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tv   Inside Story  Al Jazeera  April 5, 2022 3:30am-4:01am AST

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yes, now political uncertainty, but i'm thinking it then a 0 palumbo, the richest person in the world has taken a major stake in twitter, sending the social media platform stock soaring, multi billionaire and on musk bought shares worth nearly $3000000000.00, making him the top shareholder has let c o has been critical of social media companies in a recent post, he questioned twitters adherence to free speech and hinted launching his own news. i'm carry johnston with the headlines here on al jazeera, ukraine's president vladimir lensky, has called on the international community to hold russia's of that in that putin responsible for war crimes. made the comments on the visit to the town of boucher, my russian forces have been accused of killing civilians. u. s. a president joe
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biden says there is ample evidence of atrocities by russia. he wants to let him have, who tend to be tried for war crimes. he is a war, but we have to gather the probation. we have to provide you with weapons a fight, and we have together all the detail. so this to be, i actually have a war on trial. this guy is brutal. what's happening with everyone feeling? those sentiments were also voiced by european leaders, french president emanuel micron says there are very clear signs that war crimes have been committed in butcher. and as responded by expanding several russian diplomats, the use foreign policy chief says the block is working on additional sanctions. the russian ambassador to the united nations has denied claims of war crimes in boucher saying it was all staged. wesley says moscow will provide evidence to the security
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council on tuesday with the russian forces have continued to target her keys in north eastern ukraine, before casualties reported on monday. at least 7 people were killed in the latest involvement. on the net, marian says 90 percent of his city has been destroyed. landmark, you and report on climate change says there must be rapid, deep and immediate cuts in carbon dioxide emissions to prevent a catastrophe. the final section of the report was released on monday and says emissions will need to peak within 3 years to prevent the worst effects of global warming. chinese city of shanghai will remain locked down as authorities review the results of a drive to test all 26000000000 residents for koby 19 t stage lockdown began last week to compact. the latest news continues here in al jazeera of the inside store. ah
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ah ah ah time for accent, climate scientists, one big changes have to be made to limit global warming, but will politicians and listen. i was to follow out if they don't, this is inside story. ah . hello, welcome to the program. i'm rob matheson now for more than a century. industrialization has spread across much of the world and we've been squeezing the life out of our natural resources. the planet is getting warmer than
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the places on it where humanity can live, healthily are getting fewer. you ends intergovernmental panel on climate change, commonly known as the i. p. c. c. has brought together scientists, $195.00 countries to solve the problem. in the last 8 months is published to reports looking at the causes and the effects of climate change. it's 3rd one has just been released, suggesting what we can do to reverse the damage. it says limiting global warming to a target of $1.00 degrees celsius is beyond reach. unless big changes are made, they say fossil fuels have to be reduced and alternatives. have to be developed cities how to be smaller and more walkable industry has to change production methods, planting more trees and developing low emission agriculture systems would help to pull carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. but switching to many of these systems can be costly. governments will be tough to persuade, even though the world has the cash to pay for the changes. wealthy countries are
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largely responsible for much of the damage caused by climate change, but it's often developing nations that affected the most the food charity oxfam says there's a risk of unthinkable famine in east africa. it says up to 28000000 people in that region will face extreme hunger if the rains don't come again. this year. $21000000.00 people are already going hungry because of conflict flooding and a wide spread 2 year drought. and more than 13000000 across somalia, kenya, and i've been forced to leave their homes looking for water and farm land. the okay, let's bring in august and guilford in the u. k. we've got aunties, i think he's a member of the bureau of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. he's also vice chair of working group 3. he was partly responsible for producing the substance of this report in dot com bangladesh. we have sight of us want to her son, she's chief executive of the bangladesh environmental lawyers association. and
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she's also a goldman environmental prize winner and in brussels. stefan zinger is joining us as senior climate science and global energy policy advisor in the climate action network international day. good afternoon to you. thank you very much indeed for joining us, andy, let me start with you, given the fact that you were partly responsible for the production and the content of this report, we have had similar reports in the past. what is significant about this one? probably 2 things. one is, it is clear that we're not on track to limit warming to $1.00 degrees and time is running out if we want to keep that goal within reach. but there's also now clear evidence of, of really positive progress, which hasn't been enough to turn the curve yet, but, but we've for it. so for example, the fin mester falls in the costs of, of some key renewable energy resources, which means to now cost competitive with fossil fuels. in many areas, we've seen a spread of climate policy is more than half of drop. greenhouse gas emissions are
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at least in principle covered by climate laws. and these are vital tools that we can use to accelerate action to the extent needed that we actually want to limit woman to 1.5 degrees. the headline from the earliest from the that the short analysis that i have of it here says we can have emissions by 2030. that is a very confident statement, given what we have been hearing over the last few years as this dependent on a whole variety of different elements coming together in order to make this work the options to fall across the different sectors. but yes, in aggregates, an at costs of up to about 100 years dollars per ton of c o. 2 equivalent avoided. we could reduce global emissions to about half of the current levels within the next 10 years. but the way you achieve it in different sectors looked very different. so in the energy sector is largely transitioning from the use off of fossil fuels towards renewable energy,
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or increased lucifer alternative low or carbon fuels. whereas in transport m, it's, it's much more electrification all in agriculture, it's by protecting natural ecosystems and increasing the efficiency of agricultural production systems. so we need less land to feet and the global demand for nutrition. so so the, the entry points differ from sector to sector. but collectively we have a wide range of tools available at stephan thing i, i know you've just had a very short time to have a look at the, the headlines of the report. but it, is there anything in the report which, with all credit to, to andy in his team that we couldn't have guessed already? well, i think we need to be need to put us in a political context here, although the i p c. c is not policy prescriptive, it's supposed to be policy relevant in the end it will be policy prescriptive whether we like it or not because it shows very clearly and be congratulate the i
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the cc 4 that one that they showed at our technologies like solar and wind, like halting deforestation, and tropical forests like changing our diets to what's last meat based codes. and energy efficiency will exactly do that. what am the as sad help us to give us the opportunity to reduce our missions by about harv in 2030 in this decade, which was necessary to have a survival target of 1.5 c global warming. and which in itself will not be paradise, which also will require a lot of adaptation. but this was not the issue here. but at a minimum, i think what we need throughout a livable planet to protect ecosystems, to protect vulnerable communities, and to protect poor people from the catastrophic impacts from climate change from
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sea level rise from storms and horizon. so in that context, that reports as provided some new things and that's very, very important for policy makers for the business and the finance industry. second thing, i think it's very important to, to realize that the report has sent that we need to scale up financing in all countries. fold sectors by the fact of 6, roughly graph the chance to meeting that challenge. that requires significant vocalization of finances of money. but also the policy of legislation and strangest and legislation and countries to make sure that only resilience climate resilience and clean energy technologies and claim technologies which help the poor, which of the forests are being promoted,
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end up being encouraged. i think that's very, very important. and that brought the report out. i also have to say last point here, that for us as complex network international, representing 1005 on the angels worldwide. the, the report is not perfect. we have many things that we do not like that many things were falling. so the grit but that's a way if you governmentally negotiate a text which is not purely based on the orsis, that's awareness and we know that that has happened in the past. but all, it's still a very valid wake up call to the policy makers, the powerful and the impact fall of this world changed course throughout the world toward disastrous climate change. and sad are all of this, i'm sure is our, our statements that am given your position in the bangladesh in la vita mental lawyers association you would agree with. but it's all very well saying to countries, you must change your industry as you must change your agriculture and so on. if you
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come to a country like bangladesh, where its economy is, can be tumultuous at times where it can be under strain. when it comes to, for example, the suggestion that everybody should win themselves are fossil fuels. that's not something that bangladesh can be willing to do very easily. simply because of the structure i don't think bangladesh should be reluctant in moving towards a 100 percent renewable energy policy. if a country like rwanda can commit to a 100 percent renewable market, why kind of bangladesh and also bangladesh as a member of the most vulnerable countries forum. it in fact committed that by 2050, it will move to 100 percent renewable. and as the 1st speaker just said that it has already been proven that renewable can be much less expensive than the faucet then
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bangladesh has the worst air in the world. a global report has just come out that our air is one of the worst in the world. so bangladesh also authority on renewable energy. it should be smart enough. it should have the vision to really work on the commitment that it has made in the international community, but for a country like bangladesh is important. also for us to remember that most of the 4 simple projects that we are doing in our part of the world are being funded by the developer to the funding for fossil will, must stop immediately across the way. once they're pushed to that situation. then only the political government will think about switching to renew, but otherwise, renewable otherwise, the fossil fuel is not only attractive because it's being funded by the foreign countries. there is huge deal of corruption in most of the fossil well products
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that are being sponsored. busy throughout the world, so vanish, government would also always argue about not having enough land, but there are more of those that are being shown that are being practiced sense by way. you can actually have your kind to between one batch effect and same time. you can have sort of that and, and the western way must come forward and simple good. does it not? is we can have renewable by this week. leslie, i have you seen any indication over the last few years as this problem has become more, more obvious that there is a change in attitude of those funding these projects? is there a change within bangladesh? i don't want to single out bangladesh, but just as an example, is there an indication that bangladesh is changing it's we're actually doing something practical about this. if the funding model changes as well, a change in the funding monitor. the government has been,
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the dish has already been done, been off explained based out that we are trying to, you know, impress the governments like the japanese government so that it draws from the goal of baseball that is planning to support in this be i have seen some success that what phase of the rom bar code baseball is just the side away its site has been abundant because the government would not mind the fine. yes, there are governments who are saying that they will not be funding new fossil fuel plants here in bondage. but for the part of the bundle, this government is switching from going to any g. it's not making smart commitment practical to meet, but it's not growing up action then to deliver against its own commitment made in the international forum to go 100 percent renewable. it's also not big enough to deliver against this own commitment to book 10 percent renewable,
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which was set for 2020. and now it's saying it's rising. it's doug. the agency that we have has already said that we can switch to 40 percent renewable by just converting all the rooftops into solar panels. but the government is just not working with the right set of my dandy. i had a very brief look at the report itself. and it is an extremely long and very, very detailed report. but if i don't, please correct me if i'm wrong in this. but section b, 2 of the report seem to suggest that reductions in greenhouse gas fuels from fossil fuels and industrial processes had been less than emissions increases from rising global activity levels and industry energy supply transport and agriculture and buildings that i took that to mean. but basically, whatever savings were making in trying to reduce the amount of c o 2 there is in the atmosphere is actually being outstripped. but the level of industrialization and expansion in terms of construction and agriculture and so on. and how do you re
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dress that balance but by going harder on, i mean, what we've seen in the past is a, is a slight reduction in the amount of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of energy that we're consuming. we can reduce that much faster by plan, far more rapidly switching towards renewable energy assistance, for example. so that would simply reduce the amount of carbon dioxide that we release them into the atmosphere for every unit of energy we consume. if at the same time we managed to increase energy efficiency, which most countries are doing over time already anyway. but if we can accelerate that further, we can achieve much faster reductions. but over the last 10 years, those small gains we've had from energy efficiency and a slight reduction in what's called the carbon intensity of energy supply. so that's the amount of carbon we met for kilowatt of, of energy energy we produce. and that simply has been outstrip by the, by the increasing global come from both consumption and just increased activity in
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economy around the world. but it's it who does multiple livers that we can apply. and one of the issues i think is that for many governments, there sir, does historically been a single entry point to climate policy. let's focus on just, just the, the, the power supply. let's focus just on, on agriculture. let's focus on pricing. but not, and other things. and one thing the report tries to bring out is that a coordination of policies, both of climate policies with, with each other, but also greater synergies between broader development policy is can open up the option space. and examples are, if you reduce fossil fuel use, then you typically up in bangladesh, for example, would get large co benefits for human health. with benefits with the, with the, with, with those benefits actually measurable in monetary terms. to the extent the day would actually make it worthwhile. but it's a question of coordination between health departments and inner to departments,
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to axis allow government to realize those benefits and then move more confidently in that direction. so that is exactly we're, we're shifting development into a space that allows a greater flexibility to apply climate policy can be really important. and that's one of the key themes that comes out of our report. stefan it seems a lot of this or from what andy is saying, centers around and a tremendous amount of good. well, in a tremendous amount of coordination between in taylor governments around the world and individual departments as ali was eng health departments around the world. and which in the past has not exactly been the the template, i mean we saw to some degree there the level of fractured connection. there is between different countries when it, when covered, broke is that, is there a way of actually fixing that and fixing it quickly because if i understand what andes incorrectly, that level of communication, that level of interactivity is absolutely key to all of this. that's right. and as
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you mentioned, the core with pan down make, unfortunately we have seen there also, there was some, i should say apartheid the are the rich countries, the world's, the countries which have the money to develop the web site. so have stored, kept the rec, sons for themselves, and give on a little bit to developing countries. that was not a good example. and i think we need to learn from that one. and i think we all, and i'm coming from a rich country from belgium being a german we need to embed in policy making in the pamela climate change. right, for all issues regarding sustainable development goals of the us. disease is sustainable development goals, which are also very important to bring in the idea and to fly really for the idea of global solidarity for, for overcoming inequality. but we masons, but also was a nation's say it on. i think that's where it says, i mean, forget me, 7,
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i wanted to come on to say to because there's a point there that came out in the report which was the future planning of cities, which cities had to be to be. i'm summarizing here, but essentially they had to be smaller, more easily walkable and of course that makes perfect sense unless you're talking about a city like duck up, for example, or many of the other cities that we could, we could name that have high pollution rates and so i said say that, what do you think would be a way of adapting a city like yours to be able to integrate at least some elements that are contained with this within this report. so that, and places like doc out places like and new delhi for example, don't for want of a better phase offset, the benefits of any new or other cities that have been planned in different ways around the world. see, 1st thing is we all want to be like las vegas and then we forget our own culture. we forget our own way of lifestyle to the development paradigm has to
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steve we must to not to be following the extremely exploit a deep and irresponsible lifestyle of the west. and is that is what has led to this problem of climate change. i think it's very important that we meet them is the problem of our nation is reversible. what, as you develop in albany area, you just destroy the entire thing once and 4, or you can just go back and, you know, go back to the natural state of the area for a, for a city later. it is important to understand that we don't want to be single. we want to be tak, i'm a for a city like daily. that is also something that they have to realize. second, transportation tucker, everyone here. most of the middle class, upper middle class, which people we all have a card because that is the symbol of status. and that is what the western lifestyle
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has taught us to have. but he had an end of the day become completely car log city guys just don't move. so we have to switch to smart public transportation back. when is the burden on burning of fossil then it also is the pressure on the city roads. and all of us in tucker, if you have to do our offices in person, we lose 3 to 4 hours every day on the road. so it has to be a comprehensive plan and there is no greenery in tucker. all of the urban forestry is gone. we had beautiful lawns in front of our house is now on our forest, on our lawns, on our garden. he has a switch to our rooftop. so you're a rupture there because you're, what you're saying is prompting a response from or to other guess some stuff on. let me go to you 1st that i want to come to, andy for his response, stuff on you. right at the start, you had a point to make their you know,
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i can fully support was my colleague from, from, from bangladesh of public transport is one, but not the only key fundamentals are making cities more livable. that's one point, but i would like to go a little bit broader. as i said before, i started on equality, i think we would need to understand were do we need to reduce emissions? primarily, i'm not saying i'm saying everyone needs to do expense. right. but i think we need to understand that rich countries rich populations in particular, in the i persist. he has also taught us at about 10 percent of the population's world wide. and most of the rich people are responsible for about almost half of the global emissions. and that's an issue we need to address in all countries. rich people have to pay for that. and they have to make sure that we have to make sure that this is being addressed because it's an issue off of national in the quality,
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but also international inequality is very important. poor countries are not the sources of pollution we have been facing and they will not be the source of pollution we are facing. of course they have to contribute as appropriate to what we want. but if you cannot compare a per capita emission, so there's enough, the u. s. with someone was lives who lives in bangladesh and he, i want to live some top stefan about let me finish. yeah, go ahead. let me finish that one. please let me finish that one please. and i think that's where equity comes in, where we are, the norse, half the fundamental duty moral duty principle duty because it's also no interest to help developing countries to adapt to climate change. and to mitigate plumber changed to give them then to help them whistle sources technologies was in restaurants. right. it's not only, it's not only and in our own countries,
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we need to help them as well because we also have contributed to the mass in the past. if you look at historical emissions, which are very well displayed in the s p m, in figure 2, i'm talking about not technology here, not technology. i'm talking about the details here, but you look at the s p m, and you see this on the, the, the historic emissions of the rich countries are. stefano give me, i am going to, unfortunately time it is kind of coming up against us. but and let me come back to you because you are to point to make, we have maybe a minute or so left on the, on the show. if i can ask you choose to be reasonably brief. i just wanted to pick up on a plan that set up made about city infrastructure as a really good example. one key innovation in the i p c. c report is that we will take a dedicated look at ways of shifting behaviors and how to meet service demands without increasing emissions. and so providing infrastructure that enables people to take
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their own behavioral choices. i used to live in delhi. i used to ride a bicycle there and you take your life in your own hands, making sure that that city grows, provides the choices for people to lead more sustainable lifestyles. that's. that's greenery. that's open gardens that, that, that, that is public transport. that's individual. no car transport, these are design choices that are being made every day as cities continue to grow. it's not a one soft thing out here that really unfortunately time is against this and the rising are thank you very much. indeed. i want to thank all our gas, sandy rising, or say it over, swung her son and at stefan singer. thank you to for watching. you can see the program again any time by visiting your website al jazeera dot com and for further discussion, go to our facebook page. that's facebook dot com, forward slash e g inside story. you can also join the conversation on twitter handle as act 80 inside story for me, rob matheson and the entire team here. so if i for now ah,
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distressing surrounded by heavy security and the media president vladimir zalinski visited the town of butcher nick heave after witnessing the devastation he


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