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tv   Drug Trafficking Politics and Power The Era of Empires  Al Jazeera  June 13, 2022 11:00pm-12:01am AST

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we understand the differences and similarities of cultures across the world. so no matter what lucy, al jazeera will bring you the news, and current affairs that matter to you. out is in europe. i care about how the u. s. engages with the rest of the world. i cover foreign policy natural, curity. this is very much a political in house here. the paul look. how do we illustrated our with telling a good story? will people get what we're trying to do here? they're living outside and make. this is not the way any family want to raise their children. we're really interested in taking you into a place that you might not visit otherwise. and to actually feel as if you were there. ah,
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hello i marianna mozy in london. our main story, this our top advisors to for me last president, donald trump say they told him that his claims of widespread voter, ford would not legitimate would not reverse is 2020 election loss. statements were part of that video test. so many showed on monday at the house of representatives hearing into the january 6th capitol hill attack. the democrat lead panel argue trump's falls was provoked, a mob of his supporters to storm the government building. last year. his campaign manager at the time says, trump was told repeatedly on election night that he did not have the numbers to win . rightly, bye, believe my recommendation was to say that oats were still being counted too early to to tell too early to call the race. but you know, we are proud of the race we, we run, you ran and we, you know,
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think we're think we're in good position. what more to say about this, you know, the next day or the next day, whenever we had something to say. and did anybody who is a part of that conversation, disagree with your message? yes. who is that? the presence agree with? i don't recall the particular words. he thought i was wrong. he told me so. monica max, that protest this ang, russia, is destroyed. the last bridge out of the eastern ukrainian cities as are done. yes . russia says ukrainian tribes now effectively blockaded in the strategic city and should surrender or die. ukraine says that is another way out that it's been severely damaged. russia is continue to pummel the assault chemical part with artillery fire, where hundreds of civilians including children and thought to be sheltering in a situation reminiscent of the siege of the adult style steel. waxing, mary paul charles stratford has more now from cave, potentially
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a very dire situation in that city severity than it's one of 2 cities that the russians are not. bull control over in the region of lou ganske in don bass. we've actually spoken to a deputy commander who is serving a gradient deputy, come on a serving, insubordinate he saying that indeed that 3rd and last brute had been hit this morning we understand by russian forces. but we cannot confirm as to whether that bridge has been completely and utterly destroyed. now, if indeed it has, it has huge implications, obviously for the ukranian of forces military and fighters in that site that the city in terms of getting military supplies across that river to them and potentially for an xscape route. if they retreat. it also has huge implications for what we understand to what we being told are up to around $10000.00 civilians inside the city. now according to the head of who ganske regional administration
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medically regional administration, he saying that there are around about 500 civilians sheltering underneath that chemical plot. the assault chemical plant that we know is come under heavy shelling according to the ukrainians in recent days. he's saying that could be also children, also amongst those civilians. your thoughts he's in bikini faso is saying armed men of killed at 55 people in an attack in a rural district in the north. this happened around the city of se tenga, near the border with najia. hello, i silver leased this video online shortly afterwards. can if i so has struggled with attacks by armed group since 2015, more than 2000 people have been killed since then a nearly 2000000 displaced. meanwhile, tribal clashes ensued on staff for region over the past week of left, more than
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a 100 people dead. violent started over land dispute between nomadic arab, an african tribes in the town of columbus. on demand lay to attack several villages in the area, assessing them a light and forcing thousands to flee. the mighty tribes often clash of access to land and water for their livestock. we now look at the rise of the global drugs trade in our program. the ear of empire that's coming up next tuesday with al jazeera. i'll see you later. ah ah,
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this is a poppy field. once cut the cord of the clans, secretes a miraculous, milky fluid called latex, base opium, used by man as a bomb for more than 5 millennia opium released pain in the pieces the mind. and that should have been the end of it. ah, for this drug would play a part in some of mankind's greatest up evils. imperialism colonization, the cold war, and more recently, globalization without the backing of states. drug trafficking would never have existed. released into the heart of the system, drugs have dictated their own g. a politics in the shadows, secret operations widespread corruption. drugs are now part of the very flesh of the world's democracies. from wall street to the jungles of columbia, from shanghai to cabo cartels mafia banks. pharmaceutical labs and political
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parties have all lived of drug trafficking. the results of devastating whole population stigmatized or displace families torn apart to day we stop counting the dead. aah! this documentary series looks back at the sinew as history of drug trafficking, starting with opium, which the farmers call the gift from the gods. ah ah
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ah! at the turn of the 19th century, britain was engaged in a frantic race to conquer new territories and new resources. with cotton, t pepper and other commodities, the british empire liberalize the world. in india, britain laid its hands on a particularly strategic resource. it was close to the city of benares in the ganges valley that the highest quality of opium grew. the british structured its farming and intensified production. with his opium britain hoped to win the power struggle against the world's greatest power of the time the empire of china. china refused all free trade. it sold massive amounts of porcelain and t, so appreciated by the british, but bought nothing at all in return. there was march, the chinese channel was the oldest, the operating common,
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the world in back millennia was a self contained economy. and so coming up with goods that, that the world's most advanced consumer economy, i needed that there was an impossibility inside the chinese elite had long sought evasion. i stuffing that pipes with all kinds of spices, saffron, camphor, on one day opium. and it's walks as smoke could soon cost it's spend on chinese high society. in a panic, the emperor decided to bonnet the modern history of drug started here with the prohibition of an addictive substance and the greed of the british empire. these substances have out one very
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powerful, an advantage from a cynical business perspective. so the fact that drugs are addictive ah, creates an out of early, possibly olu, billing consumers, unwilling consumers. they let people literally get hooked on the substance. the next step was purely logistical. the british crown couldn't be seen to be involved in smuggling. so it gave the job to private traders the most avid amongst them, william jardine and james matheson loaded thousands of chests of opium onto their ships in india and set sail for china. the distinction between private mercantile interests and the government. these were not completely separate there. there was a commonality of interest, lily, age of imperialism, of commerce was good for the empire. the empire was good for commer subsidies.
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thank you very much. one together on behalf of the british crown, jordan and madison to scottish gentlemen in embroidered waist coats and patent leather slippers invented international drug trafficking. in the bay of canton, the 2 traders bribed the port authorities unsold their cargoes of opium to the chinese emperor's worst enemies. the triads these powerful secret societies had a single aim to overthrow the dynasty and power. lupina would you see? i done it lavish. only the millionaire, denise you ah, this in me. and it was to defeat it book with her to say it says you there. she fina, and they begun. good companies don't said these are gonna buy data or nobody's. if ye get to you man, the clay fake it to a pure man, deals will connect it to you, man, kit of an m and t on the title p. so the, you're on the pallet,
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these look him on the deeper gandhi hunt, yet did publishing one in 1839. the emperor felt under threat. he imprison thousands of smugglers and had 20000 chests. the british opium destroyed jordan and madison seized on this is a pretext back in london, they convinced the highest authorities that war was the only way to open up the huge market. the china represented with a 3rd of the wills population. so in the name of profit, britain launched, the opium was in fact, in china, many chinese historians day, the modern era from the opium wars. this is, this is one china, which had been a self sufficient empire for, for hundreds or thousands of years, suddenly becomes the victim of imperialism. the defeated emperor
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was forced to legalize opium and open up his country to foreign trade. he seated hong kong to the british, who turned the island into an outright opium hub. in 15 years, sales of the drug had risen from 3000 to almost 6000 tons a year. to finance this boom in opium trading, a bank was founded. the hong kong and shanghai banking corporation, hsbc. these glass towers are the heritage of an era which saw the birth of what is now the 7th largest bank in the world in terms of assets and the jobs in matheson group, a pillar of world trade and the 1st business to grow, make a rich from drug trafficking, the symbolism really was a bed. the colonial power was shoving opium, literally down the throats of the chinese people and sentencing chinese men and
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women of 2. 0, there were stating drug addiction to debilitated alive that kept them often torn from their families. m. economy deprived, following the opium was uprisings broke out across china, resulting in millions of deaths. the empire sank into a slow agony. to avoid the total collapse of its economy, china began growing its own poppies. china's borders were finally opened. millions of chinese fled to the world's main ports, light london, amsterdam, and san francisco. and they took the practice of opium smoking with them. so if the original san was that the west or western imperialist foisted opium on the chinese,
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the chinese and away had their revenge because with this great diaspora of the chinese immigrant community on opium smoking is transplanted all over the world are in the united states at the time as the gold rush chinese work has provided easily exploitable labor, opium spread through the china, towns of the big cities or in europe opium, also made nations heddie. the drug would make the dreams of colonial grandeur come true. for various countries, france, the eternal rival of great britain, intended to turn into china into a modern colony, a mirror of its own power. it constructed expensive infrastructures such as roads, bridges, and railroads. the colonization re, tarver quit the french budget. citronella as if i going to walk laguna had been to our shore. all genie halls had brutal because he could good out on local degree her
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the quality. so what our shall do the more do best use boy equally by law lobby j ah, in 18. $82.00 trans started buying rule opium in india and china and refining it in a modern factory in the city center, a saigon opium became a standardized ready to smoke product called sion do on sale in a 1000 or so stores with the r o sign that a, she did opium opium regime, france jealously guarded its monopoly and severely punished any smuggling the more opium addicts they were in india, china, the full of the colonial coffin became the regime would supply almost a 3rd of indo, china's budget this lucrative
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model was copied by the other colonial powers and the british spanish and dutch, soon founded their own regimes. the opium industry would run on full steam until the end of world war 2, dragging millions of people across asia. now there was opposition to this and this in the 19th century, one very important grew opposing this traffic was of course the missionaries because they saw the traffic in drugs as being opposed to their essential mission of christian izing, these lamps. and so there's, there's certainly tension between the merchants and the governments and the imperial administrations that are interested in revenue and the missionaries who are interested in souls. this tension reached a peak in china in the early 20th century. the empire had become the world's
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largest opium producer, overtaking india from deep within the country. huge cargoes descended the yangtze river to shang i. within a few years, the port city had dethroned hong kong shanghai was the new well capital of opium. the european pow is controlled entire districts of the city known as concessions where the opium trade was booming. in shanghai, different qualities of opium were available. foreign refined opium coveted by the wealthy youth or cut chinese opium for the poor classes. in 190613 1000000 chinese people were opium addicts. it was carnage. a massive prohibition campaign was conducted across the empire the europeans, not yet attics of the drug, but of its trade ignored the ban and continued business as usual. so china turned
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towards a new power. liz, emily, gung ho credit learned i could to have were let poor be sure the c earth to base your new them obaskey. so pottery poly, pusan colonial ellis. i mean, i don't know, but colony bob holds on label for say equal panko on. they say that they are the a c earn. see the hog above a body, obasi li piscolla yet isn't memory law. her your daughter dvd ranch. him said, what is it does need to get in the country sought urge montague sonata in 99 in shanghai, the united states and china convened the 1st international opium convention. the european nations unanimously refused to reduce their production. but paris, london and amsterdam would soon reconsider that position. when they realized how far opium addiction had spread across the west,
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ah, throughout the 19th century, europe to gumshoe its various industrial revolutions, millions of farm laborers had left the countryside and crammed into the centres of monstrous manufacturing cities. with the insular, various living and working conditions, the slightest count became infected cases of gang green increased. epidemics were rife, typhoid tuberculosis, cholera, doctors were at a loss. then suddenly the pain stopped from the fruit of the poppy chemist managed to extract a miraculous substance. they named it after morphis, the greek god associated with sleep and dreams. they la morphine seemed as he's been a more fina full, not able sheehan. but alice conscientious if where wilma, more defeat gone listed, am i need other than that it went for
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a lot. edwin alex young in the law morale locally passivate were full man ah, in the mid 19th century, the german heinrich emanuel mac pioneered the large scale commercial production of morphine. within a few decades, his small lab had turned into germany's 1st pharmaceutical empire. to day, it's the 5th largest pharmaceutical group in the world. from 1861. during the american civil war, 10000000 doses of morphine were given to union soldiers. during this 1st massive blood bath of the modern era, the quality of war surgery also improved greatly. thanks to morphine doctors could ease pain, operate and if necessary, even amputate on the battlefield. the invention of the hypodermic needle accompanied his progress. injected intravenously,
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morphine grip tightened. patients no longer suffered but they became totally hooked . so the pharmaceutical industry set out to find an antidote and came up with a multi usage substance, which could unhook opium addicts. cocaine advocated by young. the any is dr. sigmund freud, lecoq i enough it on seen one of them will that me that it i'll not go so comp waiver can more go more gassy. mackey kennels have yet like a leather lassie and see a little beer. you would go to a pharmacy and you would the pharmacist would have a little jarnard will take. okay. and would dispense you cocaine for a variety of ailments. mm. cocaine became a slight shit product sold in the form of an alexia ointment, spray or cigarette newspapers were full of and
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the main targeted customer was the well to do woman. she didn't work. so her major suffering was boredom throughout the 19th century. and in to the early 20th century, drugs became cheaper and people discovered that all you can inject cocaine or snorted up the nose. or you can mix morphine and cocaine and you can check them. it's, it's, it's very, it produces a very powerful euphoria in it. 898. the industrial pharmaceutical lab via came up with a new opium derivative guaranteed a 100 percent non addictive results that the 1st tests performed on dogs were hardly conclusive intense drowsiness, a tendency of vomiting and abundant salivation by a none the less launched its new product. under the triumphant name of heroine, recommended for the treatment of asthma,
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an infant teasing pains. if you look at the history of morphine, if you look at the history of heroine, if you look at the history of cocaine, these things do not enter the world as evil underworld drugs. they enter the world as medicines. it's almost like a genie that escapes the bottle. ah, there was no cue of morphine addiction was still each new product attracted its own band of addicts. throughout the 19th century, the industrialization of western nations turned living conditions, hygiene and education upside down. new work organization practices, place the individual at the center of their concerns. the 20th century dawned with new models. there was a, arise of the idea that the state had the responsibility in order to produce
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a strong citizenry for, oh, no term mobilization for national development. that the state had a responsibility to regulate how the body was used, the unfettered market in addictive drugs, was a real social problem and a real social evil that needed to control drug control, including prohibition, was born of the same progressive international movement that gave us the regulatory state that gave us the wall 1st aid, the gave us social reform that gave us protections for workers for unions. prohibition was finally enforced. the united states began by banning opium in 19 o 9. this voltage shot in san francisco shows hundreds of opium pipes going up in flames. in 1914,
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with the harrison act, the u. s. regulated and taxed opiates and coca products. indispensable for surgery from then on cocaine moving and heroine would only be available by prescription thousands of drug uses. he once built their daily fix over the pharmacy counter, didn't know where to turn to ease that terrible cravings. cl estella, the c bro, evil ist mckenzie. and so the amanda in school of editor lucas i must ask, is a, can it own that gallo nick mc gallow? keep your la la lake. you can, this is done the split to sub you literally rescued me. nice to meet demand, the criminal underworld land. how to refine heroine in mexico, in the fertile region of sinaloa farmers grew. pop is to supply the american
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pharmaceutical industry. in the early 19 twenties, they saw new customers suddenly turn up. the 1st big figure in mexican drug trafficking was ignacio eso, alias la natur, she bought roar opium in sinaloa, and had it transformed into a brown heroine of mediocre quality by chemist in her employ. now natur set up her clandestine laboratories close to the border with the united states in c. a dad why's to up? why this is that big? i will. i library mad us, you the list, i'll only then say is el paso texas impulses isn't bundle. and then we'll just lou homeless. it can be any less dollar pass up or a r m us the net all grow less. e colored glass, a low kettles. look at that boy leslie molina. pass up a little bit of this year. twice for a few years,
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the united states had been living under the yoke of the prohibition of alcohol. first, the americans crossed the rio grande to soak up that quality whiskey in the gambling dens of see it out while his, amid this happy debauchery of booze and contraband, lanetra had no trouble getting her harrow in through the border posts. her family run business would dominate trafficking for 3 generations until the birth of the 1st mexican drug cartels the illegally zation of drugs gradually stretched across europe, giving rise to new black markets with increasingly powerful ships, maritime transport brought borders even closer. the big commercial ports became strategic smuggling points among them. ma say, where figures from corsican organized crime sees that shower
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berto has been infer my lab white for soccer and run our black. you're about to make a political lamar video where you want the big representative back in 1991. to me it was our argument. one of the guys would not have gone. my brother was killed. my hood don't look no different than any other hood out here. dan michael. wow, was you? i saw me, i saw my son in 15 years and i felt like, you know, at this my time the stand this is the more than bill for on does not willing to accept the word substantial legislation. can i get through? that's going to speak to a major need for mark and in this bill identifies used violence as a public health epidemic. last year. we are 2 aren't remarked. the ripple effect of violence when it comes to youth stretches far. why are you were away?
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i've worked out their english since it's lordship, as a principal presenter and as a correspondent with any breaking the story we want to hear from those people who would normally not get that voice is heard on an international news channels. one moment i'll be very proud off was when we covered the napoleon quake of 2015, a terrible natural disaster on the story that needs to be told from the hall of the affected area to be then to tell the people story was very important over time. ah al jazeera with no news ah, hello i mariam to missouri and london
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a quick look at the main stories now. top advises to form you as president donald trump say. they told him that his claims of widespread voter fraud would not legitimate and would not reverse his 2020 election loss. statements will part of video testimony shown on monday at the house of representatives hearing into the january 6th capitol hill attack. the democrat panel argued trumps falsehoods, provoked a mob of his supporters to stole the government building. last year, his campaign manager at the time says, trump was told repeatedly on election night that he did not have the numbers to win . right? must go back separatists to saying that russia has destroyed the last bridge out of the ukrainian east of the eastern city of savannah. dani ask russia is same, that ukrainian troops now effectively blockaded in the strategic city and should surrender or die. but to crane says that is another way out though it's been severely damaged. russia is continued to pummel the assault chemical plant with
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artillery fire, hundreds of civilians including children of thought to be sheltering there. in a situation reminiscent of the siege of the exhausted steel works in the city of mary. a poll, it's worthless, visibly durham was little girl. she severed annette's cuz practically been blocked her to the blue of the last bridge which connected it to life. the shank is getting those ukrainian divisions that are there are there forever. they have 2 options, either to follow the example of their fellow service men and surrender or to die. there is no other option. in our deadlines, the authorities in bikini foster say, armed men killed 55 people in an attack in a rural district in the north. it happened in se tenga, near the border with new year. ah, i saw released this video online shortly after begin off. i so has struggled with the tax by armed group since 2015, more than 2000 people have been killed since then and nearly 2000000 displaced. meanwhile, clashes in sedans at dar 4 region over the past week of left more than
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a 100 people dead. their violence began overland dispute, which it between nomadic arab, an african tribes in the town of kobus armed manly, to attack several villages in the areas, setting them a light and forcing thousands to flee. the magic tribes often clash of access to land and water for their lives. stalk, lowe's, the headlines, i'll see if the news hour in half an hour time. ah, the legalization of drugs gradually stretched across europe, giving rise to new black markets with increasingly powerful ships, maritime transport, brought borders even closer. the big commercial ports became strategic smuggling points among them mar, say, where figures from corsican organized crime seized their chance. legal. so they
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were debowski on a pity mahan cough eco said that you could see ye are not all pure coded, young dps is a near d p. so sunday, sunday, kruber's motor can induce raise massing into the new luke hall. po, do no clooney earn the time or your a doke. sil, lee, defense eat up, bird, a liddy fiance scowl. they miss ashley, my demur. if you're early costs, are they all get easy, the coffee presume worth of dol? oh, in the mid 19 twenties pool carbon, a former merchant seaman turned white slave then became the boss of the corsica mafia. he bought opium in turkey, where it was widely grown to supply pharmacy to collapse. in ma, say, the chemist, employee by the corsican mafia transformed it into heroine, which was then shipped to where the prohibition of drugs was the strictest. the united states is c perdita, petticoat recovery,
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new doggie monte oak resource corner continue g 0. c c halter. see to use, you know, prettier if you want. he's under presumptuous sophisticated with his drug money. paul carbone bought the merit. ma say, had his own men hired on the water fronts and bride the city's police force. the godfather ramped up his trafficking laying the foundations of the french connection . in those early days of drug trafficking, arrangements with the powers that be were crucial to organized crime. whether that was at a city level, like with ma, say, or a country level, a country where the story began. china, in the early 19 twenty's, the empire collapsed and army started fighting over dozens of china's regions. there was no central power and therefore nobody to fight organized crime. in shanghai,
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the opium dens had never been so prosperous. the triads reigned as masters of the underworld. sunday shockey sawyer for the traffic on the p. o. d pople, you say the missile drew ill? she killed the been cause young. dolly me your policy from the powerful green gang. one man stood out his name. do you shenk thought. rashid julia. shag. select suggestion. yes. in aicpa of his tears and you hook it it. unable to supper. gunther, do you think that i should think the ma shockey put it? oh, in 1921. the chinese communist party was founded inside the french concession. the french authorities were scared and approach. do you shang the false suck you moment begged a craven manifestation contest on the pregnancy kotia heavily. he consists your to
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sir eunice in these machine. what he more sit down with. who said those who this yackel should the false keep that niggas is coming? i took the repack, the vicar. yup. oh the french asked. do you shang, to re establish order inside that concession, in exchange, the trafficker would be allowed to take over all of the concessions opium dens. oh it you keep at the upper dr. michael, sean potter. tutuco once comfortably installed. do you shang, offered his services to the ambitious chinese general shank. i shook his head of the army of the quote, maintain the chinese nationalist party shank. i shake aim to reunify the country to do so. he would have to take shanghai in 1927. do you shang ordered his men to massacre hundreds of communists who taken control of the city and opened the gates
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of shanghai to shanghai shakes army the general soon imposed the chrome in tang is the country's government. but to keep control of china, he needed money. so the chrome in tang legalized opium. do you, shanks tree at the green gang became the government's main supplier. and a number of its members were sent to sit at parliament. china became the world's 1st narco state g. shang stepped up, his activities, hiring chemists and setting up a heroine factory inside chang. eyes central market. lagoon falls. do do do seated. zuni guess zone any d x i moist fixed abra, jimmy, you ocean while you get the prize, he go to press your dog. the
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heroine refined in china, mexico and france converged on the united states. but in late twenty's america, the biggest he, she was liquor prohibition was making gangster's reach. to monopolize the millions made from smuggled moonshine, the italian mafia systematically threatened and murdered until it had crushed its competitors. prohibition created none predicted destructive power and widespread corruption. al capone had judges police officers and politicians in his pocket until he finally fell by 1930. it was clear that this was, this was failing. there was a government commission called the wickersham commission that, that surveyed the alcohol prohibition and decided that that was rhythm with
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corruption. and so in 1933 you got the, the end of prohibition ah, over alcohol. suddenly the, the, the mafia had lost this enormously profitable enterprise. ah, deprived of its main source of income, the italian mafia united around lucky luciano formed an alliance with meyer lansky . together they took control if the heroine market to maximize profits, the lobsters caught and re cut the drug. their adulterated product caused infections, an over doses. but the end of the prohibition on alcohol also caused rancor and frustration amid puritanical conservative white americans. the enemies of all kinds of highs and pleasures. the pre pro have ation fight,
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was led by the new head of the federal bureau of narcotics, harry j, an slinger, an advocate of strong arm tactics and a brilliant tactician. he saw himself not just as and forcing a prohibition on drugs. now he was in fact, 1st of all moral campaigner, enforcing if you will, a moral consensus upon the society. in 19 thirty's, america, hollywood was electrifying audiences. harry answering encouraged movie directors to instill the fear of drugs. among them, he directed his roth on marijuana, which was still legal in the united states. on screen white women, tempted by the devil inevitably succumbed and in the role of the suntanned, mustachioed tempter, a mexican little by little harriann selling his moral campaign via towards racist
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propaganda. happy as being good. come on, watch us another day chest only then said they yet i may hico go my lordy hand that that one of us yelled meant to the foot in this class, yell men, they in fatty all this. he made an absolute equation between ethnicity and drugs. opiate was chinese, marijuana was mexican americans. and so he was unashamed ah, in using the, the drugs as a way of stigmatizing and attacking minorities. in 1937 marijuana was prohibited in united states, organized crime would benefit from this new ban. harriann selling a new it on, got ready to fight them
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on the harriann slinger, the federal bureau of narcotics fostered international cooperation and in 1932 the traffic has in their merchandise was finally traced from its stumble to new york via berlin and shine guy. oh oh oh. busy during the fast years of well through 2 oceans and seas with a c, it is a fierce battles. trafficking came to a halt and the drugs ran out but this respite was short lived. the 1st huge international drug trafficking network would lay its foundations at the height of war. in 1943 after the u. s. army landed in sicily, it's priority was to keep it out of axis. hands for good. ringback washington
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started looking for men to temporarily govern the island dock. soon i shall come. as you see you to please eat a fascist cuz a swa legal appropriate day, a cautious while niggling chris, the swa. oh, let me know how soon would who the diesel key is not a pass suit. big lay of fascist a bag of into pussy, beating liquid meanest ellie. measure it on please emily joe kee de ludy back of all of it. had your cos, yours. good luck last he believe me up holiday. a salad vanilla league could be nice, easily launch whizzy dip hauled li matthew detail moves you. do she hey deal. don't i'm, i'm ok i'm, i'm about to create more torn bats by the americans. matthews. he moved into the town halls and took control of the different parts of
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the island. in 1945, the u. s. expel to italy, more than a 100 mops. does involved in heroin trafficking, including lucky luciano, the boss of cosa nostra, the american cousins in the sicilian mafia would turn the island into a drug trafficking hub. but little don't he, they annette killer madness let it let till had gone from the from blame we did just stay on in the login info pixel, but can phenomena let us secret the but then said nanette, panting but that they now up and one is east there been anthony pat, long, chill, mcarthur than other all got in it that yeah, it clean the lunch. i will not laugh. massage out. it cleaned but well anyway, they but it's healthier than the any luciana, but the vital to follow the blame on them to heroine once again flowed into the united states. but heroine of poor quality sicily was short on qualified chemists
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in 1950 and marcell. lucky luciano met with the new bosses of the corsican mafia, antoine and bat, elemy, getty, ne, the brothers had the cam is capable of refining opium, to make the highest quality heroine heroine for practically pure, and possible to cut dozens of times to make the biggest profits silica should clear, see all of our toya club, so g, u. o told about on loss i, me, packer. caution. lose. she'll sure in a good, as you us, you know, deal the sultan, that you the meeting between the gary ni and lucky luciano gave birth to the french connection. a vast wealth of turkish lebanese corsican and sicilian traffickers. cosa nostra controlled the distribution in the united states. but very soon, the corsican in charge of refining and transport would gain ascendency. it is
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it, is it covered? what honesty, body plumb, jago diplomacy or new york, above all the pesa coast? well, i did a classical, if you try me to look a must have a song called to live here. silly fidel law say selector. yeah, they got the ma, say, lukea luciano, i la couldn't see machine aluminum propre saw that i missed ya again. it, yeah, you that burly goes is so called cou, leak also to pre source. i god, not there most shooting deal buskie, so be jo, obviously sorry, sir. craig, jose having infiltrated the authorities in, ma, say the corsica masha had strong ties inside the french state apparel. in 1951 at the height of the indo china war. the french secret service was deployed to organize the counter attack against the ve
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yet men guerrillas, but it was seriously short of money. paris begrudged having to fund this costly war and the french opium regime, which once finance the colony had been forced to shut up shop in the face of international pressure. oh, the french secret service mounted operation eggs. they contacted a tribe in the hills of laos, the monk, and bolt their entire poppy crop which they transported to a military base in saigon, their french agent sold opium to chinese vietnamese gangs. and to the corsican mafia who turned it into heroine and dispatched it to the united states. the drug money would allow french intelligence to build a counter insurrections, army of $40000.00 men recruited from the tribes of indo china. there was of one of those bizarrely clear instances of
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a modern western intelligence apparatus actually operating a drug trade. it was extraordinary tonia ah, there's many instances of collusion and corruption but nothing quite like that. or the intelligence service of a legitimate government is actually operating the traffic operation acts came to nothing. in 1955 france evacuated its troops from india, china, the regions g, a politics had changed. the colonial powers had withdrawn. the opium regimes had closed down. and china, a communist state since 1949 had brutally white top poppy growing that should have sounded the death knell for norco politics in asia. but the cold war had only just begun, and the scene was set for secret ops and mounted cruise carried out by the secret
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services of the great palace. there are times where there's no question that before the collapse of the soviet empire and the bringing down to the burrow and all of the cold war was a priority national security objective of the united states. and if things came into absolute conflict, ah, i would expect that the cold war objectives would prevail over fighting drug trafficking. there is a specialist skill to operating outside the bounds of civil society, of being able to transfer money, mobilize people, create operations of by arms, transport, arms across the globe, deliver them into the hands of people, the only 2 kinds of people on the planet that have the sensibility and have this ability, intelligence, operatives and criminals who the asian drug trade took off again when the united
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states attempted to overthrow the chinese communist regime. washington gave its backing to the enemies of chairman mouth, the chrome in tang. 6000 chinese nationalists were entrenched across the border in bana bessy. i sent them provisions, arms, and munitions. them support from a cia started to decrease and his local coming town units sought to look for him for money. and as a faith foam was famous, quote from one of those to comment on generals. he said, if he needs an army need guns, if need guns, need money. the only money in his mountains is open or with the truck money. the crime in tang soldiers prospered, but china put pressure on bama. in 1961, the crime in tang ami was evacuated. a part of the troop set up
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a new base in northern thailand where the monarchy welcomed them in sympathy. from the high up villages they occupied, the comin tang soldiers block the infiltration of communist groups. but more importantly kept a close eye on their loads of opium. as they crossed the border, ah, opium, transported from neighboring bomber allows was refined in northern thailand. the area across the shared borders became known as the golden triangle. the base heroine was transported to the poor to bangkok and loaded on to ships heading for hong kong. a century after the opium was hong kong still in british hands had the highest concentration of drug addicts in the world. the triads faced in hong kong since fleeing the chinese communists refined the base into heroin of rare purity. the drugs itinerary continued to the
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west coast of the united states. the international traffic in heroin had never reach such a scale before. and america, which had used the drug as a tool during the cold war, would now pay the ultimate price the sacrifice of its youth. when the war in vietnam broke out, a large part of american use was rebelling against a patriarchal racist and consumer society in which it felt it had no place to new drugs were on the market. ellis, d, mescaline piety. it was the golden age of hallucinogens. so the question was, who was the one where was coming from? and so that's what set me off on a, an inquiry ah, the started in the library, your university eventually took me to interviews with pharmacy. i offered ocean to
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southeastern itself. alfred mccoy flute allow us and had it for the hills, where the wh among tribes grew poppies to supply the local opium dens. still a young student, he was the 1st to unlock the dark secrets of naco politics to drive back the communists. the c, i had assembled a secret army of 30000 men in remote villages and set up a well oiled logistics plan. it chartered plains to transport men and supplies and cleared $200.00 landing straits. the homily took advantage of the comings and goings of the cia plains to transport their opium so that the ca couldn't have found out and found her wasn't aware that improbable nic stream of her 26 year old graduate student with no assets, no authority can find this out in a conversation, then i'm sure they could have done the same. should they have bothered to ask those
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questions? oh, continuing his investigation, alfred mccoys set out to meet the commander in chief of the laotian army. major general, who on ratty cone suspected of being the head of this opium traffic ring. he actually got out his ledger ah, from the opium or the gene, the laws, and to walk me through the account and show me that he was running his accounts, honestly than he was buying opium in these areas. and he was exporting into sophia mom here, and the money was being positive banks all on properly. you say as long as ones open supplied the local market. the cia covered him, but the next step was none. the less obvious, the major general turn to hong kong is chemist to refine the opium into heroin and the trap was set. the heroine was dispatched to u. s. army bases, customs officers,
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policeman, and south vietnamese politicians on scrupulously profited from the traffic, helping to poison the young american soldiers who had come to fight at their side. at the height of the cold war, heroine threatened to defeat the u. s. army, while it was decimating the youth back home on american soil. on june the 17th 1971, president richard nixon took a radical. you turn an american drug policy when gentleman on it, germany, america's public enemy number one in the united states is drug abuse. in order to fight and defeat this enemy, it is necessary to wage a new all our offensive. ah, the war on drugs had been declared across the united states,
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the same scenes were repeated. drug busts, master s and prison sentences levant on the civil ya course post billy gus and any i say no pretty cause of the politics you. hello joe doug. the principal about the world leading produce of heroin. france was in washington sites. the corsican mafia, the pillar of the french connection with the number one target. that in the mid 19 seventy's, the drug market exploded across the globe as consumption reached unprecedented levels. to conquer this market, a new generation of traffic has would build powerful criminal organizations, headed by the so called drug lords. through them full tactical axis of power emerged, which would turn drug trafficking into a globalized industry. ah
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hello, i'm place to say we got some slightly quater weather making its way into southeastern parts of australia. now we've seen some very live he storms just around the southeast corner. i said boss, starting to wipe are not larry of high pressure. just calming things down. well, i will still be by the blustery, but the really wet when the anatomic winter weather making his way over to was new zealand. not looking too good here. 13 celsius there for melbourne on tuesday. afternoon. 12 celsius. therefore hope up. 17. in the sunshine, therefore, sidney, we have got some sherry wright running through the bites across south australia, a little bit of wet weather coming through here we will see more weather just making its way towards the south west pushing its w a as we go on into work wednesday by wednesday. so where to where the coming back into where victoria into tasmania. they you guys still got no showers running away . blustery winds, pushing in across new zealand. got some wet weather too. went to parts of japan
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over the next day or so. but the really heavy rain for rest, some parts of china that is set to continue push a little further north lloyd, the showers there just a route eastern china to round shanghai pushing up to was the yellow sea. i'm going to make his wife other resources we go 13, wednesday and the cloud building for japan. ah, well, there's more than 12000 migrants, mostly haitians in the camp that sprung up in that real texas over the last 2 weeks . they won't assign us, authorities are overwhelmed. this is just the latest flash point in a months long serge of people illegally crossing the buddha. and there's little in the camp for them. you can see that kind of thing to try and i don't pay and getting back into the coming up that they went across to make, get through. they say because there was enough food for them to be there in the
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time we met nicholas on the mexican bank to the river, searching for food, a medicine for his family. he hadn't realized until we asked him about it. the us authorities, rules are now flying haitians back home. there is no president, crime as high students can't go to school. there is no work. the economy is down. people can't put up with them. deportation is not good for us. ah, al jazeera, when ever you lose .


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