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tv   Jerusalem City of Faith and Fury  CNN  August 8, 2021 7:00pm-8:00pm PDT

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fact that's why we made this town so accepting. the town is the goal, it is the family that had a lot to learn. ♪ jerusalem is the universe city, the chosen city, the holy city. that's its blessing but it also gives its danger and it is ugliness, too. because it means people must possess it absolutely. >> the conflict that we are
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experiencing today, you seen it experienced in jerusalem for thousands of years. >> for the jews, jerusalem is where solomen built the temple. >> people who have said to conquer the world swept through the city. >> no other individuals changed the landscape in the way herod the great did. >> solodyn, the british badly wanted to control the holly land.
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>> for israelis -- if you don't know it in its complexity, it is hard to understand it today. >> the past is never dead. it is jerusalem. solody
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s 725 years have past. by 1914, the world have under gone a drastic transformation, fuelled by the rise of technology and industrialization. but, world war i threatens the entire globe and jerusalem lies directly in its path. >> the time of the first world war, jerusalem is occupied by the ottoman. the church that's been there for a hundred years. >> the mideast lost egypt. they have turkey, some parts of southern bulgaria and eastern
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greece and what is today palestine and lebanon and arabia. >> they became really the third part of the axis of that time. >> allies with the germans, the turks sent strong leaders to protect the middle east. shamel was sent by the ottoman thinking this was an important battleground and they needed a military man to be in charge. jamal served a major part in the genocide. he's known to be somebody with little mercy and does not look
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favorably at any sort of dissent. >> he was very brutal as a gentleman, everywhere he goes, he left trace of assassinations and executions. >> jamal pasch excused so many people that his nickname is "jamal the slaughter man." >> the ottoman empire was seen corrupt and disconnected from the needs and wants of the arab population at the time. >> one of the greats of the
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ottoman's rules was it sparks the arabs. >> arabs says screw them, we should be united ourselves. the arabs don't have their own country. >> the rise of arabs, combining all the arabs in one nation. jamal rahar crushed it with brutal force.
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he would use any pretext to address them and in many cases is to execute them. jamal would hung them from the old city to show his power that forced these arab nationals to speak out more which meant he began banning their symbols and speech. it was going to make more executions and every time he tried to suppress their speech, arab nationalism only grew. >> it causes some people to react very strongly against the brutality of these executions, particularly important among those is prince fasol.
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>> faisal is tall, slim and soulful and a bit meladilanconm he has calm. >> he spoke turkish and spoke english and france. he was educated. he was prepared to be a turkish ruler in his era but loyal to the ottoman empire. he harbored extremely resentment against the ottoman and wanted them out. faisal was interested in liberating the arab, what is
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today's saudi arabia and part of georgia and the gulf. trying to create their own sovereign rule. on that promise, he launched the arab revolt in the summer of 1916. faisal rallies his arab brothers, he drives the turks out of mecca and he created a m small rebellion. very quickly the revolt can't really advance, the church have artillery and machine guns. the arab tribes have been dumped. it looks like it is fallen apart. >> and, faisal recognizes they're not going to be able to fully sustain this rebellion, this movement without some help from some big players.
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prince faisal managed to seize control from the turks. they need help to keep alive.
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>> the troop, the rebellion is hanging by a threat because the gorilla fighters can't stand up to the concentrated fire power of the ottoman army. crucial at this moment is the role of the british. >> the british badly wanted to control the holy land, to bring it under christian influence. at a time of ottoman empire ruled was were compelling. >> the british felt they need of serious control over everywhere. >> they saw palestine is an attractive site and support of palestine created easy access to europe from the middle east so the british wanted to set up shop in palestine to exploit the
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resources of palestine. >> the british sent their top arabics to meet prince faisal. lawrence. he's adventurous and he loves the middle east. he was a brilliant and intelligent officer, somebody understood how to fight war and the different forces needs to be organized and what is at stake if you don't get the local support in order to win it. if you understand lawrence of
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arabia. >> it is a great movie, it is not true. it is wonderful fiction that plays into the narrative that the west understands. the white guy who helps the not white guys do the right thing because they are not capable of themselves. lawrence of arabia was not at savior of arabia. he was a loyal intelligence that carried out the mission of the team. >> british intelligence recognizes how valuable lawrence can be. lawrence was sent out to establish the relation and became the liaison between the british brand and faisal. he's going to need british help.
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>> they need gums and ammunitions and supplies but the promise the british made to their rebellion was if you join us, we'll arm you and we'll help organize you and train you. we'll get rid of the ottoman and we'll turn over the show to you. the british had a conflicting deal with their allies. >> the that includes most of the children of palestine. >> so it was completely against everything that they agreed on with the arabs of the time. i can't say it was surprising. >> all these people were
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misguided. they were lied to. they thought it was simply liberation, they did not know. lawrence is one of few people who knows this. it starts working away at lawrence of his role that he's playing in this. lawrence was having a struggle. it was time the more he got to know faisal. he found a lot of things in common with faisal who was in the same generation. >> he takes faisal aside, he tells them do not trust in my government. >> certainly now faisal sees lawrence as somebody who's actually coming over to his side. >> together faisal and lawrence
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work to drive the turks out of arabia. so lawrence and faisal plans a series of attacks on turkish supply line. the goal was keep them bleeding so that they come, repair them and blow them up again and so on. the longer you draw them out. the weaker they become. the more likely it becomes possible that you push them entirely out. eventually this provers to be a successful strategy. jamal pasha is getting beat by these arab soldiers and he
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figures out these guys can't be doing this on their own. they got to be getting help and the only people they can be getting help from is the british. jamal pasha figures i have got to go on the adefenses and thats what he does. no, he's not in his room. ♪ ♪ dad, why didn't you answer your phone? ♪ your mother loved this park. ♪ she did. ♪ centrum multigummies aren't just great tasting... they're power-packed vitamins... that help unleash your energy. loaded with b vitamins... ...and other key essential nutrients...
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t. lawrence and prince faisal have launched a series of attack on the ottoman. while jamal struggles to contains the lucid arab rebe rebellion, he prepares for the middle east. >> jamal pasha was facing a sustained and coord coordinated -- that's when you get first and second battles. twice about a month apart, the british army do front assault
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right against the turkish army. it costs a lot of british soldier lives and the thousands. it was a humiliating defeat for them so they retreat it. so jamal sitting in jerusalem, he sort of become as hero and this is kind of the outstanding ottoman victory. these two battles of gaza. >> after the british are beaten back. the arabs plan an assault of his own. >> prince faisal knew that importance so he wanted to be in damascus, it is an important place historically and religious. >> damascus was the real capitol
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for the islamic empire. therefore, arab nationals always -- ideally this would be this dream city for arab kingdom. >> a crucial port city, aqaba is the way to capture damascus. the church have artillery and machine guns. just going to be a replication of what the british have done anywhere else whi. lawrence comes up with this idea that the way to do it is to go in land, come over the mountains and take it from behind. >> in the may, 1917, the
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decision to take aqaba is taken by fay as isal and lawrence wit any reference back to the british military or authority in cairo. he goes off and everybody sets off with a command force on a 600 miles march and disappears into the desert. >> days and days into the desert with the possible that the camels will begin to die before they get into the opposite side. if the camel dies then everybody else dies. people die along the way. lawrence weighs at 140 pounds.
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he was at 90 pounds by the end of this trip. the focus is on the local tribes men to join the alliance and bring their forces into this army. >> he was telling us that we are fighting faisal. if that got them motivated, he would stop there. you could be the prince of this region. he gave you what you desire in order to get what he desired which is an organized army against the turks. beginning of july, 1917, it is 2000 strong, they're going to storm down to aqaba. >> all the ottoman defenses were
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directed to the sea, in the opposite direction. >> quickly the turns realized there was no way out. so they surrendered. >> the battle of aqaba, provers the importance of the battle. they knew the land. these were tribabtribables. it would not have been successful had faisal had not been apart of it. >> a aqaba is the turning point. >> at this point, lawrence sees himself as no longer fighting for the british, he's fighting for the arabs. no one heard a word from him in over two months. he was certainly missing and
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everyone presume dead. lawrence realized he had to deliver the news about the fallen aqaba. communications were often quite primitive. if we have not gotten a telephone line, we are still de depending on physically moving in order to communicate communications. >> lawrence levaves aqaba to inform headquarters. >> by the time lawrence stumbles back, he finds a new leader in command of the british army. no-o please please no. ♪ i never needed anyone. ♪ front desk. yes, hello... i'm so... please hold. ♪ those days are done. ♪ i got you.
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>> all of a sudden lawrence comes with the news, i have taken aqaba. i have won this incredible victory. >> more importantly when he gets to cairo, a new british commander in chief taken over. allen bee. he was not a typical british general at the time. he didn't come from a family of generals. >> he commanded great loyalty because of his integrity and courage. >> he had a tremendous vision and the stthe statand the stat
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>> allen bee arrives in the middle east. there were major changes. they realized they can't depend on the ottoman army alone to keep the british at bay occupying the middle east. >> germany sent thousands of re-enforcements to jerusalem. >> now what has been up until this point a proxy war between the british and the germans now becomes an actual front of world war i. general allen sent lawrence back to arabia, the same time plans his push and move towards gaza and jerusalem. here is as very important point that deflects the importance of jerusalem to the christian wall, the prime minister of england
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sends a message to general allen bee, make sure that you get jerusalem before christmas. >> the news that are coming from the front in france was not good. serious casualties coming everyday. they need a sentimental story that they cancel to the british people in england back home. >> he wanted jerusalem as a christmas present for the british people. the holy city itself. >> and so significant british force were sent there. it was a naval force and a mobile transport and their elements and supplies and british and australian troops. >> jamal pasha sees the british
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army is coming but he's confidence that he could win. >> he's got so many german troops with him that this should not be this difficult. he has no idea how the british are going to attack. >> what allen bee does rather than smashing against the wall and gaza is going in land. >> he executed this where he out flags the ottomans and took gaza and within weeks marched to jerusalem. >> jamal pasha was a commander. the german say to to johnaw mal pasha that you are out. not only you are out but you will never see jerusalem again. and true to their word, jamal
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pasha never sees jerusalem again. he was removed and became a political refuge. >> he was killed because he had a hand in genocide. >> the germans turn their attention to destroying the british. >> the germans are going to make sure that for every inch of ground, the british advance, they're going to flee. the desert theater becomes a brutal, brutal place for battle. the combat is fierce. it is ugly and this is desert combat at its very worse.
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he's trying to push against the turkish, he was in the city of derra in what is today southern syria. he was known to the turns that there was a prize on his head. he was discovered and brought to the ottoman officer. his life, something that people say he recovered from. >> i think it became this intense source of humiliation and degregation for him.
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after torturing lawrence, the turks leave him for dead. >> people recognize that the winter conditions in the hills and southern syria is very tricky. hailstorms and flash floods and snow even. so the germans are in jerusalem, the british are just outside, ready to take the city and there is this massive storm, you can't see what's going on. they have to wait the storm out before the british begins their assault on jerusalem. >> while general allen bee is forced to wait, lawrence clings to life in darra.
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>> lawrence escaped from his captures in darra and he goes back to this desert hide-out that he's been operating out of. he gradually makes his way back to arabia. lawrence is still realing from his captivity but he rushes to rejoin the british front. lawrence beats general allen bee outside of jerusalem where the british waits for their opportunity to sprtrike. when the storm lifts, the british are expecting the bloodiest battle of their lives. they enter jerusalem and it is complete silence. at that point december of 1917, the british poured through. >> and the germans recognized that any kind of destruction in
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jerusalem would create such negative publicity for them that they just move north. the germans did not devastate the city before leaving. >> the british did so much conquer jerusalem as thei germas abandoned it. >> all that's left is the mayor of jerusalem. he does not have an army. all he's got are the keys to the city. and so what option does he have? all he can do is surrender the city. >> they flag that was presented to show there was a surrender. >> i think what's fascinating abouts the british conquest of jerusalem of december of 1917 is how orchestrated and
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choreographed the actual events were. >> britain of the 19th century made a great deal about the crusade and traditions. you will see it in certain propaganda poster that the ghostly figure crusader looms in the sky behind british soldiers. so the fall of jerusalem is playing really well in western cap cap capital. this is finally after 700 years, the crusades have won. >> the british media tried todd present such. as allen bee was advancing to jerusalem. he took the city. the legacy of the crusades is one of western people coming in invading, conquering and killing people. allen bee knows to them they are
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toxic. >> he makes clear that he reverses the city and refuses to enter the city except on foot. this is the iconic photograph of allen bee walking into the old city surrounded by his entourage. >> general allen bee announces from now on, all three languages, arabic and hewbrew ad jerusalem will be respected. >> that sounds wonderful, right? >> the british presented themselves to the palestinians as saviors from the ottoman
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oppression. there was the man so wonderful, walking in humility in the holy city. that's really stabbing the arabs in the back. ♪ ♪ (sounds of car doors closing) (screaming & laughter) ♪ ♪ (sounds of car doors closing) (crash sound & tires squealing) (phone chimes) this is onstar. we've detected a crash from your phone. is anyone injured? i don't think so. good. help is on the way. is there anyone i can call for you? my dad. okay, i'm calling him now. get ready - our most popular battery is even more powerful. the stronger, lasts-longer energizer max.
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general allen bee and the british forces captured jerusalem. lawrence is obsessed we have to get to damascus before the british and french do. they go into damascus and set up a provisional government. >> meanwhile in italy, the european powers without arab representation meant to implement the terms of the code agreement. it essentially established the way modern is divided. when it was first made public, a lot of arabs -- everybody was in
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denial and months later the british was playing everybody against everybody. >> it was the great power carving up the middle east and allocating the sliced territory of the modern day of palestine and lebanon and jordan and syria and iraq. >> did they ask the arabs in syria and palestine and lebanon and iraq what they wanted? > absolutely not. you have been fighting all along and hoping to regain this homeland and now it is ripped away from you. >> he ended up with another territory which was created by iraq. faisal had never been to. he's the king of iraq for
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several decades. for t.e. lawrence, the ending of the great war takes a personal toll. >> lawrence emerges from the first world war psychologically a broken man. partially because he's suffering from ptsd and a sense of guilt which he emerged from the war. >> this is a guy who was fighting for an arab nation but he was also a british soldier. this empire consumes everything it touches. it dawned on him he was used as an instrument to be played. the people he came to appreciate and love and there is this
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credible irony of lawrence's life. he was discovered by journalists. >> the british and the french gives no credit to anybody but themselves, hence, the invention of t.e. lawrence. the savages could not organize themselves. they were too divided or ignorant or needed this little white guy to organize them and do it. >> he has several episodes of depression and finally in the spring of 1935, he killed in a
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motorcycle accident. >> the middle east is changed forever. it became a region divided to state. a nation that some of them makes sense and some of them don't until this day. >> monarchs who were not chosen by the people at all.
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>> what were the arab world be today if it were not for imperialism did? i imperialism created a sin that's still taken a toll today. >> the british played everybody to their advantage. they told the jews, you want a home and their is your land, they told the arabs, you want to be independent, you want to have kingdom. we are with you. let's do that. >> at the end, the british were working for the british. israel/palestinian dispute that we know so much today.
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the palestinian/arab expected to find and be granted for their own nation. the jewish population expected the same thing. the seeds for jerusalem's next great conflict had been planted. here we go, pivot, pivot. pivot. >> shut up, shut up, shut up. >> i feel like we get to know these sitcom characters. they're your friends. >> i don't think it is going to pivot anymore. >> you think? >> they were purely selfish and immature. >> are you still master of your domain? >> you hope that you will have those kinds of


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