tv Anthony Bourdain Parts Unknown CNN April 1, 2015 9:00pm-10:01pm PDT
renowned museum for family name. a family known for immense wealth grieving for the loss of one of their own. stephanie elam, cnn, los angeles. >> anthony bourdain parts >> anthony bourdain parts unknown starts right now. -- captions by vitac -- www.vitac.com this is the story of one man, one chef, and a city. also it's about france and a lot of other chefs. and a culinary tradition that grew up to change the world of gastronomy. it's about a family tree, about the trunk from which many branches grew. it's about food, lots of food. great food. some of the greatest food on earth. ♪ i took a walk through this beautiful world ♪
♪ felt the cool rain on my shoulder ♪ ♪ found something good in this beautiful world ♪ ♪ i felt the rain getting colder ♪ ♪ sha la la la la ♪ sha la la la la la la ♪ sha la la la la ♪ sha la la la la la la la ♪ what is it exactly about this place? over the past century the system here, the tradition, whatever it is that took hold here, churned out a tremendous number of the world's most important chefs.
chappell, bocuse, toisgros, and most importantly, influenced nearly all the rest of them. >> why lyon? why is this such a gastronomic capital? why bocuse here? why troisgros? why all of these great chefs? >> because lyon is really positioned between the north and the south. >> right. >> you're locked in between burgundy and rome. >> lyon is the second largest city in france, situated in the southeast of the country midway between the alps in the east and the mediterranean to the south. >> this was also a bottleneck when cars became the mode of transportation. >> goes right to the heart of the michelin driving the destination on the way to -- >> completely. >> out of that system came chefs like this guy, daniel boulud. like prince or madonna, he needs really only one name. in new york or anywhere in the chef world, daniel.
the name of his three-star eponymous restaurant in manhattan, one of many in an empire that stretches from london to singapore. he came from here, a farm outside the city of lyon, through the city's great kitchens to la cirque in new york, then his flagship. >> when did you start working with food? >> 14 years old, 1969. i started as an apprentice in lyon. >> he started as so many french cooks of his time did, at the very bottom. as a 14-year-old apprentice in the restaurant nandron. what was your first job in the kitchen? >> they used to call me the beaver, because i was just washing every single day. they make you clean the vegetable, they make you carry all the boxes from the market. >> 14. you can't do that anymore, can you? >> i don't think you can make him work 12 hours a day and pay him maybe a buck a month. >> ah, the good old days. >> yeah, well. >> why lyon? why here?
look at the fundamentals, the things that lyonnaise think of as birthrights. the right, for instance, to eat delicious cured pork in unimaginably delicious forms. >> the art of charcuterie, lyonnaise can't live without it. >> pate, sausages, it's an art that's revered here and widely enjoyed. [ speaking french ] >> few names garner more respect from aficionados of pig than reynaud. [ speaking foreign language ] >> 20 ton of saucisson just inside this room. the holiday are coming and they're going mad with production of saucisson. >> in a relentlessly cold room, pork shoulder, belly and back fat are fed in batches through a vertical chopper. the sprinkling of seasoning and spices.
removed in large balls of finely but not too finely chopped leek. you do not want to get your hand caught in one of these things. then mixed to smooth perfection with a dough hook. >> lot of work. >> spread out and layered for consistent seasoning, formed into shapes and smacked to remove air bubbles. >> make sure the meat gets really tight. >> into the sausage machine and piped into organic casings. trust me, it ain't easy. >> very light touch. >> let's see now, wise guy. come on. let's see this.
that's how you get pregnant. >> it's all in the meat. >> yeah. >> just release at the end. >> it's a serious workplace but with production nearly done, this being france and all, it's time for a snack and some wine. >> doing what i'm good at. eating. >> this is the saucisson. >> this is so good. >> sabodet. >> sabodet, another of lyon's most famous sausages is made primarily from pig's head with pork belly, pork shoulder, brandy, nutmeg, and allspice mixed in for flavor. >> man, it's good. >> that's what we're going to eat with my father. >> oh, yeah? >> i'm going to get some here. [ speaking foreign language ] >> he knows he does really good work. >> huh? >> he knows how good his stuff is. cheers.
nice -- it's a beautiful day in lyon. >> yeah. ♪ >> in lyon, a city that believes absolutely in the power of food, one name is everywhere. the name that brought honor, attention and millions of visitors to the city. though there have been many chef heroes in the annals of gastronomy, in lyon and even across france, one name stands above all others. murals, bridges, markets, casual brasserie, the name of monsieur paul is everywhere. but one of his most enduring institutions is this. la institute bocuse. one of the nation's great culinary schools. now, just to give you an idea of
the standards here, the kind of traditional dishes, baseline old school fundamentals you're expected to master before you move on at becoming a creative genius all your own, meet these guys. matthew vianet, joseph viola and the institute's top dog, alain lacosec. chefs and m.o.f.s all. otherwise known as muffs. >> pretty much pay your flight home, private. >> master chefs. >> every four years, they have this m.o.f. competition. >> m.o.f. is -- >> meilleur ouvrier of france. >> the master craftsmen of france. >> there's about 30 discipline of craftsmen where you can acquire the m.o.f. >> see that red, white and blue around their necks? that means they made it through the brutally, unreasonably rigorous competition that pits hundreds of top chefs against each other, where only a handful survive.
>> so basically, four or five every four years. >> certified by the highest in the land as being at the very top of the top of their professions. m.o.f. challenges often include ultra old-school classics not unlike the one we're making today. pouillard au visse. thick slices of black truffle slipped under the breasts of chickens from bresse, the rolls-royce of chickens. it's then tied, slipped inside a pig's bladder and steamed until tender. >> the idea is to concentrate the flavor of the truffle inside the bladder. the dish they choose, it's always in reference to a chef of the past. and this was a dish brassier was doing. >> the at times brutal world of the michelin kitchen looks much of the time like a boys' club. but where do they come from?
if we track back a bit to where it all began for lyon and for many of the chefs whose names we now know and look up to, it all goes back to here. la mer brazier, the godmother, the original master. teacher, chef, force. two restaurants with three michelin stars. an achievement no one, male or female, had ever attained and for many years, lyon's most famous chef. her influence runs right through every kitchen that's come since and her graduates carry on her recipes and her traditions. this was one of hers, a signature. >> for the next hour, you keep putting hot bouillon like this. the most miserable thing is when the bladder explodes. >> that's never a good thing
when a bladder explodes. >> as the chicken cook, the bladder start to really expand. you have to talk to your bladder. >> i do all the time, believe me. please hold up, please hold up. not here. people are looking. wait until you get in between cars. >> a rather luxurious sauce of more, much more black truffle and generous amounts of foie gras and triple cream. perfect. nice milkshake. slightly pink around the legs but cooked through, the flesh perfumed by the generous slices of truffle. >> who gets to eat like this? we do. >> how is it, tony? >> divine. >> you see the perfect balance in the sauce. if i was a chicken, that's the way i would like to end up. >> even if i weren't a chicken, i'd want to go like this. die surrounded by truffles and foie gras and fine wine. >> merci.
and then i saw him, slowly coming down the aisle. one of those guys who just can't stop talking. i was downloading a movie. i was trying to download a movie. i have verizon. i don't. i get that little spinning wheel. download didn't finish. i finished the download. headphones on. and i'm safe. i didn't finish in time. so. many. stories. vo: join us and save without settling. verizon. so far, you're horribleht. oat this, flo.use and a car! yeah, no talent for drawing, flo. house! car! oh, raise the roof! no one? remember when we used to raise the roof, diane? oh, quiet, richard, i'm trying to make sense
♪ the roaring of a powerful engine. the screech of rubber and off we go. kings of the road in our citroen deux chevaux. two horse power classic. >> no power steering, huh? >> you're kidding. >> it's like a toy car. >> we're going back in time a bit, to the area where daniel grew up, where life was very different from new york. were you the misfit of the family, rebellious or -- >> i was quite rebellious. my parents were talking to me about the idea of taking over the farm. as the oldest son, that would have been the logical thing. >> right. the farmer's life was not for you. >> no. >> he grew up in a true farm family. you milk the cows, tended the
animals. daniel claims he never even saw processed food until he was a teenager. [ engine turning ] [ horn honking ] [ speaking in french ] ♪ >> a brief respite by the side of the road and some passersby are apparently less appreciative of fine automobiles than we are. a short consultation with an automotive professional and we are back on the road, back in this case to school. this was daniel's old elementary school in the nearby town of st. pierre de chambio.
i'm automatically taken back to memories of my own school days. the smell of caustic pine cleaner, chalkboards and fear. the cruel ministrations of tiny-eyed lunch ladies slopping canloads of prison chow into steam tables. chipped beef, tuna noodle surprise, and powdered mashed potatoes that haunt my sense memories still. ♪ >> pumpkin soup today with onion, nutmeg and chicken stock. but basic good pumpkin soup. >> this is marie, head chef, cook, host and server for 320 hungry and very discriminating french schoolchildren ages 3 to 12. on the menu price fixe today, a pumpkin soup, a fresh blankette de broissot served with homemade couscous and a sauce supreme. >> this is a very sophisticated meal for children.
i was a little -- in school, frankly. like a lot of other students, i want pizza, pizza, pizza, are the children here open to variety? [ speaking french ] >> we want to make sure they always get a little challenged by how the food looks and the smell and also the taste after. i think she has a very strict budget. >> in the usa, greatest country in the world no doubt, we spend an average of $2.75 per student for public school lunch. compare and contrast. >> $1.50. >> did you eat this well when you were here? >> absolutely. >> bonjour. >> bonjour. daniel. ca va? >> the kids attack their food like hungry trenchmen, wiping out three servings in the time it takes me to eat one. i guess they like it. >> it's good. >> delicious. >> yeah, this is good. >> i tell you, i don't think my chef in new york would do better.
>> it would go well with wine, too. >> you're going to jail for that in the states. these kids eat fast. look how fast this kid eats. turn your head, he'll eat your food right out of your plate. push up your tray just like in prison, move it along. move it along. >> they come to you and serve you. most important thing that we see here is the love mary give to the food she make and to the kids she serves. i think it has a lot to do with the reaction they have to food. >> dessert is homemade fromage blanc, farmer cheese with chocolate and orange segments. >> what do you want to be when you grow up? fireman. [ speaking french ] >> generate machine gun. >> and he wants to make -- >> engineer machine gun, yeah. >> okay. keep an eye on that one. all right. >> for a dope fiend, feeding the
monkey means finding and sticking with heroin. for one poor guy, it's this. french food. in particular, lyonnaise food. the cautionary tale of bill buford. writer, editor, literary lion with a perfectly good job as fiction editor at the prestigious "new yorker" magazine. at the undignified age of 53 he pretty much pulled up stakes, put his whole past life on hold, and defected to france, to learn how to cook. what happened to you anyway, buford? you used to have a good job, you hung out a couple nights with batali and next thing you know you're living in france. >> it's true. >> and cooking. >> i discovered a whole world that the rest of the world didn't seem to know about, just a very compressed and tense lifelong learned expertise and knowledge of food. it's not the food network and it's not glossy magazines and it's not something you get from
reading a recipe book. it's something you get by just going deep. i was afraid of france because i knew if i went -- took on the subject of french food i would have to go really deep. so we went and we thought we'd stay for six months, and we stayed for five years. >> we meet at bouchon contrel. a bouchon is a uniquely lyonnaise institution, a casual laid-back kind of pub/bistro with a limited old school menu and always, always an unpretentious vibe. people come here to unwind, to relax, and to eat with abandon. >> so you say outright recently in one of your published works that lyon is better than paris. >> lyon is a dark, tragic, beautiful, well-eating city. and everybody here knows they have a really good life, and they don't give a flying fig if anybody else knows about it because they don't actually want visitors. >> if you were to pick one
iconic dish to represent the bouchon lyonnaise, it would have to be the canel broche. a not particularly fabulous river fish, pike, folded into a light dough until fluffy and airy but still rich, adrift in a rich creamy, almost bisque-like nontoi sauce made with crayfish, creme fraiche, brandy, a splash of wine. >> pretty amazing. really, for one of the world's lesser fish. >> it's kind of a nice mix of france and italy. >> gentlemen, good to see you. >> what a treat to eat together in lyon. healthier. it begins from the second we're born. after all, healthier doesn't happen all by itself. it needs to be earned... every day... using wellness to keep away illness... and believing that a single life can be made better by millions of others. healthier takes somebody who can power modern health care... by connecting every single part of it.
if you're really going to understand a place, love it the way it deserves to be loved, maybe you have to live there. bill buford did just that and made lyon his home. today he's taking me somewhere only someone from the home team could be expected to know about. >> it's a beautiful day. the sky is blue, we're feeling the seasons changing and we're about to go into a dark room, and you eat a very lyonnaise menu and you drink a vast quantity of lyonaise wine. >> and what sinister bodies will be in there? >> the only kind of people who would do this kind of thing on a bright pretty day, it's a very male tradition.
you work hard, you drink harder. ♪ >> oh! >> uh-oh. >> don't be afraid. >> don't be afraid. >> the mysterious, fabulous, goofy, wonderful bro-fests called franc machon are basically eating and drinking societies that go back over a century, when the silk workers of lyon would finish their night shifts early in the morning. hungry and looking to get, shall we say, completely hammered, they take over a bouchon, stuff their faces like heroes, blow off the proverbial steam in decidedly french fashion, which is to say no freaking guytalian nachos or mozzarella sticks for these boys. hell, no. >> how often do you do this? >> eight times a year. >> it's a very lyonaise society, some secret. >> all of them have special memberships? >> there must be 50 of those
that i know about. you are invited to be a member and remain a member the rest of your life. >> the food is invariably deliciously dinosauric and heavy yet always glorious classics like blancette davo, the slow and slowly stewed neck and shoulder pieces of veal with mushrooms served over rice. hunks of bread and wine, local beaujolais of course. and lots of it. >> sante. >> sante. >> no politics, no religion. >> and it works. for 50 years. >> yes. >> do women have machon, their own organizations? >> yes. >> there are. so somewhere on the other side of town, there are a lot of women sitting around drinking wine, eating blancette and bitching about the men? uh-oh. >> then there will be, yes, singing. and no doubt the telling of lusty jokes followed by serious official business. [ singing ]
michelin stars and started a dynasty of excellence that continues today with pierre's son michel and his son cesar. >> my dream was always to put maison troisgros on my resume. >> bonjour. >> many have called maison troisgros the best restaurant in the world. and in the '60s the brothers pierre and jean were early, important, and fundamental innovators of what came to be known as nouvelle cuisine. behold, one of their breakout classics. one of the truly game-changing, timeless, most influential dishes in history. it seems now maybe a simple thing, but it absolutely turned the world upside down when it debuts on the troisgros menu in 1962. >> when you have a dish this
legendary, this iconic, there's no escaping it. the rolling stones will always have to play "jumping jack flash." if you google troisgros, you will see this thing. >> forget everything you have seen on google. >> before this, fish was generally overcooked. it was served alongside elaborate garnishes, starches, vegetables. this simple, elegant, almost japanese ode to flavor changed the way we cook fish in restaurants today. and how we make sauces, what our plates look like. >> i remember seeing a picture of this as a young man. i'm getting goosebumps seeing this. thrilling. perfect. >> it's beautiful. >> it's all about the technique. the moment you put the fish in the pan. the moment you put the sauce. it's very important. >> all right.
>> from now to you in the dining room will take about one minute. >> right. >> one minute is the time when it's perfect. >> because it's cooking all the way. mm. perfect. it's a perfect dish. it's really one of the great ideas of the 20th century. fashionable. >> sexy. they even destroy your lawn. are overzealous. ortho weed b gon kills weeds... not lawns. our label says it. your grass proves it. get ortho weed b gon. the label tells the story. gives you season-long control of all these types of bugs.
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when in lyon, one can't help but see a line from there, from the rustic dishes of the farm and the bouchon, to here, the classics of the great tables of europe. all roads lead here. a major trunk of the tree that goes back to karem and beyond. monsieur paul bocuse. ♪ the brigade. the way it is done and has always been done since escoffier instituted a military-style hierarchy into the kitchen. where the only acceptable response to any question or any command is "oui, chef."
this is the special forces, the s.a.s. of cooking. and these cooks live to avoid, under any circumstances, disappointing their comrades, the hierarchy or monsieur paul. daniel worked here and so have many, many who have gone on to run their own celebrated kitchens. >> hello. [ speaking french ] >> in the '70s as a young wanna-be cook, i managed to lay hands on a french copy of paul bocuse's classic cookbook "la cuisine de marche." and i gaped in wonder at the photos. struggled to translate the descriptions of dishes so fantastic i was quite sure i never, ever in my life would cook, much less eat. if you could please say how honored and grateful i am to be here. this is a dream come true. over the years, how many great
chefs have come through this restaurant and gone on to open great restaurants? [ speaking french ] >> he always have a child somewhere around the world because everywhere he goes around the world. >> but bocuse too is and was part of the system. he came up with his own cruel and terrifying masters and their faces are here. fernand point, the towering and intimidating figure behind la pyramide. out of his kitchens came such figures as alain chappelle, francois biese, george perrier, the brothers troisgros, and many more. >> this was all the gang of the nouvelle cuisine.
the '60s in new york. and paul and michel gerard. >> every great chef i have ever met has nightmares of they're still a young man, they're back in a kitchen and a chef is yelling at them. who of his masters? >> the woman. >> la mer brazier at the ripe old age of 20 in the year 1946, he worked as an apprentice for her. >> she was such a screamer. he say you would fall on your ass she was screaming so hard. she was the first up in the morning and the last one to go to bed. she would go to the market with three cook in the back of the truck and she would put the case of green beans or something and the cook will be sitting down making the beans, not to waste time. >> truly a terrifying figure.
>> truffle soup elysee. i can't tell you how many hours i stared at photos of this dish, how pathetically i tried to replicate it. never, ever did i think i'd get to try it, much less like this. sea bass with a tomato bernaise sauce baked in a meticulously crafted millefois crust. >> this is a great moment. >> you only have three camera? >> the fish is filled with a delicate lobster mousse, chervil and tarragon and wrapped carefully in pastry. notice, please, the careful and expert tableside carving and service. >> he has been making the same thing for 50 years. paul has an amazing respect for classic. >> the peasant classic.
>> tony, get closer. >> you are totally sending me every one of those pictures, by the way. wow. look at that. this style of dish goes back long before cameras but it's perfect. is there a more perfect assortment of colors and textures. >> in this one a somewhat more luxurious version. beef shanks, flank steak, ox tail, veal shanks, chicken, marrow bones, beef ribs, leeks, carrots, turnips, fennel, and parsnips. all stewed long and at low temperature, then served with its own deeply rich broth. >> think it's enough for the two of us? >> and then this. >> oh, my god. >> as if the chef had been listening to my deepest, darkest secret yearnings, the legendary yeve a la royale, an almost completely disappeared, incredibly difficult preparation of wild hare.
the animal is first slowly cooked, then coated by a sauce of its own minced heart, liver and lungs that has been thickened with its own blood. after more than six hours of preparation, the hare is served as the chef prefers, whole on the bone, the rich glorious sauce finished with truffles and chartreuse. napeed over and over, until it coats like richest chocolate. absolutely the lost ark of the covenant of cuisine ancienne. >> everything great about cooking is encapsulated in this dish. >> we continue all over the world to make cuisine of paul many generations to come. forever. >> i will never eat like this again in my life. chef, merci. the meal of my life. >> today i was treated to the greatest hits of a glorious and fabled career. for the first and probably the last time, i sat next to the great man himself and daniel and i were served a menu that chefs will look back on in a hundred
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hunting, and over lunch we mentioned that fact to paul bocuse, who immediately insisted, insisted that if we wanted to go duck hunting, we should come by his crib, and so we find ourselves in the morning mist of le dome, a rural area about a half hour outside lyon. and sure enough, in spite of his 88 years and the fact that he's been less than well, 9:00 a.m. on the nose, there he is, sitting on top of his beloved john deere with his faithful dog festand ready to go. >> nice fresh morning. >> that dog is happy. >> the great chef loves this place, and you can see why. ♪ >> monsieur paul can't safely hunt but is happy to chase around flushing birds for us.
[ gunshots ] >> beautiful. >> yeah, it is beautiful. i could do this all day. that was about as good as we're going to get. >> you got a bullet to sell, i hope. >> if you look long enough, you start hallucinating. you start hallucinating ducks where there aren't any. [ gunshots ] >> you see that one falling? >> okay, not a moment to waste. quickly, a second shot. okay. >> you got it? >> yeah. right there. >> festand! >> between me and daniel and festand the dog, we managed to actually bag a few ducks.
>> good job. very good. >> easy shot. >> then it's back to the lodge, clearly bocuse's happy place, where we meet up with some hunting buddies of the great chef. >> you did a good job, no? >> success. >> yeah. it's fantastic. >> is this the hunting lodge, the weekend getaway, hang out with the guys? >> that's where he comes every day, almost. look at the picture behind. you see? >> for tonight's meal, we pluck and roast some woodcocks over an open fire. cook up some well-aged duck and
pheasant. >> they made this at the auberge paul bocuse. it's a swiss style mashed potato. >> is it predominantly butter or predominantly potato? >> is there a head in there somewhere? >> yes, of course. >> that's happiness right there. >> my father used to say -- used to say, i am a man of simple needs. and i notice that the chef. a nice fire, some birds. >> we can spend the whole week with paul, and we'll be hunting, we'll be cooking, we'll be eating, drinking, and talking. and that's beautiful. >> life is good.
>> it is for me a dream to spend this time with a legend. but i'm thrilled that bocuse seems too genuinely delighted. >> you see, it's the one behind you? >> in lyon and all across france he's monsieur paul, the great chef, a public figure, a hero, an institution, always treated with the greatest deference. here it appears he's free to enjoy the simple things with friends and local farmers who talk to him like anybody else. it's a pretty damn magical thing to see.
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♪ daniel may be a three-star michelin chef, but like so many of his predecessors he's basically a farm boy at heart. he grew up milking cows and doing farm work here, on his family's spread. there is, it turns out, something of a restaurant tradition to build on. the house on his farm was once a small cafe as well, operated first by his grandparents and great-grandparents. the famous cafe boulud, it turns out, was not the first place to bear that name.
>> they kept it about 80 years, 100 years, and then they closed it. >> no, no. >> meeting daniel's dad, one begins to understand the roots of his perfectionism. his mom, dad, wife catherine, and daniel collaborate. with some debate. on a super old school farmhouse classic. the sort of thing that good times, bad times, a family could make with stuff that's always readily available on the farm. check this out. it's a hollowed out pumpkin layered with toasted hunks of stale country bread, which monsieur boulud sr. bakes himself. nutmeg, grated gruyere cheese,
mushrooms, fresh cream from the cows, and the meat of the pumpkin. >> and layer of bacon also. homemade pancette. very good. oh, man, it's heavy. we made it. >> is he concerned the pumpkin's going to try to get out? >> daniel's dad can be something of a gaulic mcguyver. you don't waste stuff around here, and he's a bit of an inventor anyway. >> how much would you pay for a machine like this? >> look at this. an old washing machine turned still. >> what the hell is that? >> so underneath we have the -- but to seal it so there's no air coming in, there's cement. it's not distilled yet, just fermented. >> leftover grape solids from
the wine-making process usually used to make liquor like grappa. today a different use. if we can get it out of here. >> why did you put so much cement on it? >> we'll be using this delightfully funky stuff to flavor the steam that cooks the vegetables and the sabodet sausages from mr. reynon inside the still. >> and we come back in an hour. >> at dusk we settle for dinner. >> look at that. >> there is the pumpkin. >> incredible. look at that. wow. >> the pumpkin is amazing. we also have that great sabodet
sausage from mr. reynon. >> look at that. >> cabbage and potatoes. all steamed in the still. >> the flavor you get from the fermented grape, awesome. >> yeah, it's awesome, huh? >> good. so good. >> and if you know daniel at all, he can't really help himself. he's popping up and down, serving everybody, making sure everything's just right. and sitting here with his family in the house he grew up in, you can see where it all comes from. >> madame and monsieur, their son, he's now a gigantic international success. but when he was a young man at 14 sneezing in a field, did they ever anticipate this? no? no early indications of greatness? but there is a line, isn't there, from the farm and haute cuisine? they all reflect the region hopefully. but in the best case they're interdependent, they come from each other. who cooks in the great restaurants? farm boys, basically. that's who always cooked. my deepest thanks to your mother and your father. thank you.
>> merci. next time my father make you drive the tractor. -- captions by vitac -- www.vitac.com this is cnn breaking news. >> we begin with breaking news out of kenya, where media report gunmen have attacked the university in the south central part of the country. >> our affiliate reporting there's been heavy gunfire inside as officers engaged the attackers and plansambulances a stand by. one student said most students were asleep when the gunmen came in and started shooting. another witness says he was praying at a mosque around 5:00 a.m. local time when he heard gunshots. he says he saw men in military uniforms surrounding the mosque.