tv Finding Jesus Faith Fact Forgery CNN February 26, 2017 10:00pm-11:01pm PST
>> maybe we can't rehabilitate judas, but at least we can have some empathy for him. an ancient burial box, inscribed with the name "james", son of joseph, brother of jesus. a box that might actually be a connection to jesus christ himself. but who was his brother james? >> the gospels are very clear that jesus had siblings. >> from doubter. >> can you imagine if someone said my brother is the son of god? >> to leader. >> james ran the whole show in
jerusalem. >> james really is the forgotten man. >> embroiled in one of the longest forgery trials ever, could this box be the first physical evidence of jesus and his secret brother james? fall 2002. the royal ontario kmum in ontario, canada opens its doors to what may be the most significant discovery ever in biblical archaeology.
a limestone burial box known as an ossuary, scientifically dated to the time of christ. on its side an inscription in ancient aramaic which reads "james, son of joseph, brother of jesus. " >> it came just as we'd crossed the millennium threshold. we'd already had the y2k bug, we had the post millennial visits to the holy land. this seemed to be another one of those millennial happenings. >> it's claimed that this box, measuring 10 inches by 20 is no less than the burial casket of james, the brother of jesus christ.
>> the ossuary is so important, not just for the fact that it says the brother of jesus, but you have to understand that there's no physical evidence of the existence of jesus of nazareth dating from the time of jesus. there's nothing except the gospels, which were written down decades later. this would be the first physical evidence that jesus of nazareth existed. >> this is such a landmark. i mean, this is the only material evidence, nonliterary we have for the family of jesus. >> i think most people would be extremely surprised to learn that jesus had siblings, even though james is called the brother of jesus in the new testament, most christians grow up learning that mary was a virgin and that he didn't have any siblings, so i think most people would be astonished. >> the gospels of both matthew and mark name jesus's brothers.
as well as james, there's joses, judas and simon alongside at least two unnamed sisters. but exactly whose offspring these other children are is still the subject of debate. >> for catholics, there is that emphasis on mary's virginity. she was not only a virgin at the time of jesus's conception and birth but also afterwards. that's why i like to think of james, the brother of jesus as probably a child from joseph's prior marriage before he married mary. >> but not all christians are in agreement. >> protestants would say there are other children that are the biological kids of mary and joseph, in which case, jesus would be the older brother. and perhaps other siblings of jesus would have looked up to him.
>> matthew 1:25 says literally joseph was not knowing her in the carnal sense until she gave birth until jesus. now any normal reading of that sentence implies she went on to have more children after that, and his brothers and sisters are in fact his brothers and sisters. >> the bible tells us very little about the early life of jesus. >> the gospels really fast forward almost totally until he's 30 years old, and he's the son of god. >> what about all those missing years, when he was a teenager, playing around with his brothers, getting into trouble? >> written around 100 years after jesus' death, the infancy gospel of thomas is a collection of stories about his childhood. >> there is a peculiar story about james, and it's interesting picture of jesus and james together as children.
>> joseph sent james into the forest to gather sticks. jesus also went with him. the gospel continues. an abominable snake bit james on the hand, and as he lay dying, the boy jesus ran to james. and did nothing but blow on the bite and immediately the bite was healed. >> james is put there with jesus from the very beginning. we see an organic connection
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so come in today. the story of the james ossuary, the casket that may have held the bones of james, the forgotten brother of jesus starts with one of the world's greatest antiquities collectors. >> oded golan is one of the great experts on archaeological artifacts. >> i have actually the biggest private collection of ossuaries in israel, probably in the world. >> most of his collection tells the story of the development of the civilizations here and that includes the biblical era. his collection must be worth millions and millions of dollars. >> according to golan, in the early 1907s, he bought an empty, first century ossuary from a dealer in jerusalem.
>> i could see some of the names that are mentioned. especially jacob, the first name, meaning james. it came by itself without any item to accompany it. >> in first century jerusalem, the bones of the dead were placed in ossuaries in underground tombs. archaeologist byron mccain is a leading expert on burial practices in ancient palestine. >> we're just south of the old city of jerusalem. there are a number of burial caves from the time of jesus right around here. in the jewish tradition, on the first anniversary of the death, they gather the bones of their deceased loved ones, those bones are placed in an ossuary. the ossuary is marked with the name of the deceased and then placed somewhere in the tomb.
>> back in 1970s jerusalem, there is a vibrant market for antique ossuaries. >> i didn't see anything particular in this ossuary. it was set for many times at my parents' apartment, together with several other ossuaries i purchased at that time, because i didn't put any special attention to this ossuary. >> but in april 2002, golan invites andre lemaire, a renowned scholar of arabic to examine some items in his collection. lemaire's attention is immediately drawn to the unidentified ossuary golan bought 30 years before. lemaire deciphers the mysterious inscription. it reads "james, son of joseph, brother of jesus." >> he found that there is a very high probability that it belonged to james, the brother
of jesus christ. frankly, i didn't even know that jesus christ had a brother or sisters. >> golan immediately sends the ossuary to the geological survey of israel to help with its authentication, using high-powered microscopes, they inspect the patina coating the box and the inscriptions. they conclude the lettering has not been made by modern tools. >> it's not a question of authentic. it's a question of if it belongs to james. >> intrigued about the probability of finding the names james, jesus and joseph in more than one family in first century jerusalem, he asks a statistician to audit the names on the inscription. >> we have 168 inscribed ossuaries from that period in jerusalem. >> while the name joseph appears on 7%, jesus on 4% and james on
2%, fuchs concludes it's improbable that another family combining these three names existed. >> it is very likely, in my opinion that the james on this ossuary is the james, the brother of jesus. >> the likelihood that this could be some other family with those three names where the father is joseph and the two brothers are james and jesus seems very unlikely. >> 2,000 years ago everything changes for the brothers jesus and james when joseph dies. >> we really don't know when joseph died.
but somewhere around 27 a.d. joseph is nowhere on the scene. >> family is the central core of first century jewish society. they had lost somebody who could be providing for this family, who were essentially living in a subsistence level. the family would really have relied on jesus to pick up the slack, to provide for the family. they would have really needed his income. >> but aged around 30, jesus makes a life-changing choice. >> jesus leaves the family and goes walk about in galilee and judea. >> according to the gospels, jesus seeks out john the baptist on the banks of the river jordan.
>> jesus' baptism by john the baptist really galvanized him, it got him thinking i must act now and convert people now. >> he begins performing miracles, casting out demons. >> according to the gospels, there are large crowds that are drawn to jesus throughout his ministry. jesus' healing miracles would have drawn a lot of attention. >> but while jesus embarks on his mission, his family remain in nazareth. >> jesus leaves james and the other brothers and sisters in charge of the family. >> hey, enough. >> and that is what's
uncomfortable about this story. the village itself was a small village. so tongues would wag about this whole deal of jesus going off and doing some kind of ministry and leaving his family to take care of business. >> there would have been a lot of social marginalization that they would have experienced because they had this crazy, embarrassing brother. and we can imagine that would have created friction between jesus and his family. >> but as the fame of jesus spreads, the tension with his family will come to a head. >> james looked upon what jesus was doing as something that brought the family into dishonor. >> and set brother against brother. ♪ ♪
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>> the fact that jesus heals the man with the withered hand on the sabbath, in the synagogue suggests that he's just going to do what he wants. >> it's an action that brings jesus into conflict with the jewish priesthood. now his reputation precedes him wherever he goes. the number of his followers increases. the crowds he attracts bring him to the attention of the roman authorities. >> when jesus is active in galilee, those areas were under roman occupation. you could believe whatever you wanted to believe in the roman empire, you could practice your religion in whatever way you chose to practice your religion, but what romans didn't like is one charismatic figure, especially one who was messianic.
>> fearing for jesus' safety, james and his family come to capernaum. >> i think it would be terribly frightening to have a member of your family get involved in that kind of religious environment, potentially leading up to violence. >> the family have hear these reports that jesus is preaching and casting demons out, and they think, has he gone mad. >> here to sao to see jesus. it's his mother and brothers. >> when jesus gets word that his family has come for him, he refuses to see them. he asks, who are minor and my brothers. here are my mother and my brothers. whoever does god's will is my brother and sister and mother.
>> he's saying to his family, if you don't support me, i'm going to deny you too. >> he won't see them. >> it's almost like he dises his family. >> that was actually a rejection of the flesh and blood family, and i think his family would have been shocked by that. >> he's out of his mind, leave. go! >> james is not unlike us. can you imagine if your brother said, you know, i'm the son of god, you know, what would you say? obviously, we would think they're crazy. >> a few weeks later jesus enters jerusalem. hundreds of thousands line the streets. according to the gospels, he's later arrested in the garden of gethsemane and the following day
is tortured. and executed. jesus' family have failed to save him. an apocryphal gospel not found in the new testament tells us about james. >> the gospel of the hebrews portrays james as being in jerusalem in the immediate aftermath of the crucifixion. >> james has probably found the whole business of jesus being crucified about as traumatic, about as life-changing as he can imagine. >> he goes into a period of fasting.
and mourning. >> something that no one else of jesus' followers did. >> but then the bible reveals that james' grieving is brought to a sudden end. jesus returns. >> he was buried, and he was raised on the third day, in accordance with the scriptures. then he appeared to james. >> james has spent much of his life wondering who his brother is, especially during this extraordinary mission that jesus has been on. and the resurrection is the moment where james comes to believe that jesus really is something special.
perhaps that was the moment where he came to acknowledge jesus was not just his brother but also his lord. >> james' life is transformed. now, from doubting brother, he will become jesus' most devoted follower and helps shape a new world religion. this is the silverado special edition. this is one gorgeous truck. oh, did i say there's only one special edition? because, actually there's 5. aaaahh!! ooohh!! uh! holy mackerel. wow. nice. strength and style. which one's your favorite? come home with me! it's truck month! find your tag for an average total value over $11,000 on chevy silverado all star editions when you finance through gm financial. find new roads at your local chevy dealer.
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october 2002. news of the most astonishing archaeological discovery of the new millennium makes headlines around the world. the james ossuary is put on display at the royal ontario museum in toronto, canada. >> at that point i thought we were dealing with just a fantastic archaeological story about perhaps the only item ever to come from the family of jesus. >> but controversy is about to engulf the ossuary. >> while it was on display in toronto some questions were asked here in israel as to how it got there.
the antiquities authorities said we didn't realize that such an important item that he wanted to send abroad. >> two months after it was first put on display, the israel antiquities authority refused to grant oded golan an extension to his export license. they demand the immediate return of the ossuary to israel. >> the israeli police and the iaa felt as though they had been embarrassed in front of the whole world by oded golan. and they went after him. >> in july 2003 tel aviv police, accompanied by officers from the iaa swoop. >> his premises were raided, in the middle of the night. >> we came with a search warrant to search his apartment. >> along with the james ossuary, golan had other rare antiquities they want to examine. >> the whole apartment was full
of archeological finds. >> they turned up all these boxes of materials and drawings and computer programs and other documents that they said looked like a forgery workshop. >> in the end, we had dozens of pieces that were supposedly forged. >> the police confiscate boxes full of artifacts for investigation, including the james ossuary. >> carefully, carefully. >> from that moment on, a totally different era of inquiry was opened. not just concealing antiquities from the authorities, but actually faking them and selling them, which is a criminal act. and so you have this very bright, quite obsessive character coming in contact with this strange world of antiquities, an awful lot of which is based on very shady, dodgy dealing and tomb raiding.
>> it's an allegation oded golan vigorously denies. >> this is ridiculous accusation. all what i hold in my hand is a small box of very old tools in which i use to restore antiquities like any other collector. >> for more than a year golan is held under house arrest while the iaa prepares its case. >> the story switched from being a nice happy archaeological story to a story about a criminal mastermind trying to change the course of history. >> in december 2004 at the district court of jerusalem, golan and four others are charged on 44 counts of fraud and forgery. >> they accused him of being part of an international forgery ring, faking the historical record by forging such important items as the burial box of
james, the brother of jesus. >> the prosecution launch a case to prove that golan added the three most contentious words "brother of jesus" to the inscription. >> it is a genuine ossuary from that period of time. but what oded golan did was he made a supplement and making the whole new meaning of them. >> part of the prosecution's case is based on an examination by epigraphy experts who analyzed the lettering for any inconsistencies. >> if you look at the inscription very carefully, you'll notice there's a difference in depth, clarity and the presence of rning in the first half of the inscription and the second half of the
inscription. >> i believe the chances of at least the second half being a modern forgery are at least 75% to 85%. i think the forger attempted to replicate the style of righting at the first half of the inscription but really didn't do it with enormous precision. >> but the defense disagrees. so next the prosecution turns its attention to the patina, the coating on the box. over the next five years their scientists repeatedly scrutinize the micro organisms embedded inside the lettering. they believe this is all the work of golan. >> he made the fake patina at home. he went to archaeological sites and took out dirt from that period, took it back home and mixed it with water and then poured it over the ossuary. >> now witnesses for the defense contradict this claim. >> to fake a real patina, you
need time. you need years and years. maybe 50 years. maybe 100 years to develop this patina. by growing the micro organisms that form the patina. >> every day new evidence is presented. >> there were more than 120 witnesses in this trial. many of them leading scientific experts. >> the case itself lasted for almost eight years. >> geology, physics, chemistry, stone, glue, ink, you name it. >> i don't think there was ever any case like this in the world. >> the judge said to each of them, look, if you, the best experts in the world, can't tell me whether this is a fake or authentic, then how on earth can i decide? >> finally, in march 2012, after one of the longest-ever forgery trials, 12,000 pages of transcripts and more than 400 exhibits, the judge reaches a
verdict. oded golan is found guilty on two charges relating to the trade in antiquities. but when it comes to the charges of forgery, he's found not guilty and acquitted on all counts. >> i felt the release, but i felt that i lost many years just in order to prove something that should not even have to go into court. >> but the verdict does not comment on whether the box could really have been the ossuary of jesus' brother james. that debate is still very much alive. >> by the end of this ten-year odyssey, what we're left with is an item that might be or might not be associated with jesus' family. >> but the bible does record what happens to james. his fate will impact the course of world history. so tell us your big idea for getting the whole country booking on choice hotels.com.
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thomas, jesus tells his disciples when they want to find leadership after his departure, they should go to james. >> james was a very devout man. a second century historian tells us that james was continually on his knees praying, so much so that he had calloused knees like a camel's knees. >> james becomes the first bishop of jerusalem. >> my brother. >> he becomes a kind of rock of the movement in many ways, because he provides the kind of stability that the new christian movement like that needs. >> over time, he progressively develops a sense of commitment and ownership for his brother's message. >> but his authority is soon to be challenged by someone who was once a sworn enemy of jesus and his teachings.
>> paul had been one of the pharisees who was against the jesus group, who changes sides as it were. and once he comes into the community he just comes in incredibly strongly and takes a huge role. >> paul has been traveling across the roman empire, preaching his own version of the jesus message for more than ten years. his manifesto has even reached non-jews or gentiles. >> the tricky issue of what do we do with gentiles was the hot button issue in earliest christianity. you have to remember all of the earliest followers of jesus were jews. all of them. so where do the gentiles fit into this? >> paul doesn't want the gentiles to convert to judaism in order to become christians, to be followers of christ.
>> his letters to new christian communities, the epistles make up a third of the new testament. his teachings show how determined he is to reach out to gentiles. >> jesus sade go and make disciples of all the nations, and that meant not just the jews. >> if i were james and i'd heard about paul and what paul was doing, i would be hugely frustrated. paul never met the human jesus. here was james, who was jesus' brother, and this upstart was presuming to teach jesus' message and go out among the gentiles with this message? >> things got so bad in the relations between paul and james that ultimately they had a big conference in jerusalem to sort it out. >> around 50 a.d., 20 years after the execution of his brother jesus, james presides over a council of the movement's leaders. the outcome will decide the
future. will they remain a small jewish sect? or will christianity stand alone? >> paul comes to defend the salvation afforded by the death and resurrection of christ that also extends to gentiles, and he brings a "saved" christian to jerusalem in order to try to prove his point. >> here is my friend, a greek. >> paul brings with him titus, an uncircumcised greek, and he's bringing him there to say to everyone to what are you going to do about this? >> the only thing that counts is faith. >> when we read the acts of the apostles, it's quite clear that there's tension, and there's especially tension between james and paul. >> so if you were jesus' brother and this upstart came along preaching and teaching a different message from the one that you had learned from your
brother, i imagine he would have felt immense frustration. >> what the council are witnessing is the birth of early christianity. >> the process by which christianity and judaism become two different things is a process that takes centuries. that said, in my opinion, paul's decision is a critically important moment in that division. >> jews or greeks. slaves or free. >> paul clearly believes you really need to go out there and spread the message if your legacy's going to be protected. >> listen to me. >> james is a tora true jew, and
he got along apparently just fine with the jewish authorities. but this jewish following of jesus had really taken on a life of its own. it wasn't just another sect of judaism. it was a movement. >> james eventually sides with paul. this decision will soon revolutionize christianity, but it will also seal james' fate. he is now seen as a threat to the jewish religious order. >> james was the face of early jewish christianity in jerusalem. he represented all of that. so, of course, the authorities are going to take out on him whatever they had heard about the revolutionary beliefs about the followers of jesus. at that point, the jewish authorities knew that they couldn't control this. >> in spite of james' good behavior, they still associated him with that troublemaker jesus that had been crucified back in
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jerusalem, a.d. 62. a leading member of the jewish priesthood gives james an ultimatum. renounce his brother jesus as his messiah or face death. but james refuses. >> the link between jesus and james ultimately means that james can't survive. >> james is led to the temple walls. only a few hundred meters from where jesus was crucified. >> he's martyred for this cause, and he's martyred for his sincere devotion.
>> but pushing james from the walls doesn't kill him. ancient texts record that the final blows come when he's stoned to death and his body is buried on the spot where he falls. in accordance with jewish custom of the time, one year after his death, james' bones would have been collected and interned in an ossuary. >> i think it is likely that james' body was claimed by his followers and buried. there was considerable support from within the city of jerusalem right across the board for james to be honored against the demeaning death that was inflicted on him. >> after james's murder, the crucial role he played in the development of the early church will fade from view.
but today in jerusalem, james is still venerated. the 12th century armenian cathedral is dedicated to him. >> st. james is our first patriarch. we feel privileged that our brotherhood here in st. james are in direct succession and in direct line to st. james, the first bishop of jerusalem. in our daily prayers, james is our lord. james is sitting next to christ. >> it's claimed the cathedral is built on the site of james' home. worshipers also believe his remains are buried here. >> according to armenian tradition, the bones of st. james were brought from the valley of kidron where they were originally buried, and they were reburied under the main altar of
the present st. james cathedral. >> but what happened to the box that first held his mortal remains? >> so is the james ossuary real or not? that's a tough question. the jury is still out on that one. >> at the end of it, you still have a mystery. we'll never quite know if the james ossuary is real or not. we'll never quite know if it's that james, the brother of jesus. >> after golan is acquitted of forging the inscription, the ossuary is eventually returned to him. now he is hoping to put it on display for a second time. >> it should be exhibited to people who have interest in early christianity. and we have a lot of material now that everyone can evaluate, read and even get his own impression or conclusion.
>> but the dispute over the authenticity of the box has left one lasting legacy. >> i think james the just is one of the most important figures in earliest christianity, and the controversy about the ossuary has caused people to become more aware of the fact that jesus had brothers and that james was preeminent among them. >> so why has james's memory been lost to history? >> we are guided so much by the theology that suggests that mary can't really have had other sons than jesus. >> this really bad idea that mary's perpetual virgin really kicked jesus's siblings off stage in the history of christianity. >> the first gospels are written only a few years after james's death, by which time
christianity, as it will become known, is already moving away from its jewish roots. >> by the 2nd century, there were more gentiles in the early church than there were israelites. and the memory of james was diluted. and now we come to think of him as a purely historical figure and not as the transitional figure that he truly was. >> theologically, it becomes difficult for us to talk about the important history of the early jesus movement. and that history does involve james. >> everyone else knew jesus. they knew jesus, the great teacher, they knew jesus the great healer. james knew the invisible jesus. james knew the jesus that he was when no one was watching.
♪ ♪ ♪ -- captions by vitac -- www.vitac.com welcome to our viewers in the united states and around the world. you're watching a special edition of newsroom. on hollywood's biggest night, the academy awards. >> thank you for being with us. it is the moment from the oscars that everyone is talking about. >> everybody it seems. it all happened in the last few moments of sunday's ceremony. the