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tv   The Nineties  CNN  July 30, 2017 9:00pm-10:01pm PDT

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affirm. the truth of the matter is that american culture at this point, what is truly american is black culture to a large degree. slip on the television set. it's had a profound influence on this entire nation. and it has to be affirmed. a new breeze is blowing is and a world refreshed by freedom seems reborn. >> tanks heading towards the russian parliament. >> there is no place for lawless aggression in the new world order that we seek to create. >> unemployment will be growing again by election day. >> i will not sell out to anybody but the american people. >> i believe that together we can rekindle that american dream. >> the day of the dictator is over.
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♪ ♪ ♪ what more fitting to 1989 than a party at the berlin wall. thousands of people have gathered at the wall.
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many of them armed with hammers and chisels to chip away at a communist system that seeped to collapse overnight. >> this e enormous celebration that was spontaneous overshadowed the official ceremony attended by the leaders of east and west germany. >> president bush sent a signal to mikhail gorbachev today. there will be no gloating from the white house over the developments in east germany. >> i was in the oval office as part of a pool when the wall came down. >> you don't seem elated and i'm wondering if you're thinking of the problems. >> bush basically said in effect i'm not going to poke gorbachev in the eye. >> bush did come into his presidency in the shadow of ronald reagan. but maybe we had elected the right man at the right time because he wasn't internationalist. >> you had 50 years of the cold war, two visions of the world locked in combat and then suddenly a whole world of
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totalitarian rule began to fall. bush was quite cautious. he was really aware that even subtle messages from the united states could indicate all sorts of things. >> the wall fell in berlin. the questions were numerous. right away, what's going to become of europe. >> bulgaria is under a state of alert this morning. protesters set fire to the headquarters of the governing socialist party and chanted let the communists burn. >> tens of thousands of ordinary citizens stormed the headquarters of the secret police tonight. the scenes in that moment are dramatic. people in the streets proclaiming freedom. some of that was liberation. some of it had a darker side. >> romania's dictator, the last hard-line leader in the warsaw
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pact has been opposed. >> romania was the most grotesque of all the east european regimes. the only way to overthrow this regime turned out to be by force. >> fierce fighting erupted in bucharest. all hell has broken loose. >> offered graphic evidence of the fate of the deposed leader. >> they have been made to stand trial on christmas day. >> in the end he got the kind of justice he had dealt out to many of his subjects. >> at the end of this remarkable week, a week of bloodshed, comes a reminder of what the struggle is all about. it's about freedom and the reminder comes from berlin. >> germany was not just a symbol of the the cold war. it was the first great crisis of the cold war.
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>> would a giant state dominate europe. the memories are very real. >> many europeans were very wary of reuniting germany. they liked the idea there were two germanys and they were there for weaker. >> when the european leadership saw the united states favoring the germanys they were uneasy. they thought this was essential and right. >> we have entered a new era in world affairs. the moment when the actions we take can shape this new world for years to come. >> george bush's goal was to get nerm germany to unify within nato.germany to unify within na. >> the white house while repeating the member hardship is nonnegotiable does pair to be putting a major effort to addressing fears. >> george bush had a partner in shaping the world. that partner was gorbachev.
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but he wanted to be neutral. bush always wanted a unified germany. in a very disciplined manner moved him towards that position. >> in a major concession, he agreed to the western possession that a a unified germany is free to join nato. you removed the tension between the two superpowers. >> this is the important picture that president bush came all the way to get at this moment. gorbachev chooses to give president bush his present. >> having just knocked out the cold war with the world as referee. >> george bush and his national security adviser liked to fish together. and one summer they were fishing and thinking about what kind of
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world would emerge after all the dominos had fallen. it's very rare that the world is so fluid and flexible that world leaders can think this way, what the world should be, what it could be. what they imagined was the world that didn't happen after world war ii. the world of collective security of big powers, sharing responsibility for preventing war. they used a term new world order. how do you achieve it. we, the people, are tired of being surprised with extra monthly fees. we want hd. and every box and dvr. all included. because we don't like surprises. yeah. like changing up the celebrity at the end to someone more handsome. and talented. really. and british.
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fomy doctor recommended ibgard. abdominal pain and bloating. now i'm in control of my ibs. nonprescription ibgard- calms the angry gut. today in the state of the nation speech, the president transformed 30 years of south african politics. he promised its most famous leader would soon be free. >> nelson mandela has been in prison because of his actions in leading the armed struggle against apartheid. >> mr. nelson mandela, a a e free man taking his first steps. >> while the world is changing in europe, the apartheid government of south africa sees the writing on the wall. south africa won't be able to continue in the post cold world war world. >> when he's released from
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prison, it becomes a global moment that signifies one of the earliest indications that the 1990s is going to be a different sort of decade. >> i greet you all. peace. freedom for all. >> he becomes a moral beacon around the world because of the way he handled himself. so you had this world, this moment in the early '90s when the peacemakers were in charge. the stars aligned. >> there has been a dangerous late breaking development in the persian gulf. u.s. intelligence sources confirm that it within the past few hours, more than 100,000 iraqi troops have masked along the border with kuwait. >> saddam hussein sends a fleet
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of tanks and other mechanized forces to the kuwaiti border. it's shocking in washington and other than western capitals. saddam hussein had a million-man army and if he invades kuwait, he could lurch into saudi arabia and the saudis would not have been able to resist. all the oil is on the eastern side of the country on the border with iraq. >> iraq invaded and took over kuwait today. the government of dictator saddam hussein claimed it went in at the invitation of those who had overthrown the kuwaiti government. no western authority accepted that story.
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>> many americans are concerned that there may be a war. >> what is required of mr. bush that he doesn't want war. >> if you had been in the room with saddam hussein and interviewed him for an hour and 15 minutes and spent another hour and a half with him after the interview, you would have reached the same conclusion. no question saddam hussein was a stone cold killer. this is the opening of the post cold war era of history. if aggression was allowed to stand, nobody thought it would end there. >> president bush came of age throughout all those decades in which there were world wars, in which there was the west which there was the west against the soviets. ambassador, he'd been. everything. so he really understood the
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world. but for whatever reason when iraq invaded kuwait, he thought nobody would care and almost got away with it. >> the first saturday of the crisis, i got a call on the phone from my boss. he said the president's helicoptering back from camp david. i can't meet him. you have to brief him on the situation. there's probably going to be a lot of press there. i got to go. >> the president lands. i'm out there with my piece of paper. and he took the paper, goes over to the microphone and that's when he just said -- >> this will not stand. this will not stand this aggression against kuwait. i've got to go. i have to go to work. >> it was an unusual sound from him. he was firm because he really meant it. bush had a moral code. i think he got it from his prep school, got it from his mother. and saddam hussein didn't do the honorable thing. he invaded another country. >> from the day the invasion took place, secretary baker led
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the effort to build a global coalition. they had two expeditions overseas in which they were going around from capital to capital looking for support. >> the united nations security council has authorized the use of force against iraq. >> 14 votes in favor, none against, the resolution has been adopted. >> getting that massive alliance together truly goes down in history as one of the greatest accomplishments of any president to be able to get that many people on your side, believing in the same thing and ready to do the same thing. >> what gloria borger managed to do in iraq with the coalition is to create the beginnings of this new world order. who could have imagined the likes of the soviet union, china, and then the middle eastern states as well. standing up to one of their own. >> hundreds of demonstrators
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gathered to protest the inevitable. all but one, that is. >> whatever america goes to war, there's protests in the streets. but you needed congressional support or you wouldn't have popular support. >> the world looks to the president. he can play an historic role in leading us to solve this crisis in a nonviolent way. >> make no mistake about it. our vital interests are at stake. >> bush knew that and had to let that process go forward. you couldn't just declare war and do it. >> the hope of peace remains in my heart and the hearts of us all, but this debate is now about war. >> power in a matter of days can bring this villain to his knees. >> stop being beating the drums of war. let us oppose this march to violence. >> that the new world order must begin with a new world war. >> the argument for going to war
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prevailed. >> president bush said the action by congress now shows saddam hussein that the united states government is serious and united in its demand that iraq withdraw from kuwait or face the consequences. >> we have now closed ranks behind a clear signal of our determination and our resolve to implement the united nations resolutions. >> it is no longer a question of if war starts, but how and when. ♪ when heartburn hits fight back fast with new tums chewy bites. fast relief in every bite. crunchy outside. chewy inside. tum tum tum tum new tums chewy bites. un-lim-ited... ah! ahhh! ah!
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good evening, the headlines at 6:00. more than a million troops facing each other in the desert preparing for war. >> saddam hussein warned the united states today that american troops would, quote, swim in their own blood if they go to war with iraq. >> saddam hussein started this cruel war against kuwait. tonight the battle has been joined. >> 50 minutes ago, american aircraft suddenly descended on iraq and occupied kuwait. the war in the persian gulf has begun. >> secretary, you were credited with the military build up, which has come to a lot of criticism. we have to go to baghdad, secretary.
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>> something is happening outside. the skies over baghdad have been illuminated. we're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. we're getting star bursts in the black sky. >> the significance in journalism terms was it was the first time you had extensive live coverage of the war. >> our office was on the ninth floor of the rasheed hotel. we were one of the tallest buildings in baghdad, so we knew whatever was going to happen, we would be able to see the drama. >> the military offensive overnight has been described as the largest, strongest attack in history. >> clearly, i have never been there, but it feels like we are in the center of hell. saddam hussein in an address to the iraqi people and arab nation says the mother of all wars has started. we told you earlier in the week
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that the ministry had received its own satellite dish and prior to that the foreign ministry -- we have to run. somebody is knocking on the door. we're going to hide. >> we opened the door and there were several armed iraqi security people. one of them could speak broken english. he said, what are you doing here? you should be in the bunker. i fell to my knees and said i won't go. i don't care about the danger. they looked at me disgustedly and left. so i got up and closed the dor. my colleagues emerged from hiding and we continued coverage for the next 12 hours. >> what is at stake is more than one small country. it is a big idea, a new world order, where diverse nations are drawn together in common cause to achieve the universal
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aspirations of mankind. peace and security, freedom and the rule of law. >> george bush was one of the youngest pilots in the navy. he shot down, survived heroically. that experience is so searing. the experience of being involved in a global war between clear good and clear evil. so there is a realization that if you can use overwhelming air power, you're going to be able to not only iraqi military forces, but you're going to be able to eviscerate iraq as a functioning 20th century nation. >> you had 40 plus days of air war. and ultimately we began to run low on targets. >> president bush praises israel's continued restraint in the face of last night's attack
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by iraq when seven scud missiles landed on israel. >> saddam hussein tried his damndest to provoke into entering this armed conflict, including sending scud missiles into tel aviv. >> the remains of tel aviv after this morning's scud missile attacks. eight missiles landed altogether in the tel aviv central area. there was no warning of them. >> it was a fairly clever ploy by saddam hussein to split apart the coalition and it took all of the diplomatic wherewithal of the president to keep israel out of the war. >> the coalition will give saddam hussein until noon saturday. >> if he doesn't begin moving his forces, the allied coalition is on the verge of invading kuwait and iraq by land. >> told them, move it or lose it. they wouldn't move it, now they will lose it. >> colin powell, then chairman
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of the joint chiefs of staff, believed in exerting maximum power on the ground so you wouldn't be fighting a prolonged war. this would be quick and decisive. it became known as the powell doctrine. >> the ground war started this morning as the americans and their allies attack with massive fire power that shook the earth. >> we're 15 1/2 hours into a ground war that from all the sketchy reports we're receiving is going well. so far the offensive is progressing with dramatic success. the troops are doing a great job, but the war is not over yet. >> what are your impressions of saddam hussein as a military >> storminin norman was out of central casting. >> he's neither a strategist nor schooled in the operational art nor is he a tactician nor is he
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a general nor is he as a soldier. other than that, he's a great military man. >> big and burly and confident. when he came in the briefing room, your chest swelled. it was american military might on parade. >> his presence was important. it was a huge actor on american support for the war. >> the war in the gulf is virtually over. tonight, what may be the final battle of the gulf war. >> headlines in newspapers screamed fight them, but pictures from southern kuwait told a different story. >> the iraqi army began to emerge from their holes in the desert to give up. >> we knocked out saddam hussein in 100 hours. it was a route. >> this is sand from the liberated beaches of kuwait. >> that was a massive success. it showed the world a huge lesson. that this kind of aggression would not stand. the problem was that they didn't go all the way to baghdad. >> but that would have been a
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much bigger military operation because what many of the allies signed on to was only to liberate kuwait. the united states allowed saddam hussein to stay in power. >> the message flashed in new york city's times square said it all. the war in the gulf has ended. >> saddam hussein had had bigger than life ambitions. he was willing to do whatever it took to stay in power, to exert himself, to make iraq the geostrategic center of the middle east. he failed at all of them.
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demonstrators protesting marched to the wall of the kremlin. this keeps the pressure on kosh trov, who promised to accelerate the pace of his reforms. these people want him to deliver on that promise, now. >> many protesters carried the flag of free revolutionary russia. >> gorbachev's reforms weren't working. russia will go up several hundred percent.
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>> life was becoming harder. consumer goods harder to find. food even hard to come by. the economic system was breaking down. >> in a country accustomed to shortages, people were saying they have never had it so bad. >> hardliners did not like the tone of reforms introduced by gorbachev. >> his reforms were meant to restore and refresh communism and save the soviet union and had impact exactly the opposite effect. >> you couldn't reform this economic system. you had to throw it out. he wasn't willing or able to do that. it was a matter of time before the old establishment were going to try to get rid of him. >> his message calling for national unity has fallen on deaf ears. >> it's difficult for outsiders to capture what gorbachev was in. i remember being with him when i was traveling with president bush. he was depleted by what he had had to deal with on every level. >> it was a parade intended to celebrate a united and successful soviet military machine.
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but this day comes as the army is losing its roll abroad and prestige at home, intending to blame mr. gorbachev. >> i had a call from the mayor of moscow and while we talked about local politics, he wrote on a sheet of paper that a coup was being organized against gorbachev and i told him that we have information that president bush wanted him to know. a coup was webeing organized an could happen at just about any time. first, he sort of laughed and said president bush has said that we are friends and now he's proved it. you did what you should do. but don't worry, it's not going to happen. >> it was announced on
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television that gorbachev was ill and a committee would take charge until he recovered. >> tanks are reported to be heading towards the russian parliament where thousands of people are gathered in defiance of the new soviet government. >> gorbachev's whereabouts are unknown. there are thoughts he is under house arrest. he certainly isn't able to act as he wants to. >> every year he liked to holiday on the black sea. and his aides showed up at his home and cut off communications and took away his nuclear codes. >> the military commander, minister of the interior and prime minister joined forces to mount the coup. >> nothing threatens mr. gorbachev. he's in a safe place. except he needs some time to feel better. >> warned today that the right
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wing coup would have tragic consequences. >> it is the beginning of civil war. >> extraordinary drama in moscow tonight. scenes of destruction, of fire, of blood on the streets. >> four people died, short order crushed by armored vehicles. >> speculation he's being held in moscow, 50,000 people gathered at the russian parliament building. >> gorbachev wasn't that popular, but these people were even less popular than gorbachev. if they mounted a coup in 1989 or 1990 he might have fallen and the new soviet union would have been quite different. but there were already new legitimate figures that the russian people were supporting and were expecting a lot from. >> around 50,000 supporters gathered to chant their support for the man who is now carrying
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the battered banner of reform. >> boris yeltsin had been pop u larly elected as president of the russian federation. he was emerging as an alternative power to the communist party leaders. >> let me put on pli glasses and read you a piece of wire copy that has just come across on reuters. bor boris yeltsin has ordered all units involved in the overthrow of gorbachev to stand down and said he was assuming control on the territory of russia. clearly there's a major confrontation shaping up in the russian republic. >> the day began with a session of meetings and phone calls. among his conversations were one with status in the white house has risen suddenly to the potential savior of soviet democracy. >> when the tanks came in, the commander called him and said i'm supposed to attack you, but i will not. i will protect you. and that's when he stood up on the tank and indicated to the coup leaders these guys are with
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me, not you. >> it is a coup by criminals. yelled yeltsin. >> because what gorbachev brought about the communist party and military could no longer move against the russian people. that was earth shaking. >> tonight the skyline was ablaze with celebration. relief as the symbols of conflict were removed. >> gorbachev comes back to moscow, but the totalitarian system of government that led this country for 70 years collapsed virtually overnight. that was an amazing thing to see. >> when he saw evidence his vision of a free state wasn't going to come to pass, rather than cracking down so he could stay in the kremlin, he let it happen. that takes a courage that is so unusual in world history. >> you are looking at the russian flag flying tonight over the kremlin. just before the kremlin cameras clicked on today, gorbachev said
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to himself, quote, when you have to go, you have to go. he then officially resigned as president of the soviet union and turned over the nuclear codes to the new top man russia's boris yeltsin. >> society has been granted its freedom. been politically unchained and that's our biggest achievement. >> there's a saying about a revolution about its own children. in russia's case, its own father. gorbachev. >> i wish you all all the best. do you really use head & shoulders?
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there are times tough wonder anybody in their right mind would want to be president of the united states. exhibit a, george bush. >> it's one of the tragedies of the american system that presidents feel they need to be reelected to prove their legacy. the first election wasn't a fluke. >> for republicans, what a difference a year makes. 365 days ago, president bush's popularity was at an all-time high. >> after the gulf war, people believed we would have four more years. but the economy was in a recession and everyone approved of how he handled the war, there were concerns about how he handled the economy. >> in little rock, arkansas, governor clinton makes it
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official. because he favors the rich at the expense of the middle class. >> i believe that together we can make america great again. >> bill clinton is very formidable. he proves early on to understand the major vulnerability of george h.w. bush and that's the economy. >> that's why today i proudly announce my candidacy for president of the united states of america. >> americans compete for fewer jobs and unemployment will be growing again by election day. >> 83,000 jobs gone. >> 140,000 americans became unemployed. >> i know the pain up here. i have heard about the lost homes and the shattered lives. we had won the cold war and i thought instead of putting countries abroad first, it was time that we started looking out for our own country and our own people and all of these things led me to believe if nobody is going to do it, i think i might. >> we are tomorrow. so i am declaring my candidacy
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to the republican nomination for president of the united states. >> pat buchanan is a super smart guy who worked in the nixon administration and pushing nixon to the right. pat buchanan became george bush's worst nightmare. he starts talking to the american people who are feeling a little unsure as the reagan prosperity engine sputters. >> while george bush was an excellent foreign policy is president, he was not a good politician. >> to get to that. >> let me quote the words of one arab leader, saddam hussein himself. >> pick this up or take it out of my pocket. >> george bush was a little awkward. it's like he's pretending to be a politician. he did not look forward to the '92 election. >> public criticism of his
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foreign travels, the president his trip to japan was about jobs. the result was hardly what his image makers hoped for. >> the lone camera in the dining room was locked in on the head table when president bush was overcome by nausea and fell forward. it appears he lost consciousness as he toppled over on to his host. >> this man who had overseen the soft landing of the cold war, who was chander in chief for a brilliant victory against iraq would be viewed as a weak leader. he vomited into the lap of the japanese prime minister and it was caught on tape. the timing, the optics couldn't have been worse and he knew it. the primaries were about to begin. >> when i get the flu, i do it in a very dramatic, dramatic way. but it was so embarrassing. >> this is a '92 vote special report.
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>> i'm peter jennings. a brief interruption for an update. the voters of new hampshire very concerned with the state of the economy. their own particularly have given president bush ab unpleasant surprise. although abc news projected a victory for the president, conservative commentator patrick buchanan is likely to get 40% of the vote. >> he's able to get the critical mass of people. with his charisma to produce a rift in the republican party. >>. the texas billionaire with lots of ideas. >> it z there any se nar you you would run for president? >> i will not run as a democrat or republican because i will not sell out to anybody but to the american people. i will sell out to them. >> ross perot announced he was going to run for president as an independent. >> i don't want any money from anybody but you. >> i didn't win the nomination. but i think ross perot saw what we did, saw the vulnerability of
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bush and made his decision right then to go. >> it's one thing for sure. ross perot's way of campaigning struck a cord with many voters. >> he bought a half hour on nbc to talk about his plan for curing what ails the economy. >> ross perot, plain talk about jobs, debt and the washington mess. >> i thought it would be a good idea to take the most important problem first. that problem is our economy and jobs. >> out of nowhere comes ross perot, had this straight talking billionaire who looks a a little goofy, but because he has the old southern charming, he's able to evoke an old fashioned america that george bush is not able to evoke effectively. and ross perot starts running against george bush. as an ineffective steward of the reagan revolution. >> let me just go on record one time tonight, we can win. >> the ross perot phenomenon
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reached highs of 38%. bush, 32%. clinton, 20%. >> perot was making inroads. the white house was just furious and scared. if he continued to attract republican voters, then bush was going to lose.
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. in a world where we're one dictator away from one major crises. who do you most trust to be sitting in this chair? >> american presidents tend to love foreign policy because they don't have to deal with anybody they can move and act. the truth is most american elections are determined by election politics not your foreign achievers. so george w. bush rubs into storms. good evening, governor george w. bush and ross perot about to make their second election of the campaign. >> bill clinton loved the town haul his or her fat. >> you know people who lost their jobs and home. in my state when people loose
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their jobs it's a good chance i'll know them by their names. >> george w. bush didn't have that touch. >> it has a lot to do with interest rate. >> on a personal basis how has i effected you? >> this whole experience of the town haul is excuse rating for george bush. he really likes people but he's not really good at it. >> are you suggesting that if somebody has means the national debt doesn't affect them? >> what i'm saying. >> help me with the question and i'll try to answer it. >> t.v. was completely dominating american politics and george bush didn't benefit from that. >> what would you do as president to open foreign markets from politician to american business? >> we have got to stop sending jobs overaes. >> ross perot is -- >> -- >> if you can move your factor south of the border and don't care about anything but making
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money there will be a job sucking sound going south. >> this is an argument that in the middle of recession access nats with a lot of voters. >> we have a question right here. >> when he's being asked a question president bush looks at his watch, it symbolizes every bad people he had. he didn't care or wouldn't interested. >> in the second debate the president left many of reporters shaking his head. he kept looking at his watch. >> that is the george bush of 1992, completely out of step with the american culture is taking. >> the once obscure governor of a small southern state has wrapped up the votes needed in winning the presidency of the united states. in doing so he believed a gop incumbent once believed unbelievable. >> wen bush wins the 1992
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collection it's a generational shift. clinton trouns bush that is significant and jarring for a sitting president to be defeating in that way. >> my fellow americans -- >> george bush was a proud guy and he was human. when he lost in 1992 he went. >> george bush's only fourth elected president this century to be rejected by the people and denied a second term. >> he wrote in his diary that he was crushed, that he had been humiliated. after all he'd done for his country and all the service he rendered on war and peace he was being told to go home. that was a painful message. >> the people have spoken and we respect the majesty of the democratic system. i just called the governor clinton over in mil rock and
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offered my congratulation. >> george bush took the loss of bill clinton very hard. he was his son's age. >> thank you so much. thank you. >> people are sure that george bush's presidency will be the overlooked moment when the charisma of reagan and clinton. >> we see his stock going up, we see he managed the end of the cold war. he let the soviet union go off into the bust bit of history and america emerged as the great power of the 1990s. >> we won the world but lost his own country and the reason was, in no small degree, economics. in american politics, most people in the end vote their pocketbooks. >> i believe that history will deal extraordinarily kindly when president bush, the way he brought about germany's unification in nato.
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the way he dealt with the iraqui progression but doing so in a way that brought the community together. >> people think that history is scripped. >> when even the most powerful people don't really know what's going to come next, and this was that time in world history. the world owes george bush such a debt of gratitude for leading us through this. >> if it's true that george bush cries his loyalty above all this must have been the most gratifying sights of his political life. devoted competency, friends and family gathered in an effort to put the campaign and the humiliating loss behind they. >> we'll support the new if the and give him every chance to lead this country into greater heights. i am very grateful to all of you, it's been a wonderful four years and i think we've really contributed something to the
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country and maybe history will record it that way. thank you all very muhave have . it's a life and death experience. you go up there and take your life in your hands. >> my stomach hurts badly and i've been nauseous all day. >> you're overthinking what you're wearing, how you're going to say the first thing you're going to say. >> i feel solidified. i wondered why tonight, why again. >> ladies and gentlemen, robby williams. >> richard pryor. >> when i walk on stage i'm riddled with fear and excitement because i have no idea what i'm doing to do. >> this was t


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