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tv   Drug Trafficking Politics and Power The Era of Empires  Al Jazeera  June 16, 2022 9:00am-10:01am AST

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and the more exotic species we want to find out more about how offers it been taken from the wild and solid? justine gar remark, it is a spooling hub, the animal trade a plethora of exotic species. seat and tiny metal cages. distressed and sweltering under the hot sun ah, what is that they've been doing with the money that it's for we bring you the stories and developments that are rapidly changing the world we live in. argentina's, congress is debating and build, seeking to raise billions of dollars. the super rich poor families hit hard by and then counting the coast on al jazeera
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hello, i'm darn jordan and go out with a quick reminder. the top stories here are now to 0. police and brazil say a suspect has confessed to fatal shooting indigenous expert buena pereira and veteran british journalist dom phillips, investigators say the suspect, led them to a remote part of the amazon, where the bodies were buried. herrera and phillips went missing more than a week ago. after receiving threats, monica, you knock him as the latest from rio de janeiro. what happened was one of the 2 suspects, the one that was odd that they detained more recently. he confessed, they took him, he said that he had taken the 2 men. he said that they had submerged their boat, had killed them and taken them to bury them inside the forest are 3 kilometers inside the fours. that means to carry their bodies. you'd have to go with the small canoe through these rivers. ah, after saying that after confessing the police accompanied the man to the site where
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he said that these are 2 people had been buried and there they found human remains . the police was saying that they were very sorry for what happened to the families of these 2 men. journalist dom phillips was writing a book about saving the amazon and indigenous expert. but a little bit era who is one of results most experienced people in un contacted tribes. they had been in the job id valley, which is a huge indigenous reservation is the size of morocco and home to the largest number of un contacted friday. and are bruno was working with the indigenous people. the locals are to try and stop the illegal fishermen. poachers are miners from invading their territories. he was helping them map this out. and he was travelling with dom phillips when these both men were ambushed according to the police. the u. s. federal reserve has higher interest rates by 3 quarters of
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a percentage point to try to curb inflation. the increase the larger since 1994, our g castro has more from washington dc. this is a very aggressive move as resent this is the highest 11 time rate hike in 28 years in the us. and the goal here is to react to the alarm rate of inflation that we saw in a report just last week. now at 6.8 percent, a historic high in the us federal board chair reserve board chair jerome. how will also called these extraordinarily challenging and uncertain times for the us economy. now, he has quite the challenge ahead of him. he's trying to cool down this roaring hot economy. i've raising that interest rate to lower the amount of money that's available in the economy. but he has to do so on the board has to do so without triggering a recession. there are some fear of that happening possibly next year,
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even in the u. s. according to some economists, how will did not predict that. he said that he and among the boards releasing the economic projection for the next 3 years in the u. s. finding that by 2024 around then is when the u. s. economy may fall down to a healthier level where unemployment rate and the inflation rates are at the target levels at the federal reserve was the year in refugee agency says that the number of people to space worldwide is, wasn't record 100000000. the biggest fact that the moment is russia's war in ukraine, the by the ministration as an additional $1000000000.00 in the military aid for ukraine that includes anti ship rocket systems, artillery and ammunition is also 220 $5000000.00 and humanitarian assistance leaders of germany. france and italy are on their way to keep the 1st time shorts among the macro. my a drug trouble there since rushes invasion began. and the government's refusing to
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rule out abandoning a european human rights packed up for judge, blocked it from deporting some asylum seekers to rolanda the last minute intervention by the european court of human rights for the 1st flight to be cancelled on tuesday night. the court is unrelated to the european union, which left the united kingdom in 2020. well, those are that lines and he's continues here now to 0 after drug trafficking politics and power station been soldier by fluff. ah. ready sh ah,
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this is a copy failed. once cut the cord of the clans, secretes a miraculous, milky fluid called latex, bass, opium, used by man as a bomb for more than 5 millennia opium released pain and the pieces the mind. and that should have been the end of it. ah, for this drug would play a part in some of mankind's greatest upheavals, imperialism colonization, the cold war, and more recently, globalization without the backing of states. drug trafficking would never have existed. released into the heart of the system, drugs have dictated their own jeer politics in the shadows, secret operations. widespread corruption. drugs are now part of the very flesh of the world's democracies. from wall street to the jungles of columbia, from shanghai to cabo cartels mafia banks, pharmaceutical labs and political parties have all lived of drug trafficking. the
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results of devastating whole population stigmatized or displaced families torn apart. to day we stopped counting the dead. ah. this documentary series looked back at the sinew as history of drug trafficking, starting with opium, which the farmers call the gift from the gods. ah
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ah! at the town of the 19th century, britain was engaged in a frantic race to conquer new territories and new resources. with cotton t peppa and other commodities. the british empire liberalize the world in india, britain laid its hands on a particularly strategic resource. it was close to the city of benares in the ganges valley that the highest quality of opium grew. the british structured its farming and intensified production. with this opium, britain hoped to win the power struggle against the world's greatest power at the time the empire of china. china refused all free trade. it sold massive amounts of porcelain and t, so appreciated by the british. but bought nothing at all in return. there wasn't much the china neither. china was the oldest operating carmen,
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the world ending back millennia was a self contained economy. and so coming up of goods the, that the world's most advanced consumer economy, ah, needed that there was an impossibility into the chinese elite, had long sought evasion. i stuffing that pipes with all kinds of spices, saffron, camphor, on one day opium and its walk, the smoke could soon caused it spell on chinese high society. in a panic, the emperor decided to banish the mutton. history of drugs started here with the prohibition of an addictive substance and the greed of the british empire. these substances have out one very powerful, an advantage from a cynical business perspective. so the fact that drugs are addictive, ah,
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but creates an out of a lay, possibly olu, billing consumers, unwilling consumers. they let people literally get hooked on the substance. the next step was purely logistical. the british crown couldn't be seen to be involved in smuggling. so it gave the job to private traders the most avid amongst them, william jardine and james matheson loaded thousands of chests of opium on to their ships in india and set sail for china. the distinction between private mercantile interests and the government. these were not completely separate there, there was a commonality of interest, lily, age of imperialism, of commerce was good for the empire. the empire was good for commer. so, so these things very much one together on behalf of the british crown,
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jardin and madison to scottish gentlemen in embroidered waste coats and patent leather slippers invented international drug trafficking. in the bay of canton, the 2 traders bribed the port authorities unsold their cargoes of opium to the chinese emperor's worst enemies. the triads. these powerful secret societies had a single claim to overthrow the dynasty and power loop. humor, would you see? i done it. lavish, only the millionaire tells you, ah, this in me, and he forced to define it book with her to say it says you there. she fina alexander. companies. don't said these are gonna buy data or nobody's. if he he good to you man. the play fake it to a pure man. they also connected to a human kid of an m and on the 10th on p. so they are on the pallet these up him under the buck gun. the content did publish, you know,
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in 1839. the emperor felt under threat. he imprisoned thousands of smugglers and had 20000 chests. the british opium destroyed jordan and madison seized on this is a pretext back in london, they convinced the highest authorities that war was the only way to open up the huge market that china represented with a 3rd of the wills population. so in the name of profit, britain launched, the opium was in fact, in china, many chinese historians day, the modern era from the opium wars. this is, this is one china, which had been a self sufficient empire for, for hundreds or thousands of years, suddenly becomes the victim of imperialism. the defeated emperor was forced to legalize opium and open up his country to foreign trade.
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he seated hong kong to the british, who turned the island into an outright opium hub. in 15 years, sales of the drug had risen from 3000 to almost 6000 tons a year. to finance this boom in opium trading, a bank was founded. the hong kong and shanghai banking corporation, hsbc. these glass towers are the heritage of an era which saw the birth of what is now the 7th largest bank in the world in terms of assets and the jobs in matheson group, a pillar of world trade and the 1st business to grow, make a rich from drug trafficking, the symbolism really was a bed. the colonial power was shoving opium, literally down the throats of the chinese people and sentencing chinese men and women of 2. 0, there were stating drug addiction did the ability to de lives that kept them often
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torn from their families, m. economically deprived following the opium was uprisings broke out across china, resulting in millions of deaths. the empire sank into a slow agony to avoid the total collapse of its economy. china began growing its own poppies. china's borders were finally opened. millions of chinese fled to the world's main ports, light london, amsterdam, and san francisco. and they took the practice of opium smoking with them. so if the original san was that the west or western imperialist foisted opium on the chinese, the chinese and away had their revenge because with this great diaspora of the
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chinese immigrant community on opium smoking is transplanted all over the world are in the united states at the time of the gold rush, chinese work is provided easily exploitable labor opium spread through the china towns of the big cities. in europe, opium also made nations heddie. the drug would make the dreams of colonial grandeur come true. for various countries, france, the eternal rival of great britain, intended to turn into china into a mountain colony, a mirror of its own power. it constructed expensive infrastructures such as roads, bridges, and railroads. the colonization re topic with the french budget. citronella as if i going to walk really couldn't you had body raj or, or jenny? how's hebrew to be glued. he could do it after a local degree of know, heard the quality, sort of what our shall do, the daily more do best use boy,
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equally by law lobby j. ah, in 1882 france started buying war opium in india and china and refining it in a modern factory in the city center, a saigon opium became a standardized ready to smote, product called sion do on said in a 1000 or so stores with the r o sign that a she to low p. m opium regime, france jealously guarded it's monopoly and severely punished any smuggling the more opium addicts are wearing in the china, the full of the colonial coffin became the regime would supply almost a 3rd of indo, china's budget this lucrative model was copied by the other colonial powers and the british spanish and dutch,
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soon founded their own regimes. the opium industry would run on full steam until the end of world war 2, dragging millions of people across asia. now there was opposition to this and this in the 19th century, one very important group opposing this traffic was of course the missionaries because they saw the traffic in drugs as being opposed to their essential mission of christian izing, these lamps. and so there's, there's certainly tension between the merchants and the governments and the imperial administrations that are interested in revenue and the missionaries who are interested in souls. this tension reached a peak in china in the early 20th century. the empire had become the world's largest opium producer, overtaking india from deep within the country. huge cargoes descended the yangtze
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river to shang i. within a few years, the port city had dethroned hong kong shanghai was the new well capital of opium. the european powers controlled entire districts of the city known as concessions where the opium trade was booming. in shanghai, different qualities of opium were available. foreign refined opium coveted by the wealthy youth, or cut chinese opium for the poor classes. in 190613 1000000 chinese people were opium addicts. it was carnage. a massive prohibition campaign was conducted across the empire the europeans, not yet attics of the drug, but of its trade ignored the ban and continued business as usual. so china turned towards a new power. liz,
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emily got good credit. lo till i could to have work. let poor be sure does sir, is to be sure. lou them or baskets from pottery? polly postcolonial ellie's? i mean, i don't know, but clooney. bob ols on label. for say, equal pranks on, they say that they are the a c a m c, the hog above a body, obasi lee, lee preschool, toyota, so member law her, your daughter didn't even see him said, what is it does need to get in the country thought, urge montague sonata in 19 o 9 in shanghai, the united states and china convened the 1st international opium convention. the european nations unanimously refused to reduce their production. but paris, london and amsterdam would soon reconsider that position. when they realized how far opium addiction had spread across the west, ah,
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throughout the 19th century, europe had gone through its various industrial revolutions. millions of farm laborers had left the countryside and crammed into the centres of monstrous manufacturing cities. with the insulin serious living and working conditions, the slightest comp became infected cases of gangrene increased. epidemics were rife, typhoid tuberculosis, cholera, doctors were at a loss. then suddenly the pain stopped from the tree to the poppy chemist managed to extract a miraculous substance. they named it after mafia's, the greek god associated with sleep and dreams. villamore athena la syntheses de la motor fina full, not liberal sheehan. but alas, conscientious if where, where more defeat gorn listed amanela the infant that had quintal in the lot. edwin alex young. in the law morale, luckily possible. what full man,
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ah, in the mid 19th century, the german heinrich emanuel mac pioneered the large scale commercial production of morphine. within a few decades, his small lab had turned into germany's 1st pharmaceutical empire. to day. it's the 5th largest pharmaceutical group in the world. from 1861. during the american civil war, 10000000 doses of morphine were given to union soldiers. during this 1st massive blood bath of the modern era, the quality of war surgery also improved greatly. thanks to morphine doctors could ease pain, operate and if necessary, even amputate on the battlefield. the invention of the hypodermic needle accompanied this progress, injected intravenously. morphine grip tightened. patients no longer suffered but they became totally hooked. so the pharmaceutical industry set out to find an
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antidote and came up with a multi usage substance, which could unhook opium addicts, cocaine advocated by young viennese doctor sigmund freud, lecoq. i enough it all seem one of them will certainly that it will not go so common when webber go more. go more. gussie mackey kennels have yet like a leather lassie unsealed or beer. you would go to a pharmacy and you would, the pharmacist would have a little jarnard, will take cocaine and would dispense you cocaine for a variety of ailments. mm. cocaine became a slight shit product sold in the form of an alexia ointment, spray, or cigarette newspapers were full of ads. the main targeted customer was the well to do woman. she didn't work. so her major
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suffering was boredom. throughout the 19th century and in to the early 20th century, drugs became cheaper and people discovered that all you can inject cocaine or snorted up the nose. or you can mix morphine and cocaine and you can check them in this it's, it's very, it produces a very powerful euphoria in 1898. the industrial pharmaceutical lab buyer came up with a new opium derivative guaranteed a 100 percent non addictive. results of the 1st tests performed on dogs were hardly conclusive intense drowsiness, a tendency of vomiting and abundant salivation. by a none the less launched its new product under the triumphant name of heroine, recommended for the treatment of asthma and infant teething pains. if you look at
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the history of morphine, if you look at the history of heroine, if you look at the history of cocaine, these things do not enter the world as evil underworld drugs. they enter the world as medicines. it's almost like a genie that escaped the bottle. ah, there was no q of morphine addiction was still each new product attracted its own band of addicts. throughout the 19th century, the industrialization of western nations turned living conditions, hygiene and education upside down. new work organization practices, place the individual at the center of their concerns. the 20th century dawned with new models. there was a, arise of the idea that the state had the responsibility. and in order to produce a strong citizenry for of military mobilization for national development. that the
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state had a responsibility to regulate how the body was used, the unfettered market in addictive drugs, was a real social problem and a real social evil that needed to control drug control, including prohibition, was born of the same progressive international movement that gave us the regulatory state that gave us the wall 1st aid, the gave us social reform that gave us protections for workers for unions. prohibition was finally enforced. the united states began by banning opium in 19 o 9. this voltage shot in san francisco shows hundreds of opium pipes going up in flames. in 1914, with the harrison act, the u. s. regulated and taxed opiates and coca products. indispensable for
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surgery from then on cocaine moving and harrowing would only be available by prescription thousands of drug uses. he once built their daily fix over the pharmacy counter, didn't know where to turn to ease that terrible cravings. 2 cl estella, these 2 bro, evil estimate guns here. and so there, monday in school, fed lucas, i must ask, is a can it element gullow? nick mc gallow could viola lake, the genesis done these 1st to sub, literally, excuse me. nice to meet demand, the criminal underworld learned how to refine heroine in mexico, in the fertile region of sinaloa farmers grew poppies to supply the american pharmaceutical industry. in the early 19 twenties,
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they saw new customers suddenly turn up. the 1st big figure in mexican drug trafficking was ignacio eso, alias la natur, she bought roar opium in sinaloa, and had it transformed into a brown heroine of mediocre quality by chemist in her employ. now natur set up a clandestine laboratories close to the border with the united states in c, a dad why's to up? why this is that big owl? i luckily met us. you. that is the lonely then say, is el paso, texas impulses isn't bundle. and then what your flu cordless, it can be, any less dollars pass up. what a r a mass, the net or grow less, e colored glasses o. kettles. look at that boiler c. marina. pass up a little bit of this year. twice for a few years. united states had been living under the yoke of the prohibition of alcohol. first,
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the americans crossed the rio grande to soak up bad quality whiskey in the gambling dens of see it out. while his, amid this happy debauchery of booze and contraband natur had no trouble getting her harrow in through the border posts, her family run business would dominate trafficking for 3 generations until the birth of the 1st mexican drug cartels the illegal ization of drugs gradually stretched across europe giving rise to new black markets with increasingly powerful ships, maritime transport, group borders even closer. the big commercial ports became strategic smuggling points. among the mal say, where figures from corsican organized crime sees that chance. ah, ah,
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al jazeera, with no discover a world of difference, determination, i'm examining about women iep. we are moving freedom plan shall soldiers unknown to 16 people with corruption and compassion al jazeera woo, a selection of the best films from across our network of troubles. ernestine is on the cost of the new chapter and its history. after the u. s. and the telephone signed an agreement to pay the way for the withdraw international troops, high cost was paid to get to this point them over the past few years. the u. s. is
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increasingly conducted, it's part of the war from the sky, with more bombs dropped last year than any other year in the past decade. but with that came arise and civilian casualties. this is a mistake still happen. this is not owning mistakes that things are in for that accountability in a lot of be on accountable for families. we interviewed not receiving acknowledgement from the u. s. left them without closure. they told us that they felt like what happened to their loved ones was a crime. and they want justice and answers something war to often denies. lou
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hello, i'm darren, jordan and dough with a quick reminder other top stories here on al jazeera police and brazil say a suspect has confessed to killing 2 men who went missing in the amazon rain forest . authority is also say remains, have been found. indigenous expert, bruno pereira and british journalist dom phillips, went missing more than a week ago. monica anakin has been following the latest developments from rio de janeiro. what happened was one of the 2 suspects. the one that was on that they detained more recently. he confessed, they took him, he said that he had taken the 2 men. he said that they had submerged their boat, had killed them, and taken them to bury them inside the forest. ah, 3 kilometers inside the fours. that means to carry their bodies. you'd have to go with a small canoe through these rivers. ah, after saying that after confessing the police accompanied the man to the site where
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he said that these are 2 people had been buried and there they found human remains . the u. s. federal reserve as hiked interest rates by 3 quarters of a percentage point to try to curb inflation. the increase of the largest since 1994, the biden administration as announced an additional $1000000000.00 in the military aid for ukraine. it includes, i'm to ship rocket systems, auxiliary and ammunition, as also $225000000.00 in humanitarian assistance. and it is of germany, france and italy are on their way to the cranium capital by train. it's the 1st time left sholtes emanuel macro. mario druggie, i've travelled to keep since russia's invasion began. the unified agency says the number of people dispos worldwide has risen to record a 100000000. the biggest fact at the moment is russia's war in ukraine. and the u. k is refusing to rule out abandoning a european human rights pat after a judge block the government from deporting some asylum seekers to rolanda last minute interventions by the european court of human rights and purchase courts for
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the 1st like to be cancelled on tuesday night. the court is unrelated to the european union, which the u. k. left in 2020, and covered 19 vaccines are expected in the arms of children on the 5 in the united states. as soon as next week, experts have recommended the pfizer and madonna shops recruit. those were the headlines. news continues here now to sierra after drug trafficking, politics, and power station. thanks so much bye. for now. with the illegal i, zation of drugs gradually stretched across europe, giving rise to new black markets with increasingly powerful ships, maritime transport, brought borders even closer. the big commercial ports became strategic smuggling points among them. ma say, where figures from corsican organized crime seized their chance lea gossley till
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the passcode on their plate, the ma hunt half he could sit and you could see ye are not all p colonial deputies are near d b. so some, these are the crew best motor can induce raise mass, say good venue, luke hall po, do no clue near the time or your a dork. sil lea, a defense eat up her eagerly. the fiance scowl. they miss actually my demon, if you're early cough so they all get easy. d coffee, presume we're got door. oh, in the mid 19 twenties pool cabin, a former merchant seaman turned white slave then became the boss of the corsican mafia. he bought opium in turkey, where it was widely grown to supply pharmaceutical labs. in ma say, the chemists employed by the corsican mafia transformed it into heroine, which was then shipped to where the prohibition of drugs was the strictest. the united states is see,
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put the deputy called recovery new doggie mount. the old resource cannot continue g 0, c, c o 2 seater use, you know, prettier impurities under presumptuous, sophisticated with his drug money poll, carbone bolt, the mayor of mar, say, had his own men hired on the water fronts and bribed the city's police force. the godfather ramped up his trafficking laying the foundations of the french connection in those early days of drug trafficking arrangements with the powers that be were crucial to organized crime. whether that was at a city level, like with mile, say, or a country level, a country where the story began. china, in the early 19 twenty's, the empire collapsed and army started fighting over dozens of china's regions. there was no central power, and therefore nobody to fight organized crime. in shanghai,
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the opium dens had never been so prosperous. the triads rained as masters of the underworld, sunny shockey solar for the clerical opium. dip hope will you say the missile drew the osi kiln? did because young dolly me, your push you from the powerful green gang. one man stood out his name. do you shank, thought rashid you shank select suggestion? yes. in aicpa astir in new york, yet it unable to supper. gunther, do you think that i who take the machine occupied it? oh, in 1921. the chinese communist party was founded inside the french concession. the french authorities were scared and approach. do you shang, the font suck you moment beg, decay the manifestation contest on the prison secretary heavily. he consists your
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to sir linette in these machine. what he more says north who said otto it yeah, i caution the false. keep that niggas is coming. i took the repack, the vicar. yup. oh, the french asked. do you shang, to re establish order inside the concession. in exchange the traffic i would be allowed to take over all of the concessions opium dens. oh it you keep your paragraph nichols, his offices to to come once comfortably installed. do you shang offered his services to the ambitious chinese general. she and i shook his head of the army of the quote in tang the chinese nationalist party . shank, i shall aim to reunify the country to do so. he would have to take shanghai in 1927 . do you shang ordered his men to massacre hundreds of communists who taken control
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of the city and opened the gates of shanghai to shanghai shakes army. the general soon imposed the comb in tying as the country's government. but to keep control of china he needed money. so the crime in tang legalized opium. do you shanks tree out? the green gang became the government's main supplier, and a number of its members were sent to sit at parliament. china became the world's 1st norco state. de shang stepped up, his activities, hiring chemists and setting up a heroine factory inside chang, eyes central market. like all those do do do succeeded zuni destro, nellie d x i moist mixed abra, jimmy, you ocean while you get the prize. he go to press your dog.
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the heroine refined in china, mexico and france converged on the united states. that in late twenty's america, the biggest issue was liquor. prohibition was making gangsters reach to monopolize the millions made from smuggled moonshine, the italian mafia. systematic. he threatened and murdered until it had crushed its competitors. prohibition created none predicted destructive power on widespread corruption. al capone had judges police officers and politicians in his pocket until he finally fell by 1930, it was clear that this was, this was failing. there was a government commission called the wickersham commission. the that surveyed the alcohol prohibition and decided that that was the rhythm with corruption. and so in
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1933 you got the, the end of prohibition ah, over alcohol. suddenly the, the, the mafia had lost this enormously profitable enterprise. ah, deprived of its main source of income, the italian mafia united around lucky luciano formed an alliance with meyer lansky . together they took control of the heroine market. to maximize profits, the monsters caught and re cut the drug. their adulterated products caused infections, unovia doses. but the end of the prohibition on alcohol also caused rancor and frustration amid puritanical conservative white americans. the enemies of all kinds of highs and pleasures. the tree pro, habash and fight was led by the new head of the federal bureau of narcotics,
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harry j, an slinger, an advocate of strong arm tactics and a brilliant tactician. he saw himself not just as and forcing a prohibition on drugs. now he was in fact, 1st of all, a moral campaigner, enforcing if you will, a moral consensus upon the society. in 19 thirty's, america, hollywood was electrifying audiences. harry answering encouraged movie directors to instill the fear of drugs. among them, he directed his roth on marijuana, which was still legal in the united states. on screen white women, tempted by the devil inevitably succumbed and in the role of the suntanned, mustachioed tempter, a mexican little by little harriann selling his moral campaign via towards racist
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propaganda. happy as being good. come on, watch us and other chest ugly, then said they yet. i may hico go milady hand. the persona fussy meant that he fed in this glassy element they in fatty or this. he made an absolute equation between ethnicity and drugs. opiate was chinese, marijuana was mexican americans. and so he was unashamed ah, in using the, the drugs as a way of stigmatizing an attacking minorities in 1937 marijuana was prohibited in united states, organized crime would benefit from this new ban. harriann sling a new it on, got ready to fight them.
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on the harriann slinger, the federal bureau of narcotics fostered international cooperation and in 1932. the traffickers in their merchandise was finally traced from east stumble to new york via berlin and shine guy. oh oh, during the fast years of well through 2 oceans and seas, with the theaters of fierce battles, trafficking came to a halt and the drugs ran out. but this respite was short lived. the 1st huge international drug trafficking network would lay its foundations at the height of war. in 1943 after the u. s. army landed in sicily, it's priority was to keep it out of axis. hands for good. ringback washington
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started looking for men to temporarily govern the island dock denija come su, duties eat anti fascist gus a swa legal appropriate day of cautious while legalese, krista swa. oh, let me know how soon would who the diesel key is now they pass soup, bidding lea a fascist a bag of hindu pussy, beaten liquid meanest eelie mess you it don't please. i really care. key day, lou, the back of all of it. had your guns. yours. good luck, lassie. by lead me up. hill. i guess sallied vanilla league could be nice, easily lunch, whizzy, dupe horn lima, s u t t o miss you. do she hate d. v dot m m. ok i'm. i'm about to korea mccormick, backed by the americans, matthews. he moved into the town halls and took control of the different parts of
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the island. in 1945. the us expel to italy. more than a 100 monsters involved in heroine. trafficking, including lucky luciano, the boss of cosa nostra. the american cousins in the sicilian mafia would turn the island into a drug trafficking hub. parallel tony by the unit killer madness let it let till him had gone. funny from blame. we did just stay on in the login info brickle, but can phenomena let us secret the but then said nanette, panting but that they now up and one is ye stepanie anthony, that lunch i met, capped on the ladder all got in it. that it, it cleaned the non chem and the last massage out. it cleaned it, but when that he lab, but it's healthier than danny luciana provided that of a look of blame. adam to heroine once again flowed into the united states. but heroine of poor quality, cecily was short on qualified chemists in 1950 and marcell. lucky luciano met with
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the new bosses of the corsican mafia, antoine and bat, elemy, getty, ne, the brothers had the cam is capable of refining opium, to make the highest quality heroine heroine for practically pure, and possible to cut dozens of times to make the biggest profits silica should clear, see oliver twa clover star, g, or told about on loss i, me, packer. caution, lose she of sure. look good as you who us, you know, a deal. the certain that you the meeting between the gary ni and lucky luciano gave birth to the french connection. a vast wealth of turkish lebanese corsican and sicilian traffickers. cosa nostra controlled the distribution in the united states. but very soon the corsican in
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charge of refining and transport would gain ascendency. it is, does he have it? what honesty bother. camille hopper diplomacy or new york love all the best coast? well, i did a classical. if you could be to look a must have us on call to la fear, silly fidel law say selector, yeah, we got the ma, say, lukea luciano, i laughlin, c machine, aluminum poop resort. but i'm, if ya again, it ya purley goes, is so called cou leecock. so drew pre source, i gordon, not there most shooting deal, basking. so be jo, obviously sorry sir craig jose having infiltrated the authorities in, ma, say the corsican mafia had strong ties inside the french state apparel . in 1951, at the height of the indo china war, the french secret service was deployed to organize the counter attack against of
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yet men guerrillas. but it was seriously short of money. paris begrudged having to fund this costly war and the french opium regime, which once finance the colony had been forced to shut up shop in the face of international pressure. oh, the french secret service mounted operation eggs. they contacted a tribe in the hills of laos, the he monk, and bolt their entire poppy crop which they transported to a military base in saigon, their french agent sold opium to chinese vietnamese gangs under the corsican mafia who turned it into heroine and dispatched it to the united states, the drug money would allow french intelligence to build a counter insurrection, or army of $40000.00 men recruited from the tribes of indo china. there was of one of those bizarrely clear instances of
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a, a modern western intelligence apparatus actually operating a drug trade. it was extraordinary. you know, there's many instances of collusion and corruption, but nothing quite like that. were the intelligence service of a legitimate government is actually operating the traffic operation. x came to nothing. in 1955 trans, evacuated its troops from india, china, the regions g, a politics had changed. the colonial powers had withdrawn. the opium regimes had closed down. and china a communist state since 1949 had brutally white top poppy growing. that should have sounded the death knell for norco politics in asia. but the cold war had only just begun and the scene was set for secret ops and mounted cruise
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carried out by the secret services of the great palace. there are times where there is no question that before the collapse of the soviet empire and the bringing down of the berlin wall of the cold war was a priority national security objective of the united states. and if things came into absolute conflict, ah, i would expect that the cold war objectives would prevail over fighting drug trafficking. there is a specialist skill to operating outside the bounds of civil society, of being able to transfer money, mobilize people, create operations by arms. it's transport arms across the globe, deliver them into the hands of people there, only 2 kinds of people on the planet that have the sensibility and have this ability, intelligence operatives and criminals. the asian drug trade took off again when the
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united states attempted to overthrow the chinese communist regime. washington gave its backing to the enemies of chairman mouth. the crime in tang. 6000 chinese nationalists were entrenched across the border in bana, the cia sent them provisions, arms, and munitions, than support from a cia started to decrease. and his local plumbing tongue units sought to look for for money. and as a faith foam was famous, quote from one of those to comment on generals. he said, if he, nathan army, need guns, if need guns, need money. the only money in these mountains is open war with the truck, money, the crime in tang soldiers prospered. a china put pressure on bama. in 1961, the crime in tang ami was evacuated. a part of the troops set up a new base in northern thailand where the monarchy welcomed them in sympathy. from
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the high up villages they occupied, the comb in tang soldiers blocked the infiltration of communist groups. but more importantly, kept a close eye on their loads of opium. as they crossed the border, ah, opium, transported from neighboring bomber now's was refined in northern thailand. the area across the shared borders became known as the golden triangle. the base heroine was transported to the poor to bangkok and loaded on to ships heading for hong kong. a century after the appeal was hong kong still in british hands had the highest concentration of drug addicts in the world. the triads based in hong kong since fleeing the chinese communists, refine the base into heroin, of rare purity. the drugs itinerary continue to the west coast of the
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united states. the international traffic in heroin had never reach such a scale before. and america, which had used the drug as a tool during the cold war, would now pay the ultimate price the sacrifice of its youth. when the war in vietnam broke out, a large part of american youth was rebelling against a patriarchal racist and consumer society in which it felt it had no place to new drugs were on the market. and as d mescaline piety, it was the golden age of hallucinogens. so the question was, who was apply where was coming from? and so that's what set me off on a, an inquiry on the sort of in the library. your university eventually took me to interviews with pharmacy. i are producing to southeastern itself. alfred mccoy
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flute, allow us, and had it for the hills where the hammond tribes grew poppies to supply the local opium dens. still a young student, he was the 1st to unlocked the dark secrets of naco politics to drive back the communists, the c. i had assembled a secret army of 30000 men in remote villages and set up a well oiled logistics plan. it chartered plains to transport men and supplies, and cleared $200.00 landing strips. the homily took advantage of the comings and goings of the cia plains to transport their opium. so that the c i couldn't have found out. and founder wasn't aware that improbable, new extreme, if a 26 year old graduate student with no assets, no authority can find this out in a conversation. then i'm sure they could have done the same. should they have
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bothered to ask those questions. oh, continuing his investigation, alfred mccoy set out to meet the commander in chief of the laotian army, major general, who on ratty, cone suspected of being the head of this opium traffic ring. he actually got out his ledger awe from the opium luigi the laws. and to walk me through the account and show me that he was running his accounts honestly than he was buying opium in these areas. and he was exporting at the soviet mom here, and the money was being positive banks all one properly, you say as long as owens olympian supplied the local market, the cia covered him, but the next step was none. the less obvious, the major general turn to hong kong geese chemist to refine the opium into heroin and the trap was set. the heroine was dispatched to u. s. army bases,
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customs officers, policeman, and south vietnamese politicians on scrupulously profited from the traffic, helping to poison the young american soldiers who had come to fight at their side. at the height of the cold war, heroine threatened to defeat the u. s. army, while it was decimating the youth back home on american soil. on june the 17th 1971, president richard nixon took a radical. you turn an american drug policy when gentleman on it traveling america's public enemy number one in the united states is drug abuse. in order to fight and defeat this enemy, it is necessary to wage a new all our offensive. ah, the war on drugs had been declared across the united states,
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the same scenes were repeated drug busts, masser, s, and prison sentences. vandal city, of course we post billy gus and any i say no committee casa the politics. you. hello joe w points or letter of the world leading produce of heroin. france was in washington sites. the corsican mafia, the pillar of the french connection with the number one target. but in the mid 19 seventies, the drug market exploded across the globe as consumption reached unprecedented levels. to conquer this market, a new generation of traffic has, would build powerful criminal organizations, headed by the so called drug loads. through them full tactical axis of power emerged, which would turn drug trafficking into a globalized industry. ah
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heads up those billions are picking up across the gulf again. hey everyone. so here's the details on thursday. give me a water look as this is a wind blowing down from iraq. that's what stirring up the sand and does see the brown and orange on our map. that's where all the rising dust is. so some hazy conditions, visibility will be a factor and particularly bad for q weight, the eastern province of saudi bahrain and cats aren't in specifically for doha. we'll look for wind gusts on friday, 55 kilometers per hour. so yep, that's enough to spin around the sunny dust. by the way, june is the windiest month of the year. here in cats are. the sea breeze is giving us some showers in storms in karachi. it's picking up the sand in dust and other spots of the country toward the southwest. we've had some pre monsoon storms that have cause damage outs where a heat is coming out of turkmenistan into western areas of afghanistan. so that's pumped up the temperature in herat to $41.00 degrees, just a few degrees off your june temperature record helps it with rain and storms for
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western areas of turkey. we know there's been flooding an on camera and certainly the risk of seen that in this zone here on thursday of her central africa. most of the activity is actually along the gulf of gideon. i want to dip toward the south now because it's a much more con pitcher after a pair of cold fronts swept across south africa. that's it soon. ah, investigative journalism, my role in this by type the in information about global experts and discussion the pandemic, didn't create all of these problems. it showed us our true color voices from different corners. we don't need to sensationalize how we fail these stories. what jonathan beth is look at the heart of the story. programs that open your eyes to an alternative view of the well today. oh no, just dara. ah,
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which is here. where ever you? oh, the latest news as it breaks down estimated 20000 really gold miners just in the younger mom, the reservation with detailed coverage. the government says it's taking action, but dr. death that lives are being put in danger from around the world. residents, the landscape says the coming days will be crucial for ukraine with the expected renew defensive in the east. ah.


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