tv Charlie Rose Bloomberg December 24, 2014 10:00pm-11:01pm EST
if a credit card has been swiped by shoppers -- the revolution is changing how we engage in commerce and let a digital transformation in american express. google chairman eric schmidt says that he provides the best leadership. i'm pleased to have ken chenault at this table for the first time. in the interest of full disclosure, american express has been a supporter of this program for a number of years. for that, i'm both grateful and appreciative. good to have you here. tell me what it is that informs you about the change elements, and how a company responds to that, and the responsibility of a ceo. >> what is really exciting, the times that we live in today, it is this convergence of the online and off-line world. it is presenting incredible possibilities. but what's very important is
that you can't look at your business in a narrow way. let me give you one example. it would be wrong for us to simply view ourselves as a company that is facilitating payments. if we look at one of the major developments, platform companies. amazon, alibaba, google, facebook. we view ourselves as not just a company facilitating payments, but as a platform company that is delivering services. and we have the most integrated payment platform. what we are focused on is how to change the commerce experience and become even more meaningful in people's lives. >> so it is important to defined who you are in terms of what kind of company you are.
the definition in your own head may change as the world changes. >> i think what's very important here, charlie, i believe this strongly. i often talk to ceo's and they look at me askance. what is the soul of your company? what is the core? what do you stand for as a company? for american express, we've really focused on two hallmarks as i call them. reinvention and constancy. reinvention means we've got to innovate. the slogan i use, innovate or die. we've got to do that constantly. we've reinvented ourselves. it is in our dna. then you have to have a constancy of values. our company is service, trust, integrity. those attributes are what we use
as the compass to navigate through this vast, changing world. >> can you imagine where you will be in 10 years? >> i think, 10 years on a relative basis is still a short period of time. here is what i will tell you. the formfactor of payments will change. i frankly do not care if plastic goes away. that is not really what is relevant. what is relevant is, what is the business platform we are operating on? american express has relationships with merchants, like retailers, where we get all that information in data. and we have relationships with the end-user, customer, and that information and data is very critical. it gives us insights. i know where charlie rose spends. i know what time he spends.
i can predict what different items that he will have a greater interest in. so i think we are going to be far more involved in the commerce journey and the lifestyle journey. >> and your competition will be? >> i think our competition will be anyone in the service business. our competition will be other payment providers. i think our competition is going to be anyone who is offering services. my view is, i'm partnering with companies that are competitors, that are friendly's. i work with many banks around the world who issue american express branded cards. people said to me, 15 years ago, how could you partner with banks? they are competing with you in the credit card business. i said, you don't understand. we are expanding our brand and
our cards. if we get more volume on our network, that makes us more relevant in the marketplace. >> when you look at something like apple and the big announcement tim cook made, you say to him, welcome? >> what i said to tim, absolutely, is welcome. what i also said to tim -- we had our conversation -- again, what does apple stand for? what we found is, there was a commonality between our companies. we both stand for service. tim was also very clear as focused on product. i'm focused on service. what is very critical is, the data. that is sacrosanct to me. data is our lifeblood. we talk about that as a closed loop where we are connecting buyers and sellers. tim said, i'm not interested in
the data. that was important to me. >> he's said that to me here at this table. what about alibaba? >> i think they are a fascinating company. the reality is, as you know, they are in payments, commerce, and what we are increasingly doing is bringing buyers and sellers together. you've got to look more broadly at payments. we have the largest rewards-based program in the world. the reality is, you can access our membership reward points in a new york city taxi, in uber, in airbnb, to pay your bill on amazon. you can't just look at our business as simply facilitating a payment. >> tom friedman says, the world is fast.
he talks about uber and things like that. the genius that they bring his speed. does that resonate with you? >> it absolutely resonates. at the end of the day, speed is absolutely critical. another thing that uber brings, i think we are bringing, i think there are a range of successful companies doing this -- speed, simplicity, convenience, and being seamless. if you look at the uber payments experience, you are not even going through the act. and, what we've done is, with uber, made it a seamless experience to earn points and redeem points. so the ability to operate with
speed is an essential requirement of success. >> do you believe that the consumer understands what american express is today and how it is changing? >> i think it is evolving. >> is that part of an education that you, as ceo, have to do? >> when you think about the consumer, the consumer is not going to analyze the business. what a consumer is going to say is, is this a company that understands me and is meeting my needs? is this a company that is forming a connection? what i'm convinced is that consumers believe that with american express they form both a rational and emotional connection. but what we are also doing is,
we are making the american express brand a more welcoming, inclusive brand. the way i characterize this for our organization is, we are going back to the future. 164 years ago, what was glamorous about that? the travelers check business had no income requirements. one of the things the digital transformation has changed is, scale has been redefined. we have to be meaningful in all people's lives. the affluent and the non-affluence. we have a higher purpose of service. i also want to have a higher purpose of meaning. >> you have said, one of the points i make consistently to our people is that we want to become the company that will put us out of business. you want to become the person
that disrupts american express. >> absolutely. at the end of the day, if you are the one on offense, if you are the one bringing about change, you are going to be a winner. and the creative process is moving things forward. challenging the status quo, not standing still. if you stand still, you fall back. what i want, the people in our organization to be focused on -- we need to be disruptors. >> do you regret any choices you made as you lead american express? anything clearly that looks like that to you or is it more ambiguous? >> it is more subtle. as far as the big strategic
moves, i feel very good about the moves that we've made. i think if there were mistakes, it is not moving quick enough on people and ideas. >> not moving quick enough. >> it goes back to the speed. you can overcome that. and we have. but if anything, i would like to move even faster. >> tell me about partnerships. walmart, you have this thing, bluebird service. >> what is terrific about this partnership with walmart -- it also points to the importance of partnerships in general, because no single company, i don't care how large you are, can operate with the speed and scale that is necessary in this marketplace alone.
what walmart provides us is, they have millions of customers who in fact need a product like bluebird. there are 70 million americans who are unbanked or under-banked, who don't qualify for credit cards. frankly, what we are providing to them is a low-cost product that is on a digital platform. they can use it as a plastic card, but they can also use there mobile phone. what it provides them are a set of capabilities for their financial affairs. it allows them to make payments. it allows them to deposit. and what has opened up is an opportunity that many of these customers, who could not qualify
for a credit card, now can shop online. the other thing that walmart has done, they've come up with a very innovative product called savings catcher, where you can look on your mobile phone, look at the barcode of a product you are purchasing, and in a 12-mile radius, if you could have purchased the product at a lower cost at another store, they will refund the difference to you on a gift card. if you use a bluebird card, you get double the savings. so this is meeting a need, an unmet need, at a lower cost, and it is opening up a tremendous opportunity. >> business is of great concern to you. >> what is very important is small businesses. this is not an issue of small businesses versus big businesses.
big companies generate substantial opportunities for small businesses. but i think as we all know the reality is that 23 million small businesses in the united states, they employ half the private workforce, generate 2/3 of the net new jobs, and what we did 25 years ago is, we were one of the first financial services companies that put together a business unit that was 100% dedicated to meeting the needs of small businesses. what do small businesses want? they want more business. they want help with marketing. we have created an online community for small businesses where we bring experts in to work with them. >> on their own budget? >> absolutely.
we are trying to take the resources and capabilities of a large company and bring those to small businesses. small businesses are essential for our community. what people sometimes miss is the level of cooperation and collaboration between big business and small businesses. but the success of small businesses and the growth is essential for our economy. >> we went through a terrible experience in 2007 and 2008. dodd-frank came out of that. a lot of people were hurt, as you well know. have we taken the measures as a country to minimize the possibility of that happening again, or is it inevitable? >> a few points i would make, charlie. first, the fact that we have been able to come out of the financial crisis as a country as
we did speaks to the resilience of this country. for all the criticism of our political system, and frustration that we all have had, it speaks to the strength of that political system. it speaks to the culture in this country. frankly, if you said to me in 2009, ken, here is where we would be in the economy in 2014 -- >> you would have said? >> i would have said, charlie, you are way optimistic. there was a fear that we were falling off the cliff. what i do think is that with a regulation that have been put in place, with the changes in business practices, it does not
mean we wouldn't fall back, but i think the progress that we've made is substantial. the issue at the end of the day in our society is still income inequality and the fact that the benefits of the recovery have not trickled down. >> what else do we do? it is going to be a central issue. >> we've got to have an absolutely relentless focus on job creation in this country. it needs to be a combination of the private and public sector. we obviously need, as we look at our educational system, our training and development programs -- i think the united states has to look at this as the primary issue. as we know, job creation is not just critical to our economy. it is critical to an individual. >> what do you give to the president?
what has he done right and wrong? >> at the end of the day, the focus has to be on outcomes. on a relative basis of where the economy was in 2008 and 2009, and where it is today, i think we've come a long way. if we hadn't come a long way, i think people would clearly say, real problem with the president. i think we've made progress on the economy. i would like to have seen even more of an effort on job creation. i think that is so essential to our economy. >> hacking, do you worry about it? >> i absolutely worry about it. cyber security and hacking is a major modern-day threat. it impacts national security. it impacts the economy. it impacts the safety and
security of our individual citizens. >> not to speak of their privacy. >> the privacy is incredible. you know, some of these factoids, 400,000 new malicious programs launch everyday. four new cyber threats every second. we talk about breaches. of the companies that have been breached, 75% of them didn't know they were breached. they found out by a third party. what is essential is not just companies and institutions focused on it, but there has to be a far greater level of cooperation between the private and public sector. this is a fundamental threat to
the safety and security of the world. >> and in some cases -- >> the reality is, we know that. >> you seem to be speaking out more than when i first met you when i came to new york. is it because you felt like there were issues and ideas that were important to discuss? you felt responsibility to make sure that the global community understood? or is it a combination and something else? >> i think it is a combination. one of the things i believe in strongly, i guess it was a maxim that i got from my father, he said, the one thing you can control is your performance. and that is what you need to
focus on. in first taking over as ceo, i wanted to make sure i performed. i also believe very strongly that companies, depending on how you run them, can make a major difference in our society. i really believe that. so i focus on trying to not just have our company, american express, be successful financially. i wanted us to be one of the most respected and trusted companies in the world. one of the things i believe in, charlie, is sustainable success. it is really hard. the second is, i also believe that whether you are in the private or public sector, it is important that you make a difference in society. so if i'd been speaking out more, it is for that reason. corporations exist because
>> judith rodin is here. she has been president of the rockefeller foundation since 2005 area her tenure has focused on problems that tackle global challenges and disruptions. her new book is called "the resilience dividend." it argues that building resilience is an urgent social and economic issue. i'm pleased to have her back at this table. >> great to be here. >> before the rockefeller fund, you were also president of the university of pennsylvania. you spent a lifetime in academia as well as running the rockefeller foundation. what is this about, the resilience dividend? >> it is based on the realization that in the 21st century crisis may be the new
normal. there isn't a week that goes by that somewhere in the world there isn't a violent storm or flood or cyber attack, civil unrest, new epidemic, outbreak like ebola. those who are going to do best are those who are prepared for the worst. no matter what the worst may be. often, we are just reacting and responding. we've got to get ready. we've got to plan and prepare. >> some say that crisis is the new normal and there is a crisis aplenty. climate change is one, global warming. we look at the kinds of things that -- the fear of some kind of global academic. you look at scarcity of water. the whole range of issues that confront us now beyond geopolitical issues. >> they are all folded in.
many people will argue that wars over water are going to be the next big geopolitical issue. our military is actually doing resilience planning. secretary hagel ordered the entire military to look at the potential impact of food insecurity and water shortage, things that you never would have thought the military would need to be worrying about. now, we need to make the military have the capacity to plan and prepare for what kinds of disruptions -- >> you talk about three disruptions. urbanization, climate change, and globalization. >> it is the intersection of all three that makes us so vulnerable. half the world's population is now living in cities. that is going to grow to 75%. a lot of that will happen in some of the most full durable
-- vulnerable ecologies to climate change. africa, south asia, southeast asia, these cities don't have the physical capacity let alone the infrastructure to absorb that. globalization affects every part of the world as rapidly -- we saw the floods in bangkok took down entire global supply chains. we saw ebola coming to the united states. who would have thought things like that 50 years ago? then, climate change, which is really destroying not only the environment but destroying the resilience of the infrastructure. we have a global initiative called 100 resilient cities. cities on six continents are competing. these things are all bumping into one another. >> what is the best example of a potential disaster that was
somehow prevented from escalating? >> i think of boston and the boston marathon. obviously it was a disaster. three people died and a lot were hurt. boston spent years before that practicing for any kind of disruption, terrorism, nor'easter, hurricane, any kind of civil unrest. so they had the complete playbook worked out. they knew who the first response would be. they decided it would be the fbi. they decided that governor patrick, no matter where it would occur, would be the chief spokesperson. they had a full medical responder plan. in boston, nobody who got to a hospital died. that is the first time when something of that magnitude, that they could claim that. nonetheless, boston applied in this round for 100 resilient cities. we selected them and maher walsh talked about the new things he
is worried about. the 50th anniversary of the court order. he is worried about inequality, about racial issues. this is also about how you plan for and respond to the slow burning stress. >> one of the cities i'm interested in going to soon, in colombia. tell me about what is happening in there. >> it is the most remarkable story. drug capital of the world, human trafficking, all the things we knew about. a group of community citizens, business leaders, two successive mayors, recognized that perhaps the people were really vulnerable to all of this because they were so physically disconnected. the geography of medin is that all the activity is on the floor.
all of the barrios and the poor people are disconnected in the hills. after trying policing and military intervention to stop the trafficking, they built a new transportation system. a metro system that goes along the floor, then escalators and gondolas going into the hills. the stops there have health care clinics and afterschool programs integrated into the transportation. people are decorating their houses. crime is way down. it is a real success. >> what is the mandate of the 100 resilient cities? >> the mandate is to help those cities prepare for not the last stress, not the last shock, but anything that may confront them. they get a chief resilience officer. they are connected around the world, sharing best practices.
st. louis is a new city. they just were selected in this round. >> why did you -- >> we selected them because they had the most honest and compelling application about ferguson, social unrest -- >> [indiscernible] >> we selected them three weeks ago. this isn't just government that applies for this. in fact, if they don't talk about how to engage with communities, whether the problem is hurricane and earthquake or social unrest, they don't get selected. >> what is happening in the foundation? >> the foundation is in great shape. we are excited about all the resilience work. we are working on another important goal, more economic inclusion and more inclusive prosperity.
the two are interconnected. you think about two blackouts new york head. in 1977, it was the summer of son of sam. we were in an economic hit in new york. white flight was occurring. there was violence and looting and all kinds of unrest. 2003, after 9/11, a lot of work on building back communities, a lot of preparation and planning on evacuation. 23,000 lights out. remember those pictures of people going across the brooklyn bridge? it is an amazing difference. >> alex karp, who has participated in conferences with me, says judith rodin is a world-class entrepreneurial philanthropist.
she brings her life's work to bear on the subject. she uses every tool available, including the world's most advanced technologies, to understand urban terrain and deploy real-world solutions with the goal of saving and improving human life. it seems to me -- i'm fascinated by the idea, and larry page expressed this, how do we and list corporate america, or corporate global, in terms of dealing with the kinds of issues that they have within their institutions? is that public-private an appealing idea to the rockefeller foundation? >> absolutely. we are working to make sure that occurs. let me give you san francisco as an example. san francisco has brought all of
their businesses together in something they call the lifelines counsel in preparation for any kind of disaster. pg&e corp., comcast, uber, lyft, airbnb, they represent excess capacity. together, rather than business doing their own plan and government doing their own plan, they have a completely integrated way to secure the lifelines of the city. businesses are critical. they are making their own plans. they are picking cities to locate in because of those cities being resilient. deutsche bank chose puna in india for a new operation center. they became resilient, looking at all of their telecommunications and utilities. they beat out every other indian city to get a deutsche bank center because they were more resilient. >> what are you reading?
>> i just finished "euphoria." i'm a psychologist. my first year as a graduate student at columbia, i took an anthropology course from margaret mead. she would walk down the center of the aisle with her graduate students trailing behind her carrying her briefcase and walking stick. reading the story of young margaret and her life is really quite extraordinary. >> this book is called "the resilience dividend" by judith rodin. this picture is a cover story of where things went wrong in galveston, texas. what year was that? >> 2011. last house, only house standing. >> how does one house stand? >> the right roof, the right resilience. >> most of the cities are doing that, aren't they?
we have to be much more resilient in terms of what we rebuild. >> not only what we rebuild, but how we rebuild. the idea of the dividend is to get more bang for the buck, so you are not making a single investment. you are doing things that make returns in the good times, not only helping recovery in the bad times. hoboken for example floods when there isn't a hurricane. they completely lack real green recreational space. they need more parking. as a result of the post-sandy recovery work, in a competition called "rebuild by design" which we did with housing and urban development, hoboken proposed underground parking engineered to be water overflow containers in times of flooding with surface green recreational space. one investment, three bangs for the buck. that is the resilience dividend.
>> good to see you. >> great to be here, thanks. ♪ >> danny aiello is here. he is an academy award-nominated actor. his career includes more than 35 years. he is here with his first memoir. it is called "i only know what i am when i am somebody else." i'm pleased to have him back at this table. welcome. you have been here many times. why a memoir now? >> it took me a long time to do it. about three years now, they've been asking me to do a book. i felt i had to be telling total truth. if i told total truth about parts of my life, i might be hurting people. that is not my intent. i met this young lady, jennifer, who turned out to be my literary agent. she was smart enough to talk me into doing it.
i felt there were memories i had to bring back and pass on to my grandchildren. >> they tell me that once you start down that road and remember one thing that you hadn't thought about in a long time, you remember the next and the next. >> the book starts at the age of six. why i chose six, i don't know. one thing popped into my head at the age of six, eczema. i was hospitalized as a result of it twice. it really affected my life. what happened was that i went to sleep one night and what pops into my head, something other than that, another thing, and before i knew it, i had my whole life i was reliving at the age of six. how anyone could remember something that many years ago, i will never know. >> when you chose the title, why do you choose that? >> there is a person by the name
of grey, one of the great blues singers from the deep south, and he had recorded a song called "i only know who i am when i am somebody else." i brought it home. i recorded some of his songs on my new album. my wife was listening to the song i was playing for her and she said, what is that? i said, this is jj grey. i'm going to record it. that is how the title came about. they felt it was too long, but i said, i have to have it. it is me. am i a pool hustler, a petty thief, a union organizer, who am i? the only time i knew who i was was when i was playing a character. i knew what i was going to say because it was written for me. >> do you know who you are other
than the characters? >> i have great difficulty understanding who i am to this day. >> what is the triumph you want us to know about? >> to succeed at something at the beginning of my life i never thought i could do. it was not on my agenda. i had no idea. to me, hollywood was like -- how do you get to hollywood? i'm a new york kid. the triumph of becoming an actor, not wanting to, but once i did and i achieved that, i knew it was the only thing in life for me. to escape into other people. when i have pain, the greatest times is to fall into a character and forget about the pain in real life. that is what acting has done for me. >> when you talk about the pain, what are you talking about? >> the loss of my son, danny, one of the top stunt coordinators in the business.
the healthiest, most beautiful young man you have ever seen in your life and pancreatic cancer caught him. he was 53 years old. it was a devastating thing to occur. so what happens when something like that does occur in your life? you look for distractions. good distractions have been my ability to go out and get jobs and act. >> your father wasn't there when you were born. >> this was not a father dearest book. it is one of the reasons i didn't want to write a book in the beginning. i thought people would ask me, your father wasn't there, he showed up once a year. i loved my father. the entire family did. we didn't know him well enough to dislike him. he wasn't home that often. but he was a good man. i didn't realize the difficulty
of marriage. maybe that was the case. maybe he wasn't ready to marry. when i married my wife, god knows, i thought it was going to be easy. before i knew it, i had four kids. the pressure was so great. i ended up in the veterans hospital with a mental disorder. >> this picture? >> that was me at 17. >> so you are going into the army. >> i went into the army at the age of 17. i had to do that. i was getting in trouble in the bronx and i thought it would be the best thing for me. i left school. i was doing nothing but hustling pool. three years, honorably discharged. >> no combat? >> no combat. i was supposed to go to korea. my name was picked out of a hat and i was chosen to go to germany. pure luck.
>> who is this? >> that is sandy, she was 18 at the time. that ugly person is me. a reasonable facsimile of elvis presley. that is louis larusso ii. he wrote me three off-off-off-off-broadway plays. he said to me, i have a play for you. i said, i'm not an actor. he said, yes you are. you just don't know it yet. >> this is you and your son training for the broadway show, "knockout." >> i lost 20 pounds. i was in great shape. >> do you like the stage better or film? >> i suppose all actors react in the same way.
the stage is great. silence is great if you are into drama. laughter is wonderful. but the stage is electrifying. it is one of those things that keeps you alive. >> you worked with deniro in "bang the drum slowly." >> he was the worst ballplayer. he threw a ball like this. >> how did you meet? >> when i went there, bobby had done a movie. i didn't know who he was. he was not famous at the time. he had done something called "the gang that couldn't shoot straight." he played what appeared to be a person in a priest outfit on a bicycle with an italian accent. when i went to do this role, the director said, we have bobby deniro as the lead.
i said, he's from italy. how is he going to play an american catcher? that is when bobby and i met. we got very close to each other. i was chosen because i was an excellent ballplayer for a number of years. the only reason i got this part was -- >> you knew baseball. >> i couldn't act. he saw me throw a ball, catch a ball, hit. the director said, you've got the role. he said, work with bobby to see if you can help him along. >> what was the role you played in "the godfather?" >> tony russo. there is one question raised by everyone on the internet. was the line that danny aiello said in "the godfather" an improvised line? the line they are talking about, michael corleone says -- frank who was played by michael gazza was sitting at a bar.
i walk behind him. i say, michael corleone says hello, and i drag him into a phone booth. in any event, we are rehearsing the scene. italian restaurant, mulberry street, francis is there. i was somewhat intimidated. >> francis ford coppola? >> yes, i'm sorry. i was so intimidated by the man. the line, there was no line. i was coming behind him to choke him. there was no line whatsoever. he said, let's rehearse. i come behind him, and i suddenly say, michael corleone says hello. i have no idea why i said it. he said, cut. what did you say? i thought i was in trouble with the director. well, i think i said, michael corleone says hello. he said, good, keep it in. it was an improvised line.
there is a history behind it. i didn't think it was that interesting. >> after reading a spike lee script, you said, all i'm seeing in the part you want me to play is a guy that tosses pizza in the air. >> that is exactly what i said to him. he laughed. he and i are very close. he became -- i told him, he did something very personal. when danny passed away, we were at the funeral home. i was sitting down front where my son was lying. my wife was near me, a couple of my sons. just about every actor was there in the back. i had no idea who was there. i was told later that this person kept walking down, stopping, walking back.
it was spike lee. finally, he reaches the front, kneels, says, i have to say something. i said, of course. he did a little eulogy for my son danny, relating to all three being in the same room and doing the right thing. i thought it was a precious thing that he did for my son. it meant a lot to me. if i had any fault with him before, that was all forgotten. >> and this is? >> that is fort apache in the bronx. one of the great people of all time. he is a giver. that is paul newman. off camera, there is flirting with. she must have been 19 years old. that was on the street in the bronx. the only time i ever worked with him.
i got involved with his children's charitable -- up in connecticut, which was an amazing thing. >> the last picture? >> that is robert in the middle. a great man on the left, sergio leone. i call him the italian santa claus. one of the great directors. all clint eastwood's work. he was so much more than that. he was truly a great director. not only spaghetti westerns. we had done "once upon a time in america." i used to tell him, i have such a small role. he wanted me to come to cannes. i didn't want to go because i felt a part didn't warrant it. he said, i want you to come. i came and i kept complaining, this is such a small part. it turns out to be one of the favorite roles. he said, what do you want to call the character? i said, call him aiello. no one knows me anyway. because of my complaints --
the next movie, danny, you are going to be one of the stars with robert deniro. the movie was called "90 days of leningrad." he worked 10 years on the feature. i was thinking i would be in this great epic movie and he passed away. he never got to do the movie which would have been his favorite of all time. >> probably yours too. one clip we are going to show. this is from "do the right thing." >> i never had no trouble from these people. i watched these little kids get old. i've seen the old people get older. sure, some of them don't like us, but most of them do. for christ sake, they grew up on my food. i'm very proud of that.
you may think it is funny, but i'm very proud of that. what i'm trying to say is, sal's famous pizzeria is here to stay. i'm sorry. i'm your father and i love you. i'm sorry, but that's the way it is. >> i should say also that you are a singer. >> a little. i have five albums out. i have my fifth coming out. i never tried blues. someone said, you can crack with blues and it doesn't mean anything. i found that interesting. i recorded two songs, one of them called "i only know who i am when i am somebody else," written by jj grey.
he is just a great musician. -- ie also worked with a do not know if you know this, but over one million hits on youtube. the song was written by -- at the age of 16 from mexico. i've loved this song since i was six years old. this rapper i was recording happened to be there and he was a fan. i said, i'm recording. he said, are you producing? i said, no, i'm singing. we got together after that and decided to come together and make this album called "bridges" which is music of two kinds blended. one is classic standards and the other is rap. keep in mind, i hated rap but i liked him very much and decided to work with him. >> the memoir is called "i only know who i am when i am somebody
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