you go to talk to a country that is testing the only country that is testing nuclear weapon in this 21st century and you don't put forward the framework that we all agreed
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internationally what do you expect people to think but north korea is also very concerned about its own you might say post nuclear security it feels that its sovereignty will be impinged weakened they will be invaded i mean how do you reassure people that that isn't the intention from the conversations you've been having with world leaders trust comes with respect so if north korea filespec that they will feel trusted and then they will come to dialogue as it started but when you come to delhi it's all about give and take what is north korea getting out of the discussion that are happening so far they feel insecure what can we bring on the table to make them feel secure. we have international agreement we have regional agreement we have dialogue not only with the united states with russia we have dialogue with many other country south korea
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for that matter how do we create the condition for the north to feel at ease with the south 1st because that's where it's matters they've always argued that the forces that aren't there border making them feel very and secure they've said if you remove those forces will stop testing and there will come to a table of discussion and then give more and more. so how do we deal of the situation that's something that is beyond my paycheck but it's also beyond the u.s. is remit to lift sanctions they would have to go back to the u.n. for several issues when it comes to sanctions it's not just the u.s. decision alone while you can have those conversations where president trump is willing to talk to kim jong un. he's also got his hands tied slightly in that he can't act alone of course he can't act alone but when you measure when you mention sanction listening recently again to foreign ministers that if he's been arguing
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strongly that sanction will never work in the end you give the number of centrifuges that iran has before the sanction and the number of centrifuges that they have under the sanctions. they've gone from a couple of 100 to tens of thousands so what does it mean and they've been strongly saying that they will not sell and you gave an example recent began that if for 7000 years they are given been wiretapped of this planet it's been this 11 long way to go so you have a country that takes its culture and its history very strongly and takes. the middle east as part of his is d.n.a. and then filled that they can find a solution regionally and then fill also threaten but i wouldn't say the rest of the world but a part of the world that is saying you know you're not allowed to do this you can
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only do this but we're not creating the conditions for you to not do what we don't think you should do then in another hand we have all those agreement that we are asking. to adhere to but others are not forced the same way to adhere to your mention north korea but i'll give you a simple example in my part of the world when a country in africa wants for instance to join the u.n. security council as a nonpermanent member what comes on the table is in their negotiations they say. yes we would vote for you or will accept you in the security council but you thought about about defying this treaty or disagreement or joining another framework that is internationally adhere to but we should do that to everyone and then people feel safe and then people feel trusted and then they can trust
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multilateral diplomacy in terms of diplomacy let's head to south asia because the impasse between india and pakistan 2 nuclear powered countries and certainly with large stockpiles of nuclear material had a long running animosity that is perhaps a as long as the end of the 2nd world war really they were also on either side of the cold war pakistan's supported the usa india in directly the us former u.s.s.r. this past year has been very difficult for. both countries over territorial claims and there is a thought that their nuclear arsenal will increase. significantly by 2025 how much of a concern is that for you if if i take india and pakistan with regard to the treaty that i'm dealing with the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty i would say pakistan as sean has been forthcoming because they're now an observer to the city
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bt. they've opened up the possibility of a regional agreement with india still awaiting india's response to this they've said clearly that they are for a world free of nuclear weapon as long as all parties come to the table and then they agree that this is the way forward. they've shorn interests in moving towards a peaceful solution of the regional problem that they have a place with regard to the compliance of nuclear test ban treaty it is my hope that india. shore some interests in that respect and that would create a conditional for regional dialogue at least a bilateral discussion between india and pakistan that to create the condition for stability and peace in that part of the world but how do we do that i think we do that if i take for instance the issue of joining the nuclear suppliers group that
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has been in discussion for so long your talk about tekken balances i mean should the international community put conditions on india's accession to the nuclear suppliers group one of them being the signature of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty it's been on the table when people ask me that question for sure i would say that i would love to see that but how do we put india in a situation that they feel comfortable enough to see that in the check and balances signing the comprehensive test ban treaty does no damage and if any it will help them create a condition of trust that other feel they need to be joining the nuclear suppliers group and then where do you put pakistan this is the question because as soon as they have regional difficulties normally of a territorial claims of a question here there is often talk by the extreme right in either country that it's only about pressing a button it's that and that concerns it does concern the international community it concerns nationals from each of those 2 countries to that you know we would
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potentially possibly go to war so you're absolutely right when i hear the word pushing the button a minute it frightens me because it's. because my biggest hope is that when we get close to any catastrophe i think we come to a sense somehow and i think i see no way in. this civilized world norway in this 21st century any decent government or dissent political leader thinking about pushing the button of the nuclear weapon because they know how devastating that could be but it's not a war that anyone can win it for all of us to lose it's about how many you lose an army a loss that's basically what it is in recent weeks we've seen the turkish president the world talk about his country should have a nuclear arsenal yet turkey signed the nuclear nonproliferation treaty in 1980 and also signed in 1906 the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty i wouldn't think so
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really soil i don't think it's present weren't just talking off the top of that he talks about the fact that israel has has missiles and a nuclear arsenal but nobody touches them and i think we are in the. political game where it's a mind war i would put it this way i think people putting themself in the situation where it's become easy to talk about the perception of a double standard that they see in multilateral diplomacy and that's probably what pushes the president to talk about why one party has nuclear weapon in this region and then other wouldn't have it but i think we all agree that the fact that we've been able for the past 75 years to contain the proliferation of nuclear weapon to 5 or possibly 9 as people talk about it is already in itself a great achievement but at the same time. one needs to take what president says
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seriously and then always clear the condition of dialogue that will get into specify what he means and how we can deal with the situation that need plea brings me to a conversation that needs to be heard really between russia and the united states they are pulling back from the agreements that they've had for. several decades signed in the reagan gorbachev era and there was a real concern internationally that we're now looking towards a new arms race and certainly a new nuclear missiles race sean that russia when russia and the united states are talking the world is a better place why because they are the 2 superpowers in terms of nuclear arsenal but not only that it's the influence that they have in the different regions of this planet it's through many international agreement a bilateral agreement between those 2 are falling apart and i want to give the
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opportunities through a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty to create the condition of trust not only between the u.s. and russia among the p 5 we have to among the p 5 countries that are not allowed to fail to see to bt china and the united states what's it going to take to get the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty ratified globally is it going to happen in our lifetime i hope so. if if the comprehensive test ban treaty doesn't progress in a way where we can for seats are trying to force i don't see a future for nuclear disarmament of comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty today's a law hanging frauds in arms control in nonproliferation if we can catch that fruit when we go. we have. in place i mean by many states that have signed a streety but the p 5 the nuclear weapon states. 2 idea to display
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a treaty so when we stop we have an 100 people. or nuclear weapon from this planet and people who are filled up testing is a step towards binding this this is what i feel if you can get the world. explodes in the once and fold how do we get them to buy nuclear weapon. executive secretary for the nuclear test by and treaty organization thank you for talking to us as a thank you for the thank you thank you. until
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now in the coverage of latin america most of the world was about covering khuda todd's tragedies as quakes and that was it but not how people feel how they move how they think and that's what we do we go anyway 5 and a half months of demanding an end to an education system that was introduced to. latin america as a 0 has come to fill a void that needed to be stilled. can't deal with poverty unless you deal with the gap you decide to i just agree with that toy this sounds like blaming the public the country for the problem not literally mean anybody these people well trained face as much a part of all of the islamic state machinery as we have been very rigid of populism
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alters future join me i'm in the hot sun as i put it up for questions to my special guests and challenge them to some straight talking political debate here on al-jazeera. this is al jazeera. back to this is the news hour live from my headquarters in doha coming up in the next 60 minutes. hong kong's leaders says protestors are now the people's enemy after one of the most violent days in 5 months on thai government demonstrations. courtrooms the netherlands must repatch free the children of dutch women who joined i some in syria but they don't have to.


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