schafernaker. for many of us, so far, today, it has been pretty cloudy with spots of rain. this evening, skies were clear and it will turn quite cold with a cut—off. the way. a lot colder than the last few nights when we were into double figures. tonight, barely above freezing in the countryside. this gap in the cloud will be in place across the bulk of the country later tonight so temperatures will dip away. this evening, already down to single figures across western and northern areas and the remnants of cloud and spots of rain we have had gci’oss cloud and spots of rain we have had across the east and south—east fizzles away into the north sea. by the end of the night, apart from a few spots of rain in northern scotland, the vast majority of the country is in clear skies and chilly weather, down to freezing outside town. tomorrow, a nippy start but sunny, should be a nice day with light wind and the sun out in most areas, just a few clouds in the sky in one or two places, top temperatures 16 in london, 1a in belfast and a bit fresher in scotland. hello.
this is bbc news. the headlines. the brexit secretary tells mps to ditch changes to the bill, which will allow the government to start the formal brexit process. turkey's president erdogan has warned the netherlands it will "pay the price" for expelling a turkish government minister. dutch riot police used water cannon to break up a large protest outside the turkish consulate in rotterdam. at least 35 people have been killed in a landslide at a vast rubbish dump in ethiopia. and joni sledge, one of the sisters from the ‘70s disco group sister sledge, has died at the age of 60. now on bbc news, it's time for click. this week, watch out pollution, we're going to clean up this city... with a bird?
no, a plane. no, it's a flying fish drone. this week is the bbc‘s so i can breathe season, looking at ways to tackle air pollution around the world. we are out on the streets of london to test a new camera from thermal imaging company flir. it has a particular sensitivity to a range of gases that are invisible to the human eye. the camera is supposed to be used by experts who know what they're looking for in the numbers and the colours that they see and it's really supposed to be used in industrial locations, as well, where you are
looking for gas leaks. but, i have to say, even here, i can see sprays coming from some of the exhaust pipes through this camera that i cannot see with my eyes. so it shows something's there. now, if you want to tackle air pollution problems across a city, you have to know where the pollution is coming from and at what time of day. that is something that marc cieslak has been investigating. poor air quality, as a result of pollution, poses a serious risk to public health. it is a huge problem. the global burden of disease data now suggests that a lack of clean air is the third leading cause of death in the world after high blood pressure and smoking. but whether it triggers allergies or asthma, understanding the exact challenges pollution causes, especially in cities, can be tricky. the levels of pollution in cities
can vary quite a lot between individual streets. the more precise the information is, the better we can come up with strategies to improve things. we can identify areas where there are particular problems. action to gather that even more precise data about pollution is being taken on the other side of the atlantic, in chicago. because of chicago's location in the midwest, and the fact that it is a pretty big city, it is something of a transport hub for road, rail and air travellers. all those different types of vehicles don't do the city's air quality any favours. here, a system is being installed which has been dubbed a fitness tracker for a city. it is called the array of things, and when it is completed, it will be a citywide network of sensors, or nodes, fitted to lampposts and poles. the array will monitor a variety
of different things, from traffic levels to local climate as well as monitoring chicago's air quality. eventually, all of the data the array gathers will be made freely available online for anybody to use. we have come just outside of chicago to the argonne national laboratory. it is part of the us department of energy and is the birthplace of the array of things. the donor is really into air quality, so they are very excited. here, the team behind the array continue to refine the sensor boxes and the technology they contain, liaising with city officials and arranging the continued roll—out of the network across the city. this is the guts, if you like, of the array of things nodes.
which part here is the air quality sensor? this one is the air quality sensor. each one here is a cell tuned to a specific kind of chemical. this a ozone, this is a sulphur dioxide sensor. there's a carbon monoxide sensor. there's the hydrogen sulphide sensor. nitrogen dioxide sensor and there's a reducing gases. installation of the array began towards the end of 2016. by the end of 2018, 500 nodes are planned for the network, spread across different parts of the city. charlie catlett is the array of things project lead. he took me on a whistlestop tour of some of the city's earliest sensor sites. so, charlie, this is the site of one of your first sensors, isn't it, one of your first nodes? this is one of the first six. this one here does the air quality — notjust the general air quality but this one will tell us seven different gases and so that means we can say, well, this one is reading this gas
particularly high, we know that that that is associated with a diesel truck. the new ones that we are putting in, we have added a sensor for particles. what we can do with this particle sensor is we can look at the very fine particles that are measured by epa and other organisations. the smaller particles are the ones you cannot see but they are really the most dangerous ones. they will go straight into your bloodstream. the large ones are what triggers allergies. so if you are somebody that's got allergies related to asthma, you will be able to use the data from these nodes to look at pollen across the city and you might decide to change your biking route you take to school or work, based on maybe where the pollen concentrations are around the city. chicago is not alone when it comes to pollution monitoring. for example, in london, wthere‘s a system called nowcast, which combines historical pollution data with current pollution measurements to provide an hourly update of pollution levels across the city.
the rollout in chicago continues. array of things nodes have been installed in other us cities with one in seattle and another in denver and there is interest in the system internationally, as well. the data generated by the array of things will be used by researchers, scientists and healthcare professionals to get a better picture of the effects of poor air quality and pollution. when it comes to turning this information into action, that is the job of local government. brennna berman and tom schenk both work for the city of chicago and are figuring out how the array of things can help the city with an array of issues. we have pockets of increased rates of asthma among our children that doctors have known about for quite some time, but they do not have a lot of information about why they happen in certain areas
of the city. the role of the array of things is really to help us understand the patterns and issues with air quality in chicago at a detailed level, because you cannot fix a problem if you cannot define it and understand it. we might be thinking about how heavy pollutant vehicles can influence what's happening. the city of chicago has installed hundreds of miles of bike lanes across the city of chicago, but there is some very clear research showing that inhaling diesel fumes, especially by cyclists as they are riding alongs traffic, can harm them. so it really helps us picture and take a good look at where the bicycle avenues are and how that corresponds with existing traffic. if you have a school or another sort of vulnerable location very close to an area that has increased air quality challenges, the data from the array of things will give us the ability to define a policy that will address that. a good example here in chicago will be the very quickly growing neighbourhood on the west side. it has quickly evolved into one of our trendiest residential and entertainment districts.
but it is also crisscrossed by any number of street level railroads. by looking at data, by using data such as the array of things, we are going to be able to make those decisions more confidently and we are going to know that better than many other cities have the ability to know that, because of the data that we can look at. here, the technology clearly has a role to play in the fight against poor air quality. but the big pollution—busting powers lie with local and national governments. that was marc in chicago. back in london, i'm checking out a pollution monitoring device with a difference. i will give you a clue... this is the launching arm. with this water tank, they can launch their prototype. bang! oops, i knocked a thing into your tank. they even have their own wind tunnel. imperial college london's aquamav
drone flies through the air, can dive into the water and then leap out again. sploosh! all the while, gathering data to give us a greater understanding of pollution levels above and below the surface. the plan is to release a swarm of them into an area of concern. this is our response so extreme environments or post—disaster applications, such as after water sampling in floods, after toxic spills, or oil spills, nuclear accidents or tsunamis. there are different classes of applications and capability to do sampling with an automated, low—cost tool brings an enormous values, compared to manual methods such as the human going there with a full protective suit to do it manually at higher cost. i was going to say, we have seen a lot of aquatic robots and we have seen lots of flying robots.
it never occurred to me that is quite difficult to get an underwater robot over great distances quickly and so you have combined the two. that is pretty hard—core. we willjust dive it in the water and then dive it out and fly it a few miles that way. in some applications it is not even accessible through the water, in floods or floating ice, you may not get there with a water vehicle. 0n the other side, an aerial beacon may not be able to get the information locally as needed, so combining the two makes sense. during a dive, the aquamav fills with water and then by releasing carbon dioxide from its onboard gas chamber it forces the water back out as a high—powered jet, which thrusts the drone back upwards, propelling it into the air. and then the wings unfold as it comes out of the water and it all very beautifully becomes this flying birdlike thing. it is very graceful. you describe it in
such a romantic way! now you know how romantic i am and what i get excited about. there is a beauty that makes it elegant. and elegance in nature that makes it effective as well. having the folding wings might look beautiful, but for us it allows us to reduce the drag that it will experience as it dives in the water and it would dive more deeply, while protecting the wings on impact. hello and welcome to the week in tech, a week that saw airbus reveal plans for a hybrid car that flies. whenjaguar land rover revealed a search and rescue vehicle that's home to a heat—seeking drone. and when hyperloop showed off a 500 metre—long test tunnel through which it hopes to fire passengers at around 600 miles an hour. that would be a two—second journey, probably not enough time to scream. testing starts soon.
it was also the week in which the revelation was televised. according to wikileaks, the cia and gchq can listen in on targets using samsung tvs, even when users think they've switch them off. a range of other surveillance methods were exposed, including a us spy department dedicated to hacking apple products. wikileaks says cia snooping is out of control. apple and google say they've plugged the holes. samsung says it takes privacy seriously and will be listening very closely to its customers' concerns. facebook was left red—faced when the bbc pointed out its platform was being used by convicted paedophiles to share sexualised images of children. and because the bbc shared the images with facebook to help it clean up its platform, facebook reported the bbc to the police, accusing the corporation of distributing images of child exploitation. want to buy a cheap house? this one tookjust 2a hours to print and cost $10,000.
now, with a future of artificial intelligence ahead of us, it's no surprise that tech giants are investing big time in data sensors. super—brains to make intelligent decisions in the cloud. but is this the best tactic? here's dave lee. nvidia is taking a different approach. it wants to do all that computation on this. nvidia is best known for creating chips to handle high—end graphics, but increasingly the company is looking to apply that computer power to data and ai. this week it introduced jetson tx2, the latest in their line of what are essentially supercomputers on a chip. so, thejetson tx2 is really for artificial intelligence at the edge — devices like robots, drones, portable medical devices, which need a lot of intelligence,
but they are really small and they have small power. sojetson is going to give them the level of performance they need to do artificial intelligence in that small size. so a drone that has artificial intelligence on board is going to help find people that are, say, missing in the wilderness, and deliver them first aid or supplies. some were given a chance to experiment with the new gear, which they said has many practical applications. there are many reasons why you might want to keep your computer power on a local device like this. for starters, it's much more secure, because your data is not being sent to and from the cloud constantly. that means some decisions are made quicker, which, if you're riding in a self—driving car, you'll probably appreciate. there are many microcomputers on the market and most of them strive to be as cheap as possible. not nvidia's. the jetson tx2 will cost at least $1100. it's that time of year again. i've arrived at london's
wearable technology show. only some of the highlights don't seem to actually be wearable. well, i've always thought that one of the most natural uses for augmented reality would be to provide satnav in a car. that's one of the functions this device provides. it has this section on the dashboard, where an image is reflected onto this small piece of glass, and then we also have this dial on the steering wheel that allows you to run through various functions. things like being able to change the music, or answering phone calls without averting your eyes away from that route straight ahead. the only thing is that you are actually changing the length of focus, so even though i'm looking in the same direction, looking at the screen does take my attention away from the road a little. probably for less time than a separate satnav
screen over there, though. smart rings, vibrating coats, sportswear tracking your every move. it has all been thought of. the market for wearables reached an all—time high in 2016, with 102.4 million devices shipped. but the focus has shifted away from smart devices connecting to multiple apps, to simpler ones connecting to just one, and that seems to be a trend reflected here. if you are travelling somewhere on foot and you need to find your way, then some satnav in your shoes would of course be ideal. this device has been around a little while, which can attach to the laces of a pair of trainers. but now it also slips inside an insole, so if it is time to turn left, well, your left foot will vibrate. time to turn right, and your right foot will. last year we featured a different type of vibrating insole. this is a prototype aimed at the elderly or infirm to help
them maintain balance. this year, the same company has a different product, a device for people suffering from parkinson's. it will shine this laser light in front of each foot to help them put each foot steadily in front of the other. within parkinson's there is a symptom called freezing of gait, which is fairly common. it causes an individual feel as if they are glued to the floor at any moment during walking. as you can imagine, if yourfeet are suddenly not following you, you become quite prone to falling. researchers found that you can use visual triggers and sensory cues to enable a person to continue walking and take another step. and another insole on display. this seems to be a theme this year. this time it is a personal safety alarm. if you want to activate it, you tap your feet together twice and your selected emergency contacts will be told there's an issue. to switch it off, you tap your feet together three times.
some products on show were more finished than others, but overall it was a good glimpse at how some of the latest wearable tech is looking right now. that was lara. now, if you're a parent, like me, it's probably crossed your mind that your kids might be using technology a bit too much. how long are they spending on their phones? how much are they texting? but the popularity of texting amongst young people isn't all bad. we explored how one organisation is using it to deal with serious issues for young people. every monday morning, this woman spends four hours texting with people in need. she's a volunteer counsellor for crisis text line, a free support service in the united states. counsellors and texters remain
anonymous for privacy reasons. we have a lot of middle schoolers who are concerned about what is going on at school and they reach out to us during the day. they might be concerned about sitting alone at lunch, for example. we have texters texting in because they're in a domestic violence situation. most texters are young, under the age of 25. people tell us everything. they spill their guts. typically by the third message. nobody overhears you, you don't have to wait, even to be in a quiet place or a quiet moment. the millions of messages exchanged on crisis text line make up a data sets teeming with mental health insights. it reveals when texters struggle with eating disorders and where they have suicidal thoughts. the data was also used to build an algorithm. the model essentially performs triage by analysing each word in the message. so a person who is thinking about harming themselves would have a higher priority in the queue than somebody
who is sad after a breakup. we quickly learned there were other things that were even more high—risk, that we didn't think of or didn't know. things like #kms, which means "kill myself. " conversations that reference things like ibuprofen, tylenol, advil, draino, all the household drugs that are within reach. the data is anonymised and texters can opt out of data sharing. to promote mental health research, some data is shared with select researchers. scientists at stanford used natural language processing to study about 3 million text messages. they uncovered five phases in the conversations. the introduction, problem setting, exploration, solving and the wrap—up. the best counsellors were really quick to get through this problem exploration phase. they were really good at getting to the heart of the issue to understand that,
and they were quicker to move on in the conversation, which means that they then had more time to spend in this problem—solving phase. at the end of the chat, texters can rate their experience and the counsellor. the researchers found effective counsellors avoided canned responses and were able to shift the texter‘s outlook. we built an algorithm set that could measure different kinds of perspective change from talking, using lots of negative words, to talking about more positive words, to talk about how much you focus on the past versus the present and future, and how much you focus on yourself versus other people. the next step is to create training tools for counsellors, like real—time feedback on the conversation, and exploring the potential of a conversational agent — a robot. while data science and tech gets these self—professed data nerds at the crisis text line very excited, it will not use chat bots. every messages is read and replied to by a human.
we couldn't let you go without mentioning this mind—controlled robot that responds really well to a certain thought. in collaboration with boston university, mit's computer science and artificial intelligence laboratory has published details of a system which allows human users to correct a robot's mistakes by thought alone. it uses the signal we produce when we detect a mistake. it's called the error potential. the user wears an eeg cap and watches as the robot sorts paint and wire into two bins. if they see the robot making a wrong choice, they simply think, "that's wrong!" the cap picks up that thought and the robot will correct its mistake. we're interested in exploring the possibility of combining the error potential with other types of signals, which might be easily detectable. even though these are baby steps,
there are tremendous applications that could happen in the home, on the factory line, so this technology can help support people in their daily activities, whether they're at work, at play, or in transportation. pretty interesting stuff, although admittedly, i think that is still from the far future. so how about i tell you about something in the more immediate future? next week, click is going to india. we'll be travelling across the country to meet the people working hard to change lives, save lives, and maybe one day discover new life. i can't wait, it's going to be brilliant. join us on twitter throughout the week for more tech news and behind—the—scenes photos and we'll see you next week in india. the weather today has been a little
mixed. we've had some sunshine, a little bit of rain, but later this evening, the skies are going to clear and it's going to turn chilly. a lot colder than the last couple of nights. the last couple of nights we've had to bridges into double figures. tonight, a touch of frost on the way. it's because of its clear whether, which will be in place across the uk later this evening. at xpm, temperatures dipping down in northern and western areas, remnants of the rain in the south—east pushing is into the north sea. there will be a few spots of
rain getting into scotland but for the majority of uk it's dry. citizen teased temperatures around five celsius in leeds, you go out of town and it will just above freezing —— city centre temperatures. in the countryside and start to ronde. 0n monday, this is the weather pattern we are going to see through of the week. the jet stream will be to the north—west of us, sending weather fronts and most of the rain to the north—west of us. we to the south and a lot drier. this is monday morning. chilly start. in cities, it will be around 6—7 degrees. colder in the countryside. the sun is pretty strong, so temperatures quickly responding and shooting upwards. not much change as we head into northern ireland, northern england, scotland. maybe one or two showers in the far north, but that is pretty much it. quiet, chilly, bright start to monday. not much changes through the course of the day. we keep the fine weather. temperatures will peak at about mid—teens across southern areas,
maybe 16 in london. more like 11 in newcastle. very pleasant 1a on the way for belfast. through the course of monday night into tuesday, the jet stream i showed you earlier on keeps pushing the weather fronts away to the north of us. one does sneak through, the taylor mcdevitt really, the bulk of the low pressure will go away north but this weather front will sneak through and maybe a bit more cloud for some of us across the more northern areas on tuesday. behind the week whether frontier, blustery, windy conditions for scotland. gales are expected in the north. the winds die down on wednesday. we're back to the south—westerly, back to more sunshine and back to the milder temperatures. 15 in london, 1a in belfast. goodbye. this is bbc news. the headlines at four. the brexit secretary urges mps to back the bill for exiting the eu, to pave the way for the triggering of article 50. what we can't have is the... either house of parliament reversing
the decision of the british people. senior mps warn the government it must have a plan for the brexit negotiations ending without a deal. it's notjust for the government to prepare itself for no deal. individuals and businesses need to understand what the consequences are. following a night of violence in rotterdam, turkey's president erdogan warns the netherlands it will "pay the price" for expelling his foreign minister. at least 35 people have been killed in a landslide at a vast