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tv   The Stream 2019 Ep 197  Al Jazeera  December 11, 2019 11:32am-12:01pm +03

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violates india's secular constitution. shares in saudi arabia state run oil company have officially begun trading on riyadh stock exchange saudi aramco shares opened wednesday morning 10 percent higher than last week's record breaking initial public offering the company made history with the largest ever i.p.o. raising $25600000000.00 it fell short of the 2 trillion valuation the kingdom had wanted thousands of protesters are gathering in sydney to demand action on climate change after months of out of control bushfires across parts of australia demonstrators accuse the government of ignoring a climate emergency the fires have been made worse by unseasonably hot conditions and drought sydney has spent 2 weeks blanketed in a thick haze from that smoke. well those are the headlines join me for more news here on al-jazeera after the stream stay with us. ultras there are we were told to get to that between russia has this been addressed by turkey we listen what
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is the proposal. for a couple on your we meet with global news makers and talk about the stories that matter. for me ok i really could be here in the stream today we continue our weeklong look at the global impact of colonialism can the pain our ancestors lived through he inherited some researches say yes and common symptoms include poor health. substance abuse violence and suicide there are critics though who say the science isn't solid and that the evidence is anecdotal at best a growing study about the genetics has found that the experiences of those who went before such as trauma can leave a mark on your genes but is that enough to be passed on take a look at this primer from ted add on epigenetics and how some say it may affect
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trauma. genes in d.n.a. are expressed when they're read and transcribed into r.n.a. which is translated into proteins by structures called ribozymes and proteins are much of what determines a cells characteristics and function at the genetic changes can boost or interfere with the transcription of specific genes the most common way interference happens is that d.n.a. or the proteins it's wrapped around gets labeled with small chemical tags the set of all of the chemical tags that are attached to the genome of a given cell is called the at the genome even social experiences can cause epi genetic changes in one famous experiment when mother rats weren't attentive enough to their pups genes in the babies that help them manage stress were methylated and turned off and it might not stop with that generation most at the genetic marks are erased when egg and sperm cells are formed but now researchers think that some of
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those imprints survive. so as always this conversation is for you in our community so in what ways has the trauma of colonialism influenced or maybe not affected your life so many of you have already answered that question with hash tag because colonialism and i'll be sharing your responses throughout the week join our conversation on twitter or live on you tube it's a breakdown the very complicated subject of intergenerational trauma in melbourne australia catherine chamberlain she is principal investigator of healing the past by nurture in the future and is associate professor at the jews if lumley center of the mother infant and family health research in new jersey lehman well but sui is a diversity equity and inclusion consultant and critical ethnography for an bioethicists he's a man rolled member of the navajo nation and in dublin ireland dr kevin mitchell is a new age in this assist our associate professor of developmental neuroscience and
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genetics at trinity college in dublin is also author of inmate how the wiring of our brain shapes who we are i am not in the least bit intimidated by ad guests lined up. heaven help us out here with epigenetics what is a simple way to understand how it works for example which we share with our international audience well so i think the primer that you showed there gave a pretty good overview of the basic idea that at beach in attics is a mechanism for turning genes on or turning them off and during development of an embryo that that has to happen so that different cell types can express different proteins so muscle cells become different from nerve cells and different from blood cells and so on and that's not the only way it happens so our genes also get regulated in response to experience so one example would be if i go out in the sun for enough time i can get a some time i know it doesn't look like it but i can. and that basically is
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a molecular change in my cells but is. turning on some genes that produce the pigment that that is visible in the skin and that change lasts for a while it lasts for you know weeks to months now some people think that that kind of change can last a lifetime who are even be inherited to the next generation but i think if you think about that example of a suntan clearly that's not going to be inherited by my children or for my grandchildren so when it comes to the idea of its you know epi genetics regulating our psychology in ways that's passed down molecularly through the generations i'm really a skeptic about that though i'm perfectly. absolutely convinced that the of you know the intergenerational effects of trauma that can be mediated through social and cultural and historical and psychological and familial effects i just don't
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think that we need to invoke this molecular mechanism of epigenetics to try and explain that. how does epigenetics feel to how we. say goodbye the navajo reservation in new mexico and in the region that i grew up there are 3 coal powered perfectly it's so all of the. air pollution that is happening is having an effect on current generation so if there could be a chance of some sort of bonded cation or impact on the genes of the people who are breathing that air and it could modify their genes and that could be passed down to their children as so forth and so 'd while i understand sent in example there there's also the very minute that they can have an impact on our allies and that we can pass on to our children and cheaters generations and so this is
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a personal. subject area for me because i also look at the historical trauma of the government boarding school experience that my parents and some of my grandparents had and in these government 40 schools they were 'd subjected to all sorts of busa verbal 'd physical and sexual and so that had an impact on their mind it's in their psyches which is why sometimes people think that indigenous people or ever regional people are anti-education anti-science it's not that we're anti-education anti-science we have a distress of the government and other governmental entities but we're breaking through that trust but we're also not anti-science we're actually trying to democratize scientific research so that it's a couple and really tangible to our community it's an example that you gave of.
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indigenous communities and how it relates to them now is something that resonates with our online community i wanted to share this from isis who says because colonialism black people are still living with generational trauma the effects of a cruel system that dehumanizer ancestors colonialism is still visible today the system it created is still in existence our people are suffering and living in abject poverty so she mixes a few things there but catherine i wanted to to give this one to you to ask what is the link between epigenetics an intergenerational drama how are those 2 things related to fit all. well i'm not method if you geneticist i'm an epidemiology just so we look at the patterns of disease i think oh only the epigenetics terry to those people to talk about but certainly in terms of the patterns of. intergenerational trauma that we're saying there is really strong and strong epidemy logical evidence. from
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a my background's inmate we're free before coming into public health and the case from a to b. understanding it is to understand that trauma is related to an actual human survival mechanisms and to think about it in you know tens of millions of years what if we had to do a disavowal of and essentially it's related to 3 mind things al fia same test so i thought fought and fought responses need to do we have to remember that as human beings when in my successful spaces in the on the planet in terms of survival so those instincts are really strong so. we have you know really strong fight flight in front responses that relate to childhood trauma and when they activate it they have it's 500 time about 500 times faster than conscious thought and it overrides everything else in the body and once that has been activated in response to
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a one initial threat that might have occurred at any stage during somebodies life even you know a new drug or in bed with we know that that can be activated really more red lace i for example even here in a strata with some floods we had a year or 2 of the babies were born at that time had haya. cortisone levels then than before so there are maybe at and ongoing effects of any exposure all threat particularly in early childhood and we can override that without. you know we that prefer their brand. but that can be like a bright in some wise but it is very strong my survival instincts and the other thing i think that's really important to understand trauma is that we're all social banks playing connecting with each other and socializing with each other is very important humans in particular we have very strong made for attachment and children
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when they're born. with you know the edge of pain and on us for a long time on so when we if there's trauma that happens in that early childhood trauma that can conflict with the fought flight and for our response can i'm so proud that you mention that catherine because i wanted to share a personal story from a member of our community who talks about what trauma in his life has meant and where he's directed that so this is called the he's a journalist and author in south africa have a listen. generation former intern original for many who knew him as a through and through you know this is the. discrimination. and then you have them which are all 3rd and 4th he can compose new year and buy of things like depression and anxiety is he really based all the economic situations and. i guess all through environment and.
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through him are you writing. things into existence that can bring in my generation who never really had an opportunity so kevin that's one anecdote from a person who is dealing with his trauma but i wanted to share this and get your thoughts on this so this is a tweet circulating online there's lots like it mark says fascinating study descendants of concentration camp survivors inherited adverse brain changes and he's citing a study that was done by researchers in the czech republic here's one from 21000 can see that headline there and another this 12015 descendants of holocaust survivors have altered stress hormones have and what do you make of a study like this and buying things like the well i just can i just say in response to some of the things that the particular guests said they really laid out you know some of the psychological and social and cultural facts some of the biological
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effects of you know for example really early childhood trauma all on the person and of course those can be passed in a sense to the next generation through affecting the into relationship there and affecting the culture more broadly but when it comes to some of these discoveries that are trying to invoke these sort of epi genetic changes there's 1st of all i don't know why they want to it feels to me like you know it's historians and sociologists reaching for the science the term but as if they knew. that to give some validity to their you know the descriptions of those experiences i don't think that's needed at all i think they're completely convincing as they are where the scientific studies are really not convincing and i've looked into many of them in detail and they all 'd tend to suffer from some of the same methodological problems so they tend to have very small. the
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let me do you ass move on just didn't appear to. me that while this year and we can have been having. sure so i would i would have to push back on that because in terms of that that to critique said and that some of these studies are too small that they're not large scale however that's what i go back to the point of why i became involved in this work in this type of research is because we need to increase the number of digits people who are researchers and scholars and scientists so that we can start to address these questions and these challenges that we are facing and we want to make we want to be able to connect the dots between the traveler as well and is an intergenerational trauma and that's why and there are and i have read many of these studies and there are small small sample size sizes but that's why it's an indigenous person and is this is adequate for increasing the number that science is we want to do that so that we can have larger
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scale studies to really really delve you know dig deeper and drill deeper so that we can define some of those 'd answers and that that's why the complimentary work that you're doing sure i completely i completely agree with that i think you know indigenous people 1st of all need to be more personally involved in any research involving them and that we need to increase you know the number of people in samples and so on but you know it's not just the small sample size that is the problem with some of these studies it's that they tend to have a really vague hypothesis so rather than thing ok i think this particular gene is going to be changed they say i think some gene somewhere is going to be changed in some way in some of these people and so when you do the statistics then it looks like you know anything that comes out is significant but if you've done a 1000 tests you're definitely going to see something in a small sample that is just statistics old noise and so all of these problems all
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of these studies suffer from the same set of methodological problems he has and i there is that there is an area lane. they you only because you come from communities of moving colonise so kevin you irish. lee you come from the navajo tribes navajo community and cathing tasmania a gang was an area that was colonized i want to just get out of the stories the actually binding together rather the science that watching these pots pushing you up pot. you stop the civil because i know that the sun as well i know you connect with kevin and i know you can and katherine because the communities that have the same kind of subjugation tell me about. share i'm happy to i came into this work is it mentioned earlier is through 'd examining the ethical legal is social implications of genetic research and i'm not it in then it's just myself but
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my entree into this work is really taking a look again at the loss of language and culture and that's what has happened throughout the world and we've had i think that's where we have something to common this 3 of us here we're having this conversation today and because the loss of language there's a loss of culture and isn't digitas people we some of us can still speak our language is we still are practicing our culture we still have a spiritual 'd beliefs and spiritual systems and some of those answers that we're facing now can actually be found within our cultural knowledge bases and that say they were and go back to time before pre-colonial 'd contact but what i'm saying is that some of the. knowledge that we have from it that's no better than my standpoint of perspective complements modern medicine scientific research i have to ask you this because we had this debate in our office and they say because i
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expected to see the irish and he was insistent that the i wish a colonized and they are still suffering from calling. can you put that into was fast so international as i understand sure you take a look that's how i did it as i would also respond if that's ok yes. i think that they go ahead and i mean i think you know that very much echoing what what lee said there the most obvious effect is is on the language itself you know which was suppressed under 800 years of english rule and is still you know not very widely spoken at all everyone learns irish in school but not not particularly effectively and so you know that's a huge part of the anchor of our own culture that was that was suppressed for all the time and of course you know the any any colony but emerging from colonialism
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house all of the issues of you know the economic issues where they are they have been governed from the outside and now have to govern themselves and certainly the irish state went through you know a period of taken nearly 100 years now of independence and we're are well on our own 2 feet but. you know that those those effects still you know took a long time to to get over economically and socially i want to share now their story as someone who references that idea i've been taking a long time to get over and some people still not over it this is clement value a piece a graphic novelist in france and he shares his story with us. rocky's many about the vietnamese community the desperado that is. i got interested. in our story because of my father that is the reason that to
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flee vietnam during the war our started to dig into d.c. and of mr your story because you have no real idea about what happened to this part of my family to. discover when. american war i was kind of surprised when i was discovering because a lot of fight where very. first kind of trauma if the story can never up and never be brought as simple as that so catherine keeping that in mind i want to share this with you on twitter says there is no reversing the damage so to speak and living with the glaring an unrelenting consequences hardly encourages healing the idea of reparations was once loaded but i think an apology is a good start this should be followed by visible change and western policy and this person specifically is talking about the continent of africa but i think many people can relate to this tweet but i want to pick out of that the healing how do
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you go about doing that. well i think that there is absolutely hope for healing are here in australia before colonize i should we had really sophisticated ways. you know that children and. and culture are really kept to strong and connecting with each other and i think you know we are so we are seeing the effects of that of the last 100 couple 100 years of colonise i should say which is pretty recent compared to a lot of other countries and allies volatile that violence that has occurred but essentially i think getting back to remembering learning from our elders getting back to that culture thing and understanding it is going to be absolutely critical for our healing not death or any apologia i want to bring up a 4 letter that i'm carrying away hands here love that's something that you talk
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about a lot and i think i feel if we do not mention that we would have done our job because you talk about that as a way of healing can you just very briefly that's all right at the end of the explain what you mean by helping to heal entire generations you know so that sort of the focus of our research on healing the past by nurturing the future and we deny from the research that ray wiring that that love is the healing south for trauma and that is bang connected with other people having relationships this particular times in the last you know during an office when. that's more possible also the transition to becoming a parent is really really insecure when a baby less pedals went to ask at a calving care campaign make up of we've got perhaps the idea that your troll method and your ancestors can be truly forward in all
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scientific like you have no no no truck with that what kind of the local to love thing what do you love wearing is fine i am all for that there because you know we can collectively at least attempt to change the culture attempt to change the society and of course attempt to change the economy. and change the nature of the relationships that we have with each other with with other communities that we share our our countries with and you know we can see this now in northern ireland where you know communities that have been. at each other's throats for you know for decades have seen peace now and. reconciliation over time although it's currently threatened. by politics and in the u.k. but for the absolutely i mean the idea that the sort of positive emotions and
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positive aspects of our relationships can change the way that we individually feel and the way that we relate to each other that absolutely makes makes complete sense to me and can i also add in there is a lot of science around things like dancing and singing so probably if they did more you know dancing and singing together and. things that i found and more enjoyable rather than fighting and arguing you know i think we may and incorporating our culture and celebrating that and having a rumor nice ounce of that. you know we've been well on the white. so healing some of this stuff that's gone on in the past and it was still carrying with it's to die in you know what i think for. we are bound to happen now with a letter that was about that love thank you to his big break one more but yet in a in a sentence or indeed it is a light at the end of the show. though we still have to deal with that we
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colonialism and so while we were just some of these issues we constantly go out into society which are reminders that we have been calling this is a doubt he's also required a team effort to break down that type of mentality to that people understand that we're here we're not just circle figures we're here today we've been here we can be here that this is our land that thank you thank you for having thank you kevin as well for helping us exploit the site and into the shed that's all the time we have on the next train we continue asked special week of shows on 10 needles and the only thing is china's global development drive a win win all modern day imperialism lots to discuss remember the hash tag is because colonialism was the on mine.
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december on al-jazeera as this year comes to an end we look ahead to 2020 and the stories that may shape the year people in power investigates the shocking truth of disabled people in eastern europe scare deciding the future of the u.k. and its place in europe will the general election result the breaks it is she a story of palestinian women rising above part of the struggle for freedom against all on and the world's best football team head to cattle for the fee for club world cup 2019 join us for special coverage. december on our. culture a dance thrives here every day generations of tibetans continue to embrace and
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maintain their cultural heritage it's a reminder of who they are and whether probably this is a suburb of the indian capital new delhi tibet so the refugees here since 1964 buttons here have been defined as migrants are not refugees because india hasn't signed up to the 1951 un convention on refugees so tibetans here have been able to access the indian welfare system so they become self-sufficient setting up their a business says and looking for work independently but for some it's not enough.
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myanmar's leader aung san suu kyi is set to defend head country against genocide charges for its treatment of muslim. and this is al jazeera live from doha also coming up the democratic party leaders outline impeachment charges against donald trump the u.s. president says they are weak and baseless. india's controversial citizenship bill moves to its parliament's upper house. and it's a deal the u.s. mechs.

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