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tv   Inside Story  Al Jazeera  June 25, 2022 3:30am-4:01am AST

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so quick, i say, would have sent me a donnel, but as your me a little quieter, withered my food insecurity. brazil has increased 4 times more than the average global rate. the pandemic device in fuel prices and record inflation. holden, 11 percent a year or a part of the problem about that. but that doesn't explain why brazil's doing so badly despite being a major agricultural producer and export, or brazil's presence able sonata, who is up for reelection. october is pushing to increase government handouts until the end of the year funds. meanwhile, the poor from the babylonian slum in real, or helping the poorest with their prayers. and by sharing what little they have monica not give al jazeera rio de janeiro. ah, this is al jazeera and these are the top stories. ah,
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anti abortion demonstrators have been celebrating in the united states after the supreme court voted in favor of overturning the rovers. wade ruling, which made abortion to constitutional right. almost 50 years ago. there was massive disappointment and anger among supporters of abortion rights. after the ruling was announced, us president joe biden said it was a sad day for the country make no mistake. this decision is a combination of a deliberate effort over decades of said, balance of our law. it's a realization of an extreme ideology in a tragic error by the supreme court. in my view, the court has done what is never done before. expressly take away a constitution, right? it is so fundamental to so many americans, lardy, been recognized. republican members of congress hailed the ruling as a momentous victory. the people have won
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a victory. the right to life has been vindicated. the voiceless will finally have a voice. this great nation canal live up to its core principle that all are created equal, not born equal, created equal. at least 5 people have been killed while storming the border separating the spanish enclave of mila from morocco. spain set about 130 migrants succeeded in reaching the border. after around 2000 made the attempt. dozens of people including police officers were injured in the incident. a you in finding suggests that israeli security forces fired the shot that killed al jazeera journalist. shitty in a box. the you in human rights office says the bullet did not come from indiscriminate firing by armed palestinians, as initially claimed by israeli forces authorities. the governor of ukraine's eastern lou haskell regent says his forces will have to leave severed the next
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russian troops and now take control of most of the strategic city. the president of ecuador has accused indigenous leaders of seeking to overthrow his government ministrations have been taking place all over the country. for the last 12 days. those of the headlines, the news continued here on al jazeera, after inside story. thanks for watching. ah. hands of the internet, the un healer weiss office is urging countries not to impose communication blackouts. it says the impact of such action has had a negative effect on people's lives. but will government listen. this is inside
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story. ah hello, welcome to the program. hashem abala. the internet and other communication tools have become a crucial part of our everyday lives. but what happens when governments shut them down or impose severe restrictions? a report by the un human rights of a says those actions have severe consequences and that impact has been vastly underestimated. the report released on thursday says state imposed communications shut down to have deprived millions of people from reaching to loved ones earning. i live in or participating in political debate. and that governments have increasingly restricted access to information in order to stifle political dissent
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. using the pretext of security internet's shut downs, also carry major economic course for all sectors. according to the report, let's take a closer look of the report which says internet's her downs are powerful markers of sharply deteriorating humor wise. situations in the place is the i imposed. a lack of communication during armed conflicts or protests contributes to further insecurity and violence. as abuse as go unreported, and while authorities often use public safety or combating dis information as their reason for shutting or restricting internet access, the reports as it often achieves the opposite result or report by digital wise organization access now documented $182.00 shutdowns in $34.00 countries
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last year, india was responsible for $106.00 of those, with around 80 percent reported in indian administration administered kashmir. yen mars john tasha down the internet 15 times. it responds to widespread protests against is qu, last february in ethiopia, and internet blackout has made it difficult to report on the crisis into gray and elsewhere and the country. in 2020 authorities in belarus, limited internet access unblocked, the social media app. telegram to stop anti government protesters from coordinating . ah, let's ring it, i guess. in geneva. peggy herc's, director of thematic engagement of the united nations humor white's office, which produced the report in washington. steve, nick's senior director for eurasia of international republican institute and
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a london barbara book, oscar c, a director for law and policy at article 19, an organization that campaigns for global freedom of expression. welcome to the program. peggy governments restricting access to the internet. why should we be concerned now? is it because we're seeing indicators of a pattern here? absolutely. we see a longstanding pattern and it's evolving. we see blanket shut downs, but we also see all sorts of other ways to shut down through reducing the speed i, you know, i'm taking you down from 5 g to g or downgrading or throttling and other way. so there's certainly a trend and we need to worry about it because it has enormous impact. it's not just um, you know, the shutting off of speech and, and protests which is sometimes the purpose i'm,
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but it has enormous economic impact, an impact on people's ability to access essential services like health care, education or their jobs. so it's something that really should be a concern to everyone. stephen, this is something that the report says has been vastly underestimated, is because we tend to consider internet as a, as a normal part of our daily lives. and therefore, just we move on without looking into the details and those incidents that take place in different parts of the world. but we have bring them together. they portray a somber aspect of the political reality. yes, that's true. and i agree with peggy's comments. this goes far beyond our protests and, and speech up. i would like to go back and put this in context. and the basic question we have to ask ourselves is where to people rely on for their main sources of news . and 10 to 15 years ago, in the former soviet space,
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there was completely dominated by television, primarily, state television, ultimately a mix of state and private television. but that has changed. we see polling data that indicates in countries like ukraine, george, i'm old over. internet has crept up and actually surpassed t v as the main new source for people in those countries. unfortunately, in countries like russia and bay, louis, that's not been the case. in russia, there's data that indicates them over 50 percent of the russian citizens rely primarily on t b for their political news. that number rises to 74 percent. when you look at people 55 years and older. so this is a tremendous problem. ah, is the access to news information through the internet in places like russia and bill roost, where it has been curtailed and almost completely eliminated in some cases. baba so
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this is, this has become quite vital instrument in our lives to the point where we align it to our living, to listen to the years to talk to our loved ones, to take part in any political debate. voice, our concerns about the future and governments are using that in particular to stifle dissent. what do you think should be done to stop this from happening again and again? thank you. thank you so much. i agree, and i also want to add that this is not just stifling a science, it's l. so stifling ability to people go to, to go about in their daily lives because people are increasingly rely on the internet or band on the internet to access information and all food about their necessary for enlightening. well, if you are running a business, if you are promoting your small enterprise or big enterprise online, you are trying to find information about your co with recently in the panoramic. so
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that's really having impact on all aspects of life which are now interconnect it technology with internet and web and, and the shut the ass in body of forms impact visibility. so what has to be done? so based upon the solutions that lie on number of layers and levels and the report of the high commissioner, which we are discussing outlines then about one of the layers is on the side of the space which are resorting to this measure and which are imposing those shutdowns, so to re i spent a blanket shot gas or is i killed or black out and never justified, and a never a proportionate restrictions on human rights. right. so is these channels are often presented as a sort of like necessary to all who that's a national security or public. busy order if it happens in the context of protests or, or some sort of like emergency you know,
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best blanket one. like when you disconnect the whole country already from internet that's never justified. like there can be limit, minute kind of situation where you can disconnect the whole region or a whole country from the internet. so they should stop this rock based for stuff that we can discuss like when, if and be justified. and we're kind of like limits age, limit it say you know, 80, are they extremely early read circumstances, but the blanket shut downside is okay. so that all the state then there is something which can be done on the level and how did they, how they comply with the shop owners and what they can do to challenge them. and they're also a baroness or international community. and what we are also doing here to point out the danger of those shut downs and that impact on human i, economy, and lives of people. peggy, when, when, when, when you look at the report, india feature features as a, a leader in restricting ah, access of the internet,
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particularly in jermel and kashmir. the, the, the conflict possess, or the you and has been criticizing india for excessive use of violence as, as long as the conflict continues, we are likely to see the trend perpetuated for as long as it takes. yeah, i mean, the reality is we have long term shut downs, like what has been experienced and kashmir, and also an army and mar is another good example of that. ethiopia, where we now have ongoing concerns. they are because of what's been said and you, you talked about in the intro, but the reality as one of the big problems here is, you know, yes, we have a lot of data on what's happened in india. but we also know that there is a global phenomenon, and there's all sorts of things that are happening, that we don't even have real transparency and that on. so one of the key things we call for the report as well is that if a government is going to impose to shut down their minimum obligation,
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is that they should actually tell us they're doing that. tell us why they're doing it. and that way we can at least have transparency and accountability around us. and we also propose pulling together a collaborative mechanism that might be able to help us to better monitor these, this phenomenon. and i do think that would bring us back to barbara's point where if we're monitoring them will be in a better position to be able to, to really hold government accountable when they, when they do these actions. if it's more in the public domain, stealing monitoring a governess or imposing the black house is going to be a delicate and difficult task because you know, the use all sorts of techniques. those who will tell you that we how for infrastructure, but they do it on purpose. so as people cannot, don't know the matter you though the government looks as very sensitive. they are saying that we will have enough technology. we don't have enough resources to do that. when we know that the ultimate of motive is to deny people from getting access to those platforms. so how do see us moving forward to tackle this
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particular issue? what yes, i want to say to us distinct examples of the challenges that we face in terms of internet shortages and shut down. and again, i would point to russia and below roost, where the opposite leadership has basically been forced to leave the country of the nev all the organization is now operating from villainous lithuania. another capitals in europe. similarly, taken, australia is and illness leading the boilers, opposition, along with others in various parts of europe. so these opposition movements have become offshore movements. they no longer have the capability to interact in person with voters and constituents, which means the internet is the only means to communicate with people inside these 2 countries. and i will cite a specific damn example of russia during the duma elections. the volleys organization came up with a system called smart voting, which is basically
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a get out the vote program, identifying voters urging them to vote for any candidate, any party except for the party of blood to him or put him. and it was successful in local elections. the authorities knew that. so in the recent duma elections smart voting website wish on down. and then slowly, but surely all of the apps that carried smart voting in russia were shot down to varying degrees. because the authorities knew that this was effect of they feared losing seeds and the russian duma. but in addition to these internet shut down, so this is the threat, the work we're talking about here. there are other digital tactics being used by authoritarian regimes. and in this case in the duma elections, the russian government introduced electronic boating in moscow for the duma elections. and when the results were tallied from regular voting,
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of the 15 constituencies in moscow, the smart boating candidate was levy. then when the electronic votes were telling us, just what the party power one, every single constituency. so these tactics go beyond merely shutting down the internet. this goes to digital applications, digital strategies, which deny people basic fundamental rights to campaign and to cast their votes for their choice of candidate or political part. that's the challenge based today. bubble. how should we draw the fine line between the our can says the concerns of the international active is looking forward to see a world without restrictions. and government has say, we have to do with, for the sole reason that we're facing huge security concerns. blackouts, restricted access to the internet's come sometimes when we are launching
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a major admitted to operation targeting terrorist groups, it has to happen, otherwise, it's not gonna work out. so how can we define that line between the 2 concerns here? so we need to have also be mindful of the phenomenon like we are describing because we are using shut down to refer to like bias, ideas, types of measures which the, which the states are imposing. so at the mazda kind of known one is the black, common babies and every i, and then as we have heard already from it and so on. so that out of forms like sometimes that i'd like technical the throttling of the, of the networks. so which is not so obvious because you as a use the really don't know what's happening is that i think a problem is that like a shortage of electricity or, or, or you don't know. and then that he's no soda, a blocking of the websites or blocking sit and ox is, was just described for the case of russia. so that is kind of like and bias tools which fall into this definition of what i'm called shut down. and we need measures
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so kind of like, you know, randall restricts that they use or, and that will depend how it is. so what i said about that this all black, how they shut down, and what you were referring to watch the governments often use, they say that is an emergency. that is a terrorist attack that isa a some, something really serious, where we need to disconnect the whole country from being so, as i said, base east, nether, excuse, which is which proportionate, what actually, which is even defective. i isn't even disconnect, said to haiti out wrong from the internet. totally. you're not only trying to kind of like get some terrorism gone, although, oh, so this, this up and measures are used to on the issues like exams, right? they say like, we need to prevent kids treating on his actual we need everyone but anyhow, so when you do this you are also preventing emergency services reaching the people who might be held by paris. you're my be l. so i'm disconnecting and leaving the
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passivity, or even like in real life information like what's happening, right? so you're my in action each like shooting school is very important and the buying the lot can report to the police are, can connect, what is what is happening. so proportionality wise, this never works for a whole country or for a whole each and just it's just disconnect. and it's also so much of useful information and necessary information which are need in this crazy situation to respond to that i so so, so that number one, we might talk about like, you know, sometimes in very super limited equations. when you know it might be, you know, really necessary. i can like, think of that such situation been under the rule of law and, and the real eagle system is just can be decided by some of it official or by we don't, we don't know who it, we don't you process or without constituting all these us majority of those,
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a concern which we are having are actually on dos, spurious, and he's a mean speech or the countries and which they say which made a stand when you look at them. maybe let's talk a little bit about practical ways to tackle the issue of denying people access of the internet. peggy, when it comes to traditional forms of or authoritarianism, we have developed tools. we can take the oppressors to the united nations human rights council or to the united nations security council. we can impose sanctions when it comes to digital authoritarianism. people have been floating wise ideas such as deploying a satellite internet, why fi balloons vps and you know, no one is not easy, it is not easy, scarcely and not all the world will be able to have access to those. what could be from your own perspective, the easiest, most practical way to tackle this problem
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a student, there generally are easier and practical ways to tackle this. but i, i before moving to that house, my do want to pick up on what barbara was saying about. we are documentation shows that in, in, you know, the vast majority of cases, governments are using national security or a public order as justifications for when they do these types of, especially the bigger or blankets shut downs. but the reality is, by shutting down the internet, they have the impacts that barbara talked about. but let's be clear, once the internet is shut down, all the monitoring all the reporting, all the checks on government power are limited. so in fact, you create an environment in which abuse and impunity can flourish. so in fact, rather than decreasing violence and decreasing the threats to national security and public order, once the internet is shut down, you create an environment that makes abuse as much more likely. and so that's why we're so concerned about this, but moving to your question about like,
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what can be done? there are a number of very clear steps. first of, as we said, we need a sort of a international standard where we're states feel obliged to report on what they're doing in a public and transparent way. that alone will start to hold government accountable . and will, i think, make it much less likely that they're able to do this on an ongoing basis. secondly, one of the points we make a report which i think gets lost, is that there's tons of effort going on right now. to close the digital divide to bring connectivity to all the parts of the world that don't have it about 50 percent of the world's people don't have full internet access. but in those conversation about connectivity, we're not talking about shut downs. so in fact, a number of the governments that are receiving support to build up connectivity with them in our countries are also resorting to shut down. so we need to link those things. we need to integrate the shut downs conversation into work that's been done to close the digital divide and to improve connectivity. so if you're
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going to get support development aid to do to increase internet access, but in your country, it should come come with some requirements that you don't engage in, gain gauge in this kind of shut down behavior and don't limit the very internet access that you've been helped to create still those are a couple of the key. okay. service should we reshape the narrative in an, in a way or another. because as you know, when you talk to many people all over the world about access of the internet, that will tell you, you know, and this is not really a top priority. our top priority for us would be having access to food and water. but we get to the point where it becomes almost as existential as important as access to food and water. could that be the tipping point? that would bring all the international community to say, you know, and internet is paramount, is sacred? is part of our daily life. you, you deny us access, you will be punished. you make the excellent point that at
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best information over the internet is critical in this day and age and it is acquainted with an important thing such as food and water. i agree completely with that. what do we do about it? again, in addition, what pick to just step? ah, i think multi lateral efforts are important here to place internet access at the top of the agenda. but i would argue that the democracy of the world, once the standards that peggy are described, are set forth. that in all bilateral negotiations, that access to internet be at the very top of the list in terms of bilateral discussions, bilateral relations. let's make it a priority for the us and our western allies and others to prioritize this issue in all bilateral discussions that they have with these autocratic regimes and others that are considering, ah,
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shutting down. ready limiting the internet bubble for many, many years, for decades. in fact, one of the biggest problems that we faced was basically when talking about your vice, my day shows was impunity and leaders took advantage of that and perpetuate of the suffering of the people. do you think that we need this time to enforce a mechanism? think about something like an international tribunal to bring those who are committing those atrocities digitally. now i'm talking to justice to stop this from recurring again and again up of course we need to have accountability for the state state are resorting to those measures at the state level or are it for the pre regional level. i don't think that we need like a special tribe you on dos because actually human rights system already allows or dates are kind of violations to be challenged. right. so within the current system, both international and austin actually domestically. you can, you,
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you can try to challenge those, those positions, and that, that the shadows. and this is actually something which we haven't covered so far. and which is very important to mention. because the shut down is sir, always impulse by the state. on to a set internet service provider i had on an icy and saw a majority of cases of a snag comply with the shot boundaries. if i, if they dogs would have an operations but are pushes to chime, she talk to ask them to challenge this decisions or disorders like going even to the court or engage with the state to or not, as i know, combine or even comply in a, in a way which is not necessary. so challenge dos, cuddles or internet access orders. thank you so bit on the state level. but for the states like we have an international mechanisms where these issues can be brought to attention. universe video to get a view when the state compliance is and being an eddie rice for the human rights
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standards and the, and a did international human ads, continental smell on political rights to pull down the mechanisms. and it's very important or artist states, but also for human rights community to continuously bring those via a chest white count and use the, the suspense which we haven't are going to impose all to which i wish i wish we had time to cover all aspects of this sort of our promise, though, we will definitely revisit this issue of a denying people access to the internet in the near future. in the meantime, barbara books were cosca. steven the eggs and peggy hook, i really appreciate your insight. thank you and thank you for watching. you can see the program again any time by visiting our website al jazeera dot com for further discussion. go to our facebook page. that's facebook dot com, forward slash ha. inside laurie. you can also join the conversation on twitter. our hand, it is at a j inside 40 for me house a lot, but i am the entire team here in doha. bye for know
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ah ah. july analogy 0 home po marks 25 years it's it's, it's hand over from british to chinese rule. but with china's cracked on an opposing voices, and i texted us citizens, what does the future hold from the headlines to the unreported. people empower investigates, they use an abusive power around the world. to libyans voting a referendum on a new constitution. could it spell the end for the only democracy to have emerged
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from the out of spring uprising? as india suffers unprecedented heat wave, one or 18th goes to the fiery heart of the crisis. center goal heads to the poles with the main opposition parties uniting can be reco power away from the ruling party. july on al jazeera from the for villas of correct us. so the battle fields around, most of our job is to get to the truth and empower people through knowledge out estates, control information. how does the narrative inform public opinion? how is citizen journalism refraining the story? be it online on an imprint for listening post dissects the media on al jazeera. ah i'm how much am german, doha. these are the top stories on al jazeera.

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