tv Charlie Rose Bloomberg April 21, 2017 10:00pm-11:01pm EDT
announcer: from our studios in new york city, this is "charlie rose." charlie: president trump will mark is 100th day in office next week. by all accounts, it will be a busy one. the administration is planning to mount a new effort to repeal and replace obamacare. meanwhile, the government faces the possibility of another shutdown and there is also the issue of tax reform and infrastructure. joining me now with more on what to expect in washington, robert costa of "the washington post." he has just been named the successor to the great gwen ifill for "washington week." congratulations to robert costa and well-deserved selection by them.
i look forward to sharing friday night with you. bob: charlie, it is a drill an honor to do it. i truly appreciate her support all of these years going back to my internship with you in 2006. it has been phenomenal to have you as a mentor and friend. charlie: let's begin with president trump. 100 days coming up. what have been successes and failures? two things come to mind. the confirmation of a supreme court justice. two, in terms of where we are now, the syrian airstrike. where would you assess the trump administration at 100 days? robert: what we are looking at is a white house that has the
gorsuch confirmation as its signature achievement in the first 100 days. on foreign policy, they feel they are finding some coherence as you correctly stated due to the syrian airstrikes. he is moving away from his noninterventionist instinct to a more traditional republican mode of foreign policy, especially thanks to defense secretary mattis, secretary of state tillerson, the upheaval for national security advisor moving away from the more combative general flynn to h.r. mcmaster. they are still searching for a legislative achievement. that is why late this week, you have the white house scrambling with house speaker paul ryan to try to revise health care when congress comes back next week before the 100 days hit its mark because they want to have something they can talk about that passes the health on health care. charlie: do they think they can do that? is that a reasonable expectation? robert: it is an expectation. i would not call it reasonable yet. there is tension in washington about what is possible on health care. republicans on capitol hill i have spoken with say they don't
have the votes yet in the house to pass any kind of health care legislation. but the president himself i am told by white house officials is putting his foot on the pedal and saying i don't care what the hill is saying about the vote count, i need this to move in the house next week. that is why you have chief of staff reince priebus and steve bannon trying to work with the hard-line freedom caucus to come up with some kind of consensus plan. charlie: are they having success with the freedom caucus? robert: so far, the freedom caucus has been working closely with the white house on a revised bill. they are talking about high risk pools, different conservative elements they want to inject in the legislation, less spending. at the same time, the leadership is still wary. if the white house cuts a deal with the freedom caucus on health care, does it hurt the final tally among house republicans?
in other words, if you give the freedom caucus what it wants, do some moderates become wary of the legislation? charlie: have they given any idea they may be able to attract democrats if they make the bill a little different? robert: not at all. there are low expectations about democratic input. i was just in atlanta for three days covering the special house election. i spoke to senator van hollen and others working on senate races. they say democrats have so much grassroots energy on the left. even though they did not win the seat in georgia, they got close to 50%. they do not see any reason to move toward the republicans on health care. they think president obama's base could come out in 2018 and help democrats win back the house if health care is an animating issue. charlie: i see fundraising for
the trump administration and republican party is going well. robert: it is. the president's popularity with the republican base is skyhigh. overall, his approval rating has been below 40%. that has caused alarm inside the white house. the republicans see this president is someone an outsider in washington. that is what many of them wanted. charlie: with respect to repeal and replace, the president keeps insisting it ought to go first in part because he needs it to help him with tax reform and even infrastructure. i assume some revenue or tax credits or something is coming out of that. robert: if you look at what the republican health care bill is in the house, it is in essence not only a health care bill but a tax bill. as the speaker has explained to the president, the president has been told you need to do health care first to get rid of some of the obamacare taxes to pave the path for tax reform and infrastructure. there is tension between capitol hill republicans and the white house because people close to the president say there's part
of the president that wishes he went first with infrastructure, brought in democrats, and did not go after president obama's most famous law as his first move. charlie: with respect to tax reform, what is it they want to do? robert: it has been intriguing to watch gary cohen take the reins of tax reform. gary mnuchin is involved along with house republicans. cohen has been working on they want to get rid of deductions. but really, it is about corporate tax cuts. they are negotiating what the rate will be. will it be 20%, 22%? what is the calculation politically and policy wise on the different individual and corporate rates? that is what they are trying to figure out as congress comes back. charlie: they want to figure out how to get the money overseas
held by corporations back to the united states. robert: that is why the democrats see an opening to shape the tax reform discussion. they know the president has put such an emphasis on the buy american idea and repatriation of american dollars back into the american economy. when i talk to democrats on capitol hill, they say they would like to drive a wedge between the ryan wing and trump wing and offer ideas to see if he will move in their direction. charlie: what factions are fighting within the white house? who is winning? robert: i think you could say the new york crowd, the financial crowd, with jared kushner at the top. he is pushing the president softly. trump is not someone who likes to be yanked.
the president is listening more to kushner, gary cohen, and deena powell. she used to work with goldman sachs. he knows that his stumble on health care and hard-line actions on immigration, shaped by stephen miller and steve bannon, have in his mind led to his unpopularity. he is starting to rethink the input and how much he should weigh certain advisors. bannon is still in the mix. he has not resigned even though he has lost political capital. he has been more quiet, but that does not mean he has gone away. charlie: you expect them to go soon? robert: i don't expect bannon to leave at all. in his mid-60's, this is the project of his life. he has been someone at the fringes of american political life. he now finds himself at the center. he is not rushing for the door. charlie: the question is not whether he is rushing, the question is whether he will be pushed. robert: i think the question whether bannon leaves, if he can repair his relationship with jared kushner he will stay. if he cannot and it remains as
fiery as it is now, he could find himself out in a few weeks or months. the problem for bannon is he was smart during the campaign to build his alliance with kushner, who did not have a firm grasp on what the trump base was about. he saw bannon as someone who could help him formulate strategy. since the election, that relationship has frayed. if bannon cannot fix that, he will be out. charlie: one of the lessons you draw from the syrian strike? robert: it is not clear yet what the strategy is. that episode was revealing about how the president has evolved on national security and foreign policy. i'm told he is listening closely
to the cabinet. he is very militaristic in his instincts. we saw this during the campaign as well. he remains averse to intervention, the idea of ground troops. he was against part of the iraq intervention even though he initially supported. he is not talking about sending troops to syria. he likes the idea of targeted strikes projecting american strength but not having american lives at risk. with north korea, he enjoys this confrontational style. not just on domestic politics, but as we are learning in foreign policy. even though he does not have amazing depth on the north korean issue and is not articulating new policy, and mike pence keeps talking about honoring asian allies, we are seeing a confrontational style rather than doctrine define the policy. charlie: with respect to north korea, as the president listens to his advisors, he seems to be listening mostly to h.r. mcmasters and rex tillerson and his secretary of defense, general mattis. is that a fair appraisal of who
has his ear in terms of military decisions he has to make? robert: it is. with north korea, you have to include president xi jinping of china. that meeting at mar-a-lago was important for trump as he understands u.s.-china relations. he was told in meetings the chinese perspective was north korea should not be engaged too much to the point were north korea would collapse and disrupt the region and china. the president listened to the chinese leader, talked through some of the complicated issues about how to box in north korea, about how confrontation can work to a point. he learned about the weaknesses in north korea's economy and the missile program, how it does not have many ballistic missiles. the nuclear program is really nascent. these things were part of the discussion. this is a president who is still learning on the job, in particular with foreign policy. charlie: the president said he liked and learned a lot from xi jinping.
do we know what he thought of the president? robert: there was that moment the president has recounted to his friends often. that he wanted to show american strength to the chinese talking about the syrian strikes as they were eating dinner and a big beautiful chocolate cake for dessert. that is the typical way trump tells stories. that is an important moment. he's not developing a doctrine. he wants to show world leaders he is willing to take risks and action and be a cool hand in these meetings as he goes about his foreign-policy. that was a symbolic moment for this white house and a moment that was planned. charlie: the president seems to be tweeting things that will distract from policy less, even though he continues to tweet. is there a change in terms of what he has learned works for him and what does not? not that he will stop tweeting, but he understands what kinds of tweets are best not sent?
robert: there is no clear revised plan. he tweeted a lot about the georgia special house election. it got under his skin as a target on him that the seat could go. he became involved in tweaking over and over again this week about the georgia race. i'm told from his advisors, a lot of times he is watching television and reacting to something he hears. it is this orbit around the president that is so important. not just the conversations with advisors. but with friends, foreign leaders, and television coverage. he is not someone who loves reading briefing memos. he is listening and hearing the national and international conversation and reacting. that is what he is doing inside the white house. that has not changed. charlie: what has changed? robert: i think he has been humbled by the health care experience. he called me after it fell
apart. he's recognizing running the country is difficult, but so is running the republican party. this is a factionalized party that controls the house, senate, and white house. but it is not in any way together. stitching that coalition together for any kind of major initiative is going to be very challenging for him this year. he is starting to recognize that. i think that has humbled his approach to legislation that is something that has changed what he thought he could do at the top of his agenda. charlie: what does he think of his rating when he looks at the polls? robert: going back to 2013, he would talk about polls like they were ratings. sometimes he would slip in conversations and say look at the ratings talking about polls. in his office at trump tower, he used to have all of his ratings in a frame. he would have them all over the wall among pictures of himself. he would have ratings for "the
apprentice." he takes pride and is very sensitive to his public standing. what i'm trying to understand as a reporter why he is listening more to jared kushner, always come back to his habits. he is watching the polls as if they are ratings. he is listening to the television commentary and chatter in washington and reacting to it and formulating new strategies. charlie: who is the last person he would talk to if he had to make an important decision? robert: usually jared kushner. his daughter on major decisions. he thinks she has a good feel for many things, many issues. bannon on a lot of the immigration and trade issues. what is most important to trump is not who he talks to last, it is the group he talks to last. the friends outside of the white house, the people outside of washington he looks to for a gut check. charlie: a lot of phone calls i donald trump to reach out and say, what do you think? robert: late at night, business leaders, friends from the golf course, friends from new york. he does not often tell his aides
about who he is talking to. steve bannon and reince priebus say good night at 9:00. but he is on the phone, watching tv, talking to friends, thinking through the presidency. it is unlike we have seen before. he has the circle outside of politics he is regularly turning to for advice. charlie: after 9:00, he is essentially alone? robert: the first lady is in new york with his son. he is alone in the residence with the television and his phone and twitter. charlie: in the morning when he gets up, at whatever time? robert: very early. charlie: he mmediately seems to start tweeting. most of the tweets come early in the morning. again, he is alone and watching television. robert: he is a 70-year-old man and has his habits. i'm told he has the printed version of the newspapers. it is important for him to understand the tabloid style from the 1980's that lifted him
♪ charlie: tensions with north korea continue to rise this week, and so does the rhetoric. vice president pence was in south korea where he promised an overwhelming and effective response to any use of nuclear or conventional weapons by the north. north korea's state-run media threatened a preemptive strike that would turn south korea and the united states to ashes. joining me from denver is ambassador christopher hill, a former ambassador to south korea. he headed up the delegation during the nuclear talks. he is dean of the school of international studies at the university of denver. i have in my hand the new 100 most influential people from "time" magazine. they announced today among those people is the leader of north korea, kim jong-un. guess who they asked to write the profile of kim jong-un? you. tell us what you said about him.
everyone wants to know who he is and what we should expect from him. >> he has been in power for five years. it does not look like there is any mellowing to his position. he has accelerated the nuclear programs. in 2016, he had two nuclear tests. it is widely believed he will have another one soon. he has had 25 or 30 missile tests. it is believed that will continue through the year. meantime, he has gone on a bit of a murder spree. he has executed over 300 people, usually in public executions firing squad. he has thrown in flamethrowers and other things. in short, he does not appear to be any kind of reformer as some people thought he was. he is proving to be a very irascible, different leader. the chinese cannot deal with him. no one can deal with him. we have this looming crisis to deal with.
i think this is something the trump administration will have to deal with for some time come to 2020 and have to explain to the american people what happened. charlie: how would you deal with it? >> first of all, it is essential to have a serious discussion with the chinese. by serious i mean not just about whether they will comply with some sanctions regimes, which they need to do. but a serious understanding that if north korea were to go down whatever means, we would not try to disadvantage china's strategic interests. we would not be putting troops over there. we need a serious deep dive with the chinese. secondly, and this is part of why we have seen vice president pence and secretary tillerson and secretary mattis recently in the region, we need to reassure our allies.
i was just in south korea a few days ago. a lot of concern not only about the north koreans but also how the new u.s. administration is managing this. charlie: with respect to him, based on what you said, can you expect to have a reasonable agreement that satisfies the interest of both countries? >> you notice i talk about what we have to do with our allies there, and i talk about what we need to do with china. but i am not sure there is a scope for negotiation at this point with the north koreans. they agreed to give up their nuclear weapons. and then they abandoned what they agreed to. now they would like to talk to us, of course, but as one nuclear power to another. i am not sure that will lead us anywhere. i think we need to have a serious, closer understanding with the chinese. in particular, we need to set priorities with the chinese. i think frankly president trump said it best when he said i can't start a trade war with them when we are trying to deal with the tough issue with north korea. how we deal with it, the
elements of it, probably in the space between peace and war, probably along the lines of trying to slow down their program through some sort of clandestine means. meanwhile, really try to put the squeeze to this regime because it is truly intolerable and not getting better on its own. charlie: you do not, i would assume, recommend some kind of military strike at this point or some kind of effort to change the regime in north korea? >> if there were a means to change the regime, sure. it would not be a bad day if we woke up and found he was gone. i think when people talk about military strikes, they need to keep in mind the fact that our ally and by far the most important country for us on the korean peninsula has 20 million people of its population, half of its population within artillery range of the north koreans. to talk about somehow having some punitive attack on the north koreans similar to syria or using some enormous bombs similar to the one we saw last week in afghanistan is really to
invite the question, would they retaliate? and if they do, we are pretty much treaty-bound to go after them as well. before you know it, we are in a second korean war. if people want to do that, they ought to think through it and know that is exactly what they are doing. this idea there is some quick military solution to this i think is not quite accurate. charlie: you were in south korea. what do they want us to do? >> i think the south koreans want us to be in close contact with them. they want us to understand we can talk about what we want in places like washington, but when you live 20 miles from north korea you need to be sober about what you are saying. i think they would like to see us talk to the chinese and have an understanding of how we might cooperate to alleviate the pressure from the north korean regime. again, i don't want to talk about coups and things like that.
we need to have an understanding with china north korea as it is presently constituted is not a stable element for the future. the south koreans would like to see that with one caveat. i don't think they want is talking to the chinese about the future of the korean peninsula unless they are part of the thoughts that go on in such a conversation. in short, i think their mantra would be nothing about us without us. charlie: is that a reasonable idea for them? clearly it is. is that a reasonable idea for the chinese and united states? >> i think it is a very reasonable idea for the south koreans and us because we are allies. if there is a perception in south korea we are cutting our own deals with the chinese without them involved, i think that would weaken this alliance which has stood very well since the end of the korean war. i think from their perspective, it is vital. i think the chinese have to -- over the years, they have learned they no longer have
tributary states around them. they have sovereign countries around the. i think they need to take that more to heart and understand we cannot do things without the south koreans in accord with what we are doing. china and south korea have had a good relationship over the years. but the way china has gone after south korea for the fact that south korea and the u.s. agreed to put in an anti-ballistic missile system, the way china has gone after south korea and try to punish them is not a good way to treat neighbors, who after all are going to be there for the next 1000 years. charlie: i assume they are against that because they think it questions their own use of weapons if they should find it in the national interest to do so. >> i think from china's point of view, putting in the so-called terminal high aerial defense system has a very robust radar. the chinese are worrying, although nominally it is there
to deal with the north korean threat, ultimately it gets information against china such that it would diminish china's own deterrence. the chinese worry about those kinds of things. if they want to worry about them, they ought to talk to us about them and the south koreans and not just try to make life miserable for the south korean state, which after all is going through tough times. the president was impeached and now in prison. they have an election coming up on may 9. these are tough times. it is very important we hold the south koreans close. it is very important china understands south korea is a very stable element on the korean peninsula and one that they should welcome should they become their neighbor. charlie: with respect to the election on may 9, who is likely to win? is that person likely to accept the previous policy with respect to the united states and south
korea? >> right now, it is quite a horse race. there is a candidate who was the chief of staff to the last left of center korean president. moon is known to harbor the view that somehow we are not doing enough dialogue with the north koreans. he has a kind of sympathetic ear for the north koreans from time to time, or at least that is his reputation. what is happening is as north korea has continued to threaten south korea, and by the way, these threats to turn it into ashes goes along with the sea of fire threat a few years ago. the more north korea threatens them, the more it helps the other candidate. he is drawn even in the polls even though he does not represent this left of center option. he is more in the continuity of the president, now awaiting trial and prison.
it is a bit of a horse race. we don't really know how it will turn out. it is all the more reason why the u.s. needs to be very careful in managing it because we do not want a situation where the south korean public turns on us. while it is true in life that trues showing up, it is the other 50% is following through. rex tillerson is essentially home alone at the state department and goes out to talk to people. that needs to be addressed. it is not enough to go talk to the south koreans and leave and they sort of wonder what is next. charlie when you travel around : the world and asia and south korea and japan, what are our allies thinking about thinking about president trump? >> well, you know, if you take the totality of president trump
starting with a reality show trump and then going through -- two candidate trump and then now president trump, there is a lot to be concerned about in terms of statements that seem to not have been fully staffed or thought through. there is some concern about what kind of -- what will the alliance look like if the who's this administration to get adults out in the field whether it is secretary mattis or secretary tillerson. they want to see some followthrough and some continuity. i think the trump administration has spent a lot of time stressing there will be not a lot of continuity with previous policies and it is hard to talk about a situation in korea without somehow acting as if the problem is barack obama. they would like to see more continuity from us.
they don't have the concerns from trump that many people in the u.s. do. they welcome strong american leadership, but they would like to see that accompanied by knowledge and wisdom. >> then there is an element of predictability -- unpredictability. a some suggested it has its advantages if you change your position. on the other hand predictability is something that allies depend on. >> it is a delicate game. you want to make your adversaries wonder what you are going to do and you wonder what the creative ambiguity is an -- as henry kissinger used to talk about it is, i think, valuable. on the other hand, they want some predictability. they want to know what our real interests are.
when the previous administration spend so much time repudiating whatever went on before -- it is quite remarkable hearing the vice president speaking in south korea, decrying the obama policy of strategic patience, but he linked that to every president before. there is a lot to be worried about and a lot of diplomatic works from this new administration to accomplish to deal with that. >> to you think they meant to say we are no longer patient? >> i think the idea was being patient. they used the word strategic to convey a kind of wisdom i am being patient. i think the idea is to say this strategic patience hasn't gotten us anywhere and we need to deal with this issue. it's not -- i don't think the trump administration is trying to say we are done with talking, we need to move on to some military solution. i think they are saying we can't let this issue bedevil us. i think the fact that north korea is getting very close to a
deliverable nuclear weapon is something we have to be very concerned about. i'm not in a position to say with 100% certainty that they wouldn't use such a thing. and i think north korea looks at their nuclear arsenal just in terms of regional survival as some apologists for them suggest but rather they look at it from the point of view of how can we split the united states from these alliances in japan and south korea? and so, they could put the united states in a position that unless you back off we will use this arsenal against you. of course, our comeback is, we will obliterate you. is that a good enough trade to of literary north korea in return for an american city? youou are a u.s. president, may not look at it that way. stakes are very high.
tensions are very high. we need some real serious thinking and serious approach to this. we won't be able to do it without our allies as secretary mattis wisely suggested. charlie: but also china. we have to have china to engage and to change. which raises one question about china -- is it anything you know that came out of the meeting in palm beach that suggested a different kind of or in evolving with china, with respect specifically to north korea, and perhaps also to trade? >> i would like to think -- i -- and perhaps this is a triumph of hope over expectation, but i would like to think they would have a serious discussion where they put north korea at the top of the agenda. i think too often in our conversations in china they go into this list of issues with no issue rising to the top. i think north korea did rise to
the top. it is not easy to write a way forward. they are also worried about what happens when there is a north korean demise, what is the perception, if it looks like a chinese defeat. a lot of this zero thinking going on in china. they worry if you lose this last bastion, how will that affect the internal discussion in china about china's own internal system? there are a lot of opinions about china. in this lack of consensus in china on these issues there has been a lack of resolve.
>> president trump may have hoped to focus on what may be needs to be done. and that suggests me to look carefully at this. we are not looking at trade wars are other things right now. we will see how this turns out, we can do this with more of a team. charley: in other words, the :ecretary of state -- charlie in other words, the secretary of state needs more help. back to the question of dealing with the chinese, it is a long way from chinese leadership and chinese economy. marxist-leninist is one thing. the other thing is xi jingping has an election coming up. he will meet with the chinese congress in october or november and he wants to change the nature of his own government, who he puts on the standing committee and the strengthening of his own authority, and therefore, he doesn't want any problems between now and then. correct? guest: that is absolutely correct.
to use an american political term, ford chinese, north korea is a wedge issue. there are people among the security services who feel that this is a historic ally. obviously the system they have a north korea has little symbol clarity -- little similarity to the system in china, although they both called them communist systems. themthough they both call communist systems. if you let this old historic neighbor go down then you go to , other parts of china and people have no patience in dealing with north korea. they would like to throw them under the bus in a new york minute. opinions are split. for xi jinping to come out on one side or the other invites more controversy just as he is trying to consolidate his power. there's no question these domestic pat -- these domestic factors are very large as they do any great power.
>> what do you make finally of this controversy about the aircraft carrier carl vincent? >> on one level it looks like a confusion of talking points between the pacific command, the pentagon, the white house. it looks bureaucratic, may be related to the lack of staffing. it has a look that may be our president was trying to sell something that wasn't quite all their. he suggested we would have an armada, normally used for the spanish armada some 500 years ago. he implied that would be somehow part of last week's solution to getting north korea to back off. then we find it had things to do
or exercises to do in australia. it wasn't going to be deployed for some time. when you are president and you say something, and even if you say something accurately, people need to be able to take that to the bank. i think the whole operation has to be tightened up to make sure there is not the kinds of confusion that has emerged in the last couple of days. the next time he says something, will people believe him literally or will it be some figurative notion that at some point we will get an american ship up there. charlie: i got you. paragraph about kim jong un. initial hopes that the swiss educated third-generation dictator would be a reformer to abandon his nuclear program have long died, along with his victims. there are no good options for stopping can, but cooperating
family time is awesome! show me the radio disney music awards. just say it and see it with the x1 voice remote. and you can catch up on all the rdma buzz... with artist interviews... past performances... and more! available now on xfinity on demand. xfinity the future of awesome. and to find out how to catch exclusive videos featuring rdma host jordan fisher. and the ardy goes to... watch disney channel presents the 2017 rdmas. april 30th on disney channel. charlie: anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the united states. research shows one in five young adults has experience and anxiety disorder in the past year.
the youth anxiety center was founded in 2013 at new york presbyterian hospital. researchers are discovering the root causes of it. joining me are three physicians in the field of youth anxiety -- i am pleased to have all of them. -- i'm pleased to have all of them at this table. welcome. i am stunned by this. i had no idea that youth anxiety was even a problem. if you read about issues that happen because of different kinds of companies. >> it has been out there for a long time but the youth anxiety center -- we are recognizing it readily. we are giving outreach to people
a lot of kids see people -- and educate families about these problems. >> we knew about adhd in the 1930's. we knew about depression 40 years ago. but the research for childhood anxieties -- anxiety disorders came into publication in early 2009. what we find as many of the kids who were treated at the youth anxiety center never got earlier effective treatment and as a result lived with these conditions for a long time and as a result developed ongoing problems with adaptation. as they try to transition into adulthood and become more independent they really struggle and many of them fail. >> give me a classic example of anxiety. your center was established in
2013. >> it was only in the 1983 edition, 1980 addition of the dsm that we recognized childhood anxiety disorders. even to this day many teachers think this is a phase. they tell parents waited out, -- wait it out. this is going to go away. in actuality anxiety does start , by age four. specific phobias are not merely fears that child grows out of. and those diagnoses build upon each other, separation anxiety by six, generalized anxiety, which is worry gone amok. social phobia or social anxiety disorder. and they add on to one another and they are gateway diagnoses. every adult epidemiological study of mental illness in this country has shown anxiety in childhood and predicts every mental health condition from bipolar disorder to schizophrenia. >> you can see youth anxiety.
so what can you do? >> i think with the center has done is set up a unique system where you have basic neuroscientists with physicians who will try to work together to focus on this question. it is very rare for basic neuroscientists to be in the same center. it allows us to have parallel studies, clinical and basic research. amazingly up until 10 years ago, no one studied. charlie: does the treatment eliminate the anxiety? >> the treatment can be extraordinarily effective. what youth anxiety is specializing in is -- it has to work with young people around
all the coping adaptation. it is a much more complicated treatment than childhood. >> you just said something many families come in, kids come in with this anxiety, i can't take this anxiety. anxiety is a natural emotion. it protects us, gets us out of the way of danger. avoid -- avoidance sets and where kids will not do things that are challenging to them because it raises their anxiety. or meet up with friends, they avoid things. the more you avoid the moyer distress goes up. you find you don't know how to cope. then it interferes with your functioning.
then we see these youth that they don't learn the basic social skills, negotiation skills and other things kids on track are getting. there is stigma about what their kids are going through. kids break down stigma pretty well. once they get talking about it and recognize they have friends who have anxiety issues or depression, it is our generation that is not doing a good job of breaking down stigma. charlie: has social media exacerbated it? >> it hasn't helped in many ways. there is cyber bullying that can occur that increases anxiety. and of course, how many likes you have and so on and so it fourth.
sets up competition and there is a lot of misinformation. one being that we should get rid of anxiety rather than learning how to manage the anxiety. >> and there are people developing treatments who work through ipads and the computer. charley: there's a lot of information and therapy? >> absolutely. there are some kids who are so uncomfortable socially that their only social outlet is through social media. it is a mixed bag. it is a mixed bag for us. we like the positive parts, but there are some real negatives. charlie >> how does a child know : that their parent is suffering from real anxiety? >> that's an excellent question because the kids will suffer for two to seven years before their parents know. we work with the family because what happens is because the child is struggling with anxiety, the parents natural tendency is to protect, comfort, and reassure, but it draws them into the maintenance. they develop some of the coping
resources they need to manage these kinds of symptoms. >> to have a lot of anxiety as well? >> yes. it's in the social, in the work related areas and so forth. anxiety disorders run the gamut. >> what is the division of the medical school and the hospital that will treat anxiety. >> we work with kids up to 18 and for the youth anxiety center we work with kids between -- we think of them as kids that needs to be understood in that mental context. >> we didn't pay attention to it , we didn't think of it as serious, we thought of it as a neurotic condition.
that might be managed with just kind of support or interest. yeah. >> it doesn't work that way. the new grow up. -- then you grow up. not out of a disorder. some of the data is 9% of preschoolers having an anxiety disorder that is being managed. managed as medical conditions -- having stomach aches and things like that, not the anxiety itself. and a lot of times a child may have ocd, a social phobia, they are working around the academic decline or the family dysfunction that occurs not -- that occurs, but not about the anxiety disorder itself. west to help family see and therapists see we have to get in , there and work with the anxiety, with that youth and the way the families working with them. charlie: >> is there a lot research going on now? but the anxiety and how to deal
with it? -- both the anxiety and how to deal with it? >> the biggest advance that the center has made is we have figured out that adolescent rats, mice, humans -- it is a specific time the way the brain develops pre-and there is a prefrontal cortex that seems to not mature until the age of 23. we thought this was literally growing. there are -- we are the knowledge and there is one other region that is very important for spatial memory and spatial learning. it seems go through adolescence through a very plastic period. but also gives us opportunities to do various things that stimulate the hippocampus. it can regrow, it can reconnect. one of the best ways we are
thinking about it as we are developing therapies where you use certain types of modalities that stimulate this. for example virtual reality, where you do a virtual reality-based therapy. is very hard to go to an airport these days. if you did functional imaging simultaneously, you will notice the hippocampus is lighting up during that period of time. adolescents are probably better at this type of learning, these previously dangerous places that are no longer dangerous. for example inside an airplane. >> the vehicle for change in terms of psychotherapy comes from cognitive behavioral therapy. john and i were the code leads for the largest -- the combination of medication and behavior therapy -- but the monotherapy got a number of kids
-- exposure, exposing the person to what they are afraid of is key and critical. with the work we learned from francis, you have to make the context real for the kids. they are on subways, they are on restaurants, we are taken them places to expose them to what they are afraid of. we have a virtual classroom, a college classroom, a college party where they are in a scene challenging their fears for speaking and interacting with people.
>> what are the big questions that remain unanswered. >> i would say the big question is how do we miss this? how do we not know the brain was reorganizing during adolescence. we still don't know the molecular mechanism. what are the growth factors leading into this? if you could find those, then you can use them as potential targets, whether they be behavioral or designing new drugs to open up critical periods. then you would want to be up to make their hippocampus more plastic. even as he said for the adult anxiety disorder. >> thank you for having us. >> see you next time. ?
alisa: i am alisa parenti and you are watching "bloomberg technology." let's start with a check of your first word news. president trump has signed executive orders today to review u.s. tax regulations and roll back dodd-frank. the president also says businesses and individuals are cut"ve "a massive tax under a package he plans to unveil next week. president trump says young immigrants shielded from deportation should rest easy. he tells the a.p. he is not after the dreamers, just criminals. supreme court justice neil gorsuch cast his first deciding vote, allowing arkansas to begin executing death row inmate