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tv   Inside Story  Al Jazeera  July 16, 2022 3:30am-4:01am AST

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on who good 19 constellation immunity through vaccination. but it also means that we have to assure the vaccination for measles and each p. v and pneumonia and diarrhea gets back on track urgently. that means catching up, millions of children who have missed their vaccines in 20202021. it also needs recovering immunization programs and sustaining that trajectory of essentially immunization. italy's longest river is drying up as the country faces sweltering temperatures and its worst route in 70 years. the 650 kilometer long river po supports about a 3rd of the countries agricultural production. the heat wave has led the government to declare a state of emergency as local farmers are struggling to cope. in the u. k, the med office has issued a red extreme heat warning for a number of cities in england and wales from sunday till tuesday. that comes ahead of a heat wave. it could result and record breaking temperatures next week. hot weather
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and winds are causing wildfire to spread and southwest in france. hundreds, the firefighters have been trying to extinguish the flames and protect several cities, thousands of tourists and people living close by have been forced to evacuate firefighters in portugal. a struggling to contain wildfires that are spread across the border from spain. if i have been fueled by a heat wave combined with an ongoing drought walden, 30000 hectares of land of burned in the past week. that's more than all of 2021. ah, this is l g there. and these the top stories, the u. s. and saudi arabia have signed 18 agreements and energy investment space and health the 1st day of dro biden's trip to the kingdom as president ivan city raised the murder of jealous jamal cash oxy with the crown prince. he said he was not personally responsible for it and he took action against those who were
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responsible and, and we then i went on to talk more about how that dealing with any of the opposition to the or criticism of the saudi administration in other countries was viewed as to me and violation even right before his trip to jetta job bought and met the palestinian president. who to boston the occupied west bank. he reiterated us support for 2 state solution to the time was not right to try and restart a peace process with the israelis. israel's military says that at least 2 rockets were fired from garza over the southern city of ask along. the video shows one of the rockets, which official say was intercepted by the israeli air defense system. the other has an empty area. no injuries have been reported. shank has prime minister ronald chemist singer has been sworn in is acting presidents, forgot to bio roger pucks of resigned in the wake of mass protests. he's promised
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to restore law and order and establish a unity government un security council has passed a resolution as in all countries, the ban, small arms delivery, hazy, gang violence is foreign. at least 800 people were killed during gang violence in the capital of prince. this week, as the headlines you can use, continue here on out there, right off the inside story. ah . the hunt has begun for other habitable planets. the 1st images from the james web space telescope, a been released. they offer the most detailed and comprehensive view of the solar
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system we've ever seen. how will that change our understanding of the universe? this is inside store? ah. hello, welcome to the program. i'm burnett's. we can see further into the depths of the universe than ever before. it's taken decades and hundreds of millions of dollars to invent and deploy the technology, we needed to get a better look at the cosmos. but why scientists going to all this trouble? what are they hoping to achieve? we'll chat to our guests in a moment. first, rob reynolds reports, size enormous galaxies locked in a cosmic dance, billions of stars, and planets, 300000000 light years from earth. this is one of the spectacular images taken by
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the web space telescope unveiled for the 1st time. what you're seeing is just a week's worth of data. i think what we're going to learn in 20 years. i think of the answers that we're going to get to the questions. we don't even know enough to know what the questions are to them. and in the process, we're going to learn more about who we are, what we are, what is our existence in this cosmos? ah, we are looking back in time almost to the beginning. the image of the so called stefan quintet chose to galaxies, colliding and merging with one another, impelled by the force of gravity. one of the galaxies features a bright spot. scientists have identified as an active black hole, the gas and dust lighting up as it spills into the gravitational event horizon.
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this image shows a stellar nursery with brightly shining new stars being born at the edge of a vast region of gas and dust. this is the corina nebula, which is part of our own milky way galaxy. the level of detail showing structures and bubbles in the enormous cloud is finer than any other telescope is capable of. this image shows a dying binary star surrounded by super heated hydrogen gas and other materials spun off from the stars core elements which will reform into other stars, planets. and perhaps in time living things, webb, which was launched in december, is a joint project of nasa and the european and canadian space agencies. it took more than 20 years to build and plus $10000000000.00. it's the most sophisticated space telescope ever made and makes observations in the infrared spectrum, a wave length of light not visible to the human eye. scientists were awed by the
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1st images, navy people in a broken world. managing to do something right and to see some of the majesty that's out there. finally, this image gives a sense of the incomprehensible vastness of space and time. it is a deep look at a single area teeming with galaxies and stars. the light scene here originated 13000000000 years ago, less than a 1000000000 years after the big bang. scientists promise many more discoveries are ahead. adding immeasurably to our understanding of the universe that we are a part of rob reynolds al jazeera ah, and lights bring in our guests in london. we have francisco diego, he's a senior research fellow university college, london's physics and astronomy department, and baltimore. a maya morrow martin is an astronomer of the space telescope science
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institute. i'm one of the scientists who selected the images which are saying and in boston, ivy lobe is a theoretical physicist and professor of science at harvard university. welcome to you all. thank you very much. for joining us, 1st of all, francisco, we had a little bit of an introduction there about what james webb is designed to do. tell us more about why it's often described as a time machine. isn't it francisco? well, it is a tie machine. in fact, everything is a thank machine because of the speed of light where i was looking at the past. i can see the screen in front of me. i see it was probably a couple of nanoseconds i go. so on this, on the moon one second i go on this all night minutes, i go and cetera, et cetera. but are looking deep, deep into the space. we are talking not hours, not days, not years, but not even millions. we're talking thousands of millions of years in the past when the light from these distant object that we see, especially in the 1st image that was released left bad some of those objects more
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than 13000000000 years ago. so it is fascinating. now we're looking a machine in the past, of course, or i will go through the images specifically in a moment. but a maya, why is this a game changer? i think it's a game changer because it is, it represents a what is a come ability of these marvelous be something nearing that games a web is right? i know a, we selected the image is that represents, it brought the rain. it's the range of sciences that corresponds to the 4 pillars a that it inside in astronomy, that games wet wanted to address from there. and very early universe to, you know, study self except planets and planets in our solar systems. i'm, it's a, what we are seeing in this image. yes, i mean, it's a spectrum. is a promise is the hub that we will be able to address many of their hot topics that
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are a hunting us a scenes. and you know, we have a conscious of who we are like are we alone in the universe? how the, the only started. ok. well it's, it's not often i have to say we have 3 gets to a beaming from the start of the show with them with enthusiasm at what's, what's happening ivy, i'm how close are we getting men to the origins of our universe with this telescope? well, we think that the 1st stars formed around a 100000000 years after the big bad before that the universe didn't have much structure in it. and then we can look back in time and figure out our course recruits. there are questions about where we came from and already in the 1st chapter of the old testament, i let there be light. and in fact, with the web telescope, we could find the 1st light from the 1st galaxy, the 1st stars. and of course, the 2nd fundamental question is when was life created in the universe and how about
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that it is or us? and again, the web telescope can look at the x o. planets can look at the nurseries of those planet and to inform us about the likelihood of finding life out there. and i've just technically is relying on ultraviolet light. let us understand why that's why it's relying on ultraviolet light. well actually it focuses on infrared, which is a yeah, not visit the human eye, but, and stars like the sun, they admit visible light. that's why we close to that star and have eyes that are sensitive to visible light. however, as the result of the expansion of the universe, this light, the wave length of the light gets stretched by the cosmic expansion by a factor of 10 to may be 50 for the earliest stars. and then as the result that the wavelength goes into the infrared band and that's were the web telescope operates.
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i was on the 1st an advisory committee that designed the stead a scope. and the goal was to be sensitive to the light coming from the 1st stars. and the 1st stars are quite different than the sun. there were more massive. they emitted primarily ultraviolet light. okay, and uh, francisco, just wanted to ask you before we look at the photographs that near cam that took these images, it uses something called kero. carnell. graphy. just help us understand what that is. i will not be seen that you done done that. they're not using the coroner graphy, they could on a graph ation instrument that simulates us solar eclipse, or an honest tele eclipse. because when you have a solar eclipse, you can see the code on it, which is the out there part of the, of the atmosphere of the sun. so in describing an honest woman designing a nice woman, not this able to though that optically you come block the light of his thought. i'm producer kind of artificial it started clips even like so. you can see not so
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mostly coronado, stop by any objects, any that deputy, any kind of material that would be forming a new solar system does the, does the, the technique of choreography, but none of this image is copying them so far. they have been produced by that technique a my a you were involved in selecting these pictures. that of the 1st pictures have been released, which is a novel. i have a look at them now. the 1st one is this one called webs. first deep field could just help us understand what we're seeing here on the, on those red dogs. and how long ago was it? here we are probably one of these faint blocks on all the blocks here are galaxies . and the only a stars that we can see in this image are those that show these diffraction pattern that looks like a, a snowflake. those are near by a star said, all the other fussy those here are galaxy is we haven't really taken a spectra of a dozen of these galaxies. and the oldest one that we've seen emitted, it's like
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a when the universe was about 1000000000 years. all, so when the universe was very, very damp it, but it probably one of these fussy galaxies, is it, they farther than way that we've seen. and we just need to wait to analyze the spectra and would analyze the spectrum means is that we break the light, that a comes from the subjects into their wavelength, into its different colors. and in this, we can see it right there, this, there, there fingerprints of a different types of atoms. so we can learned about the composition these very early galaxies, and how do they able edition of the universe. this velocity is this a newly form of stars contributed to add to the chemical composition on june on the curve on the oxy, on the nitrogen that we have in our bodies was not a form at the beginning. it was formed, it,
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it verse out it from the they nuclear process that happen in the star. so it's a wonderful machine to see how these elements appear in the universe and how these galaxies evolve from the very early ones to the ones we have in our local universe and abby abby, this is the southern ring. and nebular seen described as a, as a stella graveyard. what it, what is, are showing us when, when a star dies is some of the mass of the star gets expelled? that's what would happen to the sun. it will eventually use up all the nuclear fewer that he has and will not be able to burn or can our fuel a star is simply a nuclear reactor held by gravity. so at the end, the star we cool off, but we'll send out some material to the so called interest that are medium and that creates these beautiful. and so the silhouettes that we see here, we're the interaction of these mature and with the surrounding medium creates these
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beautiful rings and, and that's the future of our local neighborhood. and i would like to emphasize also that in the image that the em i was describing before we tend to keep our eyes on starlight, those islands that are bright. but there is a lot of darkness in between them. and the, the reason i emphasize that is actually what we see is just the tail of the dog. ah, it gravity is dominated by dark matter, which makes up these dark regions between the galaxies and we still don't know what most of them matter in the universe is saw in a way the message is that them, it, we should them explore the unknown. um, our knowledge is an island in an ocean of ignorance. i just off very quickly on dark mats of this, i'm reading is like a sort of a, a theoretically influential of cosmic scaffolding. so do you think web might be able to uncover the mystery of dark matter for us will help us on having well, ah,
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the web is just looking at light. okay. and um, so that informs us about properties of the dark matter. ah, we can find it dark, that the nature of the dark matter, either by detecting it through laboratory experiments like the large hadron collider, was trying to smash particles and generate some dark matter. unfortunately, we didn't. ah, another approach is to see some signatures of dartmouth, or in the light that they will reveal it's identity. i don't think the web hasn't necessarily better chance than ground based that has got to do that, but it will inform us a much more. busy about the early universe and the very 1st galaxies that formed tell us something about the dark metal. yes. ok. i francisco where we're going to look at wasp 96. now while we, we talked to this, capturing the signature of water around the planet is web. gonna help us look for
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worlds like earth that could support like, cuz this is what a lot of people really non scientist really fascinated by. well yes, i mean the, are they web space telescope or with a, is that through glass being how come the effect the fingerprints are, sir, as we have said before, the fingerprints for chemical elements in the atmosphere of these planets. so i walk their presence, walked in the unless beautiful planet is i are, are one or of any glue, a condition that we need in order to have life, not blame you the, the holy grail offer astrobiology will be to that back. not only walk there as we seen this picture, but for the molecular oxygen in the atmosphere because that will be the signature of bio or bio producer. but if you buy a bio process is especially photosynthesis. so, so far or molecular oxygen hasn't been detected. but the space they hope the,
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the james web may be able to do that. and that would be a major, major thing. there are several admissions, one of them actually for my institution, you c l that, that going to exactly examine the atmosphere. so it's not all our plan is that we have so many, i'm not your hard work in the future. ok, my of the last 2 will quickly go through with you. steve stephens quinn sat this one the it's almost a 1000 separate image, separate image files. this is, i've seen described as galaxies locked in a cosmic dance. go through that one with me quickly. right. so this is a mess, man. i seen vance of destruction and creation of the same time. because these are, that you see the doing the galaxies, a really pockets of a star formation that has been trigger ideas to alex is interacting. and this is a wonderful laboratory to study how galaxies interact with each other. i'm because this is relatively, this is a complex of galaxies is relatively nearby, but in the early universe, in fact, the galaxy is what very, very common. and this is actually how galaxies grow. so is that in this type of
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interactions can help us learn how galaxy is a change from the very early universe, how they compare to the ones that we see today. and lastly, the cosmic cliffs in the, in the korean a nebula, this one was like craggy mountains. what this is the most seems the most arresting image. what do we got there? well this i have to say that they had the owner to resend this image and the event that we had that the science is pe seller stuff on the air. this is yes, the air, amazing this. what we see here that looks like a starry night, and this is really the edge of and never lot were a countless of the stars and planets are being born. and their highest, their, the high massive stars that are the hottest on and that the have very strong radiation and it's still always covered by the form at the top of that or the image . and they are a basically arrow the little by little vanilla. and we have, we can see actually a miss lincoln missed that is lifting,
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this is really hot gas and hot bass that is being evaporated from the nebula. but all these destruction is happening at the same time that a countless of the stars and planets are born. and you can see these in this pillars and that was seen and they will other areas that are more dense and i resist in the air ocean and because they are more dense and they are affected by the radiation. this also trick i've seen stability is that makes they then says radians collapse, and then we can see outflows coming from a stars that are in the process of creation. so this image is not only absolutely beautiful, but it's also full of new beginnings. ok, well ivy over the next 6 months we're going to be seeing the results of studies from nurses early release science programs, that is only the start what. what else are we good to expect? well, 1st of all, we can get them much deeper image of the universe. the, for the 1st one was just half a day in terms of looking at a deep into the,
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the sky. and i'm sure that it already contains a new information because the telescope is, has 7.3 times the area of the hubble space telescope. the fundamental thing we need to keep in mind is, nature is much more imaginative than we are. and therefore, we have to look and just by looking, we will be governor thinks there is no doubt in my mind that the most exciting discoveries are yet to come, that we cannot even imagine at this point, even the deep field of the hub of space, their scope was not conceived when the telescope was constructed, nobody thought that it would be that way. and so let's just stay tuned and be humble. a sense of cosmic modesty is in place, because the universe surprises us very often. so let's just look and enjoy the show . francesco, 2 of the studies are devoted, so x o planets including that the trappist one system. why is this generating so much
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interest? that system or effects or solar planets is extremely important because it has planets which are very similar to the earth. and they are also what the said. i call the goldilocks on, which is also not on the star. when you can have liquid water on the surface of a planet where the temperature is such that the air is not too close or not too far away, so the water come to remain in liquid state on the surface of the planet. so this is why the that system is so important. what's next? how long can we hope that the telescope will keep sending us pictures for that? got us got was the thank the last m e m on a fight. yes. back unexpected life of 10 years back and thanked still. busy i am and the launch was so efficient that a lot of feel was it was concerned and the expectation is that this telescope will last for 2 decades. so as abby said that there is plenty of room for the any stack that it is really dishonest, pick them discoveries that many pans trigger those giant leaks the knowledge ave
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did seem to be of a flawless launch. but what are the risks to the telescope though? while it's while it's in orbit lead the cosmic tusks just hitting the mirrors, that sort of thing. what are we got to be careful for? it said those micro meteorites, one of them is heat. they're one of the segments self. ah, in may. and we just the keep our fingers crossed that then not that too many will hit the telescope during the lifetime because it obviously that would be the biggest risk for degrading they optical capabilities of that. those of these tiny mit micro meteorites that create this small crater on the surface said these in mirror that the primary mirror is made or fed barithium coated with gordon. you know, we want to keep it as clean as possible without much damage. ah. so i should mention one more thing we focused on than most this done sources of lighting the universe.
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i should say that also the nearest ones are quite exciting. and that's a subject that the my, i and i, a horn very dear to our hearts. there is a chance of interstellar objects that enter the solar system and the web that a scope is a 1000000 miles away from earth. so if we look at the nearby object with web and with ground based telescope, we would see from different directions, allowing us to pin down the 3 dimensional trajectory of the object to an extreme precision. never before did we have it that a scope so far away from earth that allows us to translate on the location of interesting objects like those that come from outside the solar system. francisco isa surprised, there is still much left to be discovered. is that much left to be discovered? i think come when we are talking about science in general, metaphor was new to be discovered. wheeler know what he's going to come, but we know is going to be fantastic. these machines that mean the large fathom could either they, they james webb,
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they're really expanding our knowledge of the universe ending microscope, the way i'm noticing the microscope, the way the discoveries are going to be amazing. we can more or less predict, we know more or less how the universe works. for example, the thing about mac, that which is a major, a major. this is what we call that about that and dark energy. if you see the 1st image that was published by the, by the, by nasa. well, you see a lot of concentric structures along around this cluster of galaxies, which is relatively close by. and in the far distance, there are many more galaxies that that'd be started by the gravity of these, for the wind, the loss of ice. then the, the distortion of light that is making the cell are distortions because of the muscle, the galaxies. but because of the muscle, the, of the dark mat which is around the, around these are these galaxies as well. so, who knows? i mean, we're going to discover amazing things. the new generation of astronomers are going
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to have a very challenging, but very rewarding times. a very quickly my are about those new generations of astronomers, how it, how much feedback, if you had from the young people who are going to be making these discoveries in the future. how important is this? i think this is very important because as what we have learned from where from, from hello, from the, how the space telescope is that they did the color has produced are now part of our subconscious is how we might in the universe. so i think what with it's turning, ari happened b, b, a also is going to be you know, part of our source conscious. again, this is going to even increase this. this image is right adding more color. i think more information is going deeper in the universe. so i think i certainly such a great cook for authority. generations to be attracted to extend you siblings to the science mathematics engine year. so i think that's one of the most
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valuable and things that a what can contribute to well, i'm afraid our 30 minutes seems have gone by faster than the speed of light, but thanks to our seller guests. francisco diego, a maya morrow, martin, an avi low, and thank you to for watching. you can see the problem again. any time by visiting our website al jazeera dot com and for more debate, go to our facebook page. that's facebook dot com, forward slash ha inside store. you can also join the conversation on twitter. we are at a j inside store for me, bernard smith, on the whole team here and go, ha, ah ah,
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