tv CNN Newsroom Live CNN April 16, 2022 1:00am-2:00am PDT
this is cnn breaking news. hello and welcome to all you watching us here in the united states, canada and all around the world. i'm kim brunhuber, and let's get straight to our breaking news. it's 11:00 a.m. in ukraine and there are reports this morning about explosions on outskirts of the capital, kyiv. the mayor has said the city has come under tire. and officials say four russian cruise missiles were shot down. so far there are no reports of casualties. we'll bring you more as we get them. elsewhere ukrainian
authorities are reporting a dramatic increase in russian shelling along ukraine's eastern and southern fronts. the governor of mykolaiv said the russians hit with cluster munitions. at least five people were killed and more than a dozen injured. the ukrainian military officials claim recent russian attempts to break through defenses have been repelled. also on friday confirmation from u.s. officials that the guided missile cruiser was sunk by two ukrainian anti-ship missiles. moskow claims the flagship of the black sea fleet sank after being towed to port after on an board fire setoff munitions and still no word of the fate of the nearly 500 crew onboard. moskow isn't too happy about the $800 million military aid package the u.s. just sent to ukraine. two sources tell cnn russia sent
a diplomatic message warning of consequences should that support continue. here's why they're angry. this latest package includes more heavy-duty weaponry than the previous aid. including helicopters, small drones called switch blades or kamikaze killer drones that can target russian soldiers and armored vehicles and for the first time howitzers. ukraine's volodymyr zelenskyy spoke exclusively with cnn's jake tapper. >> all the world, all the
countries have to be worried because it can be not real information but it can be true because when they began to speak about one or another battles involved enemies or nuclear weapons or some chemical issues, chemical weapons they could do it. they can -- for them life of people is nothing. >> zelenskyy's warning follows a similar concern by america's cia director, but u.s. officials say they see no evidence so far the kremlin is preparing to use short ranged tactical nuclear weapons. let's begin our coverage with matt rivers in lviv. so, matt, we're learning more about the attack in lviv where you are. what's the latest there. >> reporter: yeah, we've had air-raid sirens across the country overnight into saturday morning, kim. so let's start here in lviv
where the region's military, the regional military administrator says anti-aircraft systems here in ukraine managed to shoot down four cruise missiles that were headed somewhere in the lviv region. now, we don't know exactly where those missiles were being sent to. ukrainian officials didn't give us that specific information, but they did say they managed to shoot down four cruise missiles headed to this region. they say those missiles were launched by russian aircraft that had actually taken off from an airfield in neighboring belarus. so that caused air-raid sirens to go off around 5:45 local time in lviv with that warning continuing just after 7:00 a.m. local time. air-raid sirens do go off from time to time here in lviv. we heard them multiple times over the past several days, however this time we got specific information from ukrainians about why that air-raid siren went off.
now, we're not the only region experiencing strikes. in fact, a cruise missile did manage to strike in kyiv, in a south eastern district of kyiv. this happened according to the city's mayor overnight saying there are still medics on scene, they're still trying to get casualty information but this is a missile that struck south eastern of kyiv. clearly these kind of attacks continue to happen across ukraine at this point, kim. >> yeah, absolutely. and matt, earlier i spoke with u.s. military aid making its way to ukraine which russians have been so angry about. they need those to repel the russian forces shifting the bulk of their attack to the east. what are we learning about that assault?
>> reporter: we're learning some of the forces that first withdrew after their failed offensive to take the country's capital, some of the first russian forces that left, they actually managed to shift east at this point and go into that area of donbas where we're expecting a renewed russian offensive to begin if not in weeks then in days from now. now, what we're hearing from u.s. defense officials is that the troops they've seen start to amass there and get -- move actually into that region, we're not talking about tons of troops. it's mainly more support troops, the kind of troops maybe artillery units, command and control units, units that could potentially support a more aggressive troop buildup we're expecting very soon that would then launch a more aggressive offensive campaign. but the fact the troops are moving into that area yet another sign as we're moving into the next phase of this campaign it's going to be centered on what's happening in the eastern part of the country. >> matt rivers, thanks so much. the retreat of russian forces along kyiv is allowing ukrainian
authorities to finally see the full scope of russia's brutal occupation. we want to warn you these images coming up here are graphic. ukraine's national police report more than 900 civilian bodies have been covered in areas so far in areas around the capital, and some show signs of torture before they were shot. besides discovering mass graves and bodies dumped down wells, there are an unknown number of victims buried beneath tons of rubble amid russian shelling. the extent of casualties across the country may not be known for many weeks if ever. with us from kyiv to discuss all this is alexi sorken, the political editor and chief operating officer at the independent. thank you for being with us. i want to start with what we were showing there. we're still coming to the terms with the death and horrors left behind after the russian troops left the bodies of victims sometimes as i mentioned
seemingly tortured, some not too far from where you are. i mean, the scale here is just shocking. tell us about what your reporters are learning there. >> yes, every day new bodies are discovered, and ukrainian officials state emergency service are going village by village, and practically in every urban area where russians were stationed there's people who have signs of torture. we've been bucha to irpin, to many other cities. everywhere there's tragedy, there's people who say their family members are either under the rubble after russian air strikes or missing after they went to buy bread, to collect water. and i think this month and the month ahead we will be finding more and more bodies, and the
scale of these atrocities will only pileup. >> i sadly imagine that is all too true. if war crimes are officially confirmed do you think anyone much less vladimir putin himself will be held accountable? >> obviously until putin is in power, until russia is under this dictatorship we're not thinking people will be held accountable. we hope there is going to be international court, there's going to be international process where everybody, every soldier who committed war crimes in ukraine will be known, his name, his address, he'll be held accountable. but, unfortunately we understand until this regime is still
controlled by russia there's no chance. >> how concerned are you if russia does fully take mariupol we could see similar atrocities perpetrated or maybe even worse? >> unfortunately, we know that the scale of atrocities in mariupol is not even in comparison to kyiv. there are people buried in back yards, streets turned into cemeteries and only according to official information, which is obviously lower than the actual information, the governor says 20,000 people were killed. and he also says that 95% of all buildings are either damaged or destroyed, and i don't even want to imagine the scale of death and destruction that mariupol witnessed. but we will have to deal with this sooner or later. and mariupol will be the case that will probably be the
loudest, and that will maybe even tip the international community into supporting and prosecuting war crimes. just simply -- >> it's hard to find the words, really, i can imagine. so let's turn to the capital itself. where you are even though the fighting has largely shifted to the east and the south of the country, i mean there was an attack there in kyiv this morning. what's the latest there? >> well, yes. after a couple weeks of peaceful -- of peace in the capital, we saw several missile strikes. yesterday one of the factories that produce the neptune missiles was hit in western kyiv. over the night today we know in the eastern part of the kyiv region or in kyiv as well a
factory, a military facility was also hit. but we still don't know the extent of casualties. ukraine doesn't report casualties right away, but we know that, unfortunately, russia is successfully targeting military facilities in kyiv and basically showing that they have the reach to target any facility, any building in ukraine wherever it is. >> finally, you know, i understand sort of life is coming back slowly to kyiv. i know some, you know, diplomatic officials are coming back. do you feel that at least where you are specifically the worst may be over? or are you worried that russians may again try to take the capital? >> i think they will. obviously right now everything depends on what happens in
donbas where russia is concentrating most of its troops. but, yes, there's this i would say a sense of normality in kyiv when people are returning, when some bars, cafes, pharmacies are opening. you see more cars in the streets, but you still under we're in a war zone. there's military check points. there's roadblocks, and every night for the past several days we hear that a missile struck something in kyiv. so there's this sense that it's definitely better than it was, but everybody knows we're in a war zone and everybody expects russia at some point will definitely try to take kyiv again. as the mayor of chernihiv told when we were there, that they're not prepared to rebuild the city. they're not prepared to provide additional housing because they expect that russia will at some point maybe in the next couple of weeks try to attack the city
again. so that's the sense many ukrainian cities have. yes, right now it's peaceful than it was a few weeks back, but obviously we expect russia will not stop. and until putin is in power, ukraine and every ukrainian city will obviously feel danger. >> yeah. listen, we wish you and all the reporters out there working, i hope you stay safe and well. thank you so much for joining us. really appreciate it. >> thank you. over the past 24 hours the city of mykolaiv appears to have been the target of multiple russian attacks. local officials say russian artillery fired cluster mufigs into residential areas killing at least five people and wounding dozens of others. cnn's ed lavandera is there. >> reporter: the cluster of explosions jolted this residential neighborhood in mykolaiv friday morning. witnesses say some people were walking their dogs in a park at the time.
one of the munitions struck just feet away from an orthodox church. you can see the impact of one that went off this morning, and as you look around here you can see the impact and damage done to this church here as well. multiple people were killed and more than a dozen others injured. paramedics treated victims on the scene. across the street under the shattered windows of an apartment building this man told us he helped drag two injured people into a store for safety. >> translator: the noise, the noise of a rocket flying and explosions. that's what i saw and heard when i was in the shop. people ran into the store and i saw people scared. i saw people dropping to the ground from explosions. >> reporter: the sounds of explosions inside the city started around mid-morning and appeared to strike at least three different locations. mykolaiv authorities released this video of a private home burning after a rocket strike.
mykolaiv's strikes come as residents in southern ukraine are worried about russian retaliation for the sinking of a russian warship in the black sea and russia's renewed offensive in eastern ukraine. in recent days cnn has witnessed long convoys of families fleeing russian occupied areas near mykolaiv. this bombing struck a densely populated area. she says she was brushing her hair when the bomb landed just outside her apartment window. the blast shattered the glass and shattered her sense of peace. did you think something was going to happen to you? i didn't think of anything, she tells me. i thought that was the end of the world. the recent attacks also crippled parts of the city's infrastructure. the water has been out for three days forcing hundreds of people to get water from a river and natural spring. this man evacuated his mother
and plans to stay in the city to fight off the russians. how worried are you that the russians are getting closer? it worries me a lot, he tells me, that's why i sent my mother away. that's why we are getting ready. we are still working, but if the russians are close, i will fight them. for now residents are left to cleanup the bloody aftermath and brace for the next attack. ed lavandera, cnn, mykolaiv, ukraine. a ukrainian academy in the u.s. is trying to teach its youngest students about the war. coming up we'll hear from the ukra ukrainian american children ahead and the global ramifications of the war in ukraine. we'll get why there's calls for urgent action when it comes to food security worldwide. stay with us. pre-rinsing your dishes? you could be using the wrong detergent. and wasting up to 20 gallons of water. skip the rinse with finish quantum. its activelift technologyy provides an unbeatable clean
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grateful to this center for helping us and welcoming us. >> translator: it was hard to leave. we lived in a flat where windows got broken, doors, too. we moved to my friend's for a month, but they turned off our gas and water. there was one question, how to survive. >> those were just some of the many accounts told by refugees as they're fleeing the fighting in ukraine. the u.n. says more than 4.7 million people have escaped the country, another 7 million more are internally displaced. the increase in russian attacks is making it difficult for civilians to leave the war torn areas. according to the ukrainian government nine humanitarian corridors were open on friday and more than 2,800 were evacuated, and there are warnings that millions around the world could soon be pushed into poverty because of soaring food prices brought on by the war in ukraine.
global food prices jumped to their highest levels ever last month according to the u.n. the world food program says both ukraine and russia responsible for nearly 30% of the world's wheat trade. now, this comes on top of the pandemic and global supply chain issues. policy makers say the threat is highest for poor countries that rely heavily on imports. now, earlier my colleague john vause spoke with david beasley, the executive director of the world food program. and he says a global food crisis is likely to be a long-term one. here they are. >> everybody talks about the unpredictability what's going to happen in ukraine but i can tell you what is predictable. what is very predictable we're going to have a very serious global food crisis over the next 12 months. ukraine and russia alone produced 30% of the world's supply of wheat, 20% of the
world's supply of corn or maize. 50% of the wheat we buy, of the grains we buy to feed 125 million people around the world comes from inside ukraine alone. ukraine, the farmers inside this nation who are now on the battle fronts, not in the fields produce enough food to feed 400 million people. so when you compound that with fuel prices going up, commodity prices going up, shipping costs going up, you can see there's an immediate crisis and there's going to be a long-term crisis. >> find out how you can help people in ukraine who may need food, shelter, water, please go to cnn.com/impact. and just to let you know our cnn audience has already donated more than $7.5 million. more help, of course, is desperately needed. well, and in new york the empire state building lit with the colors of the ukrainian flag in support of the people in ukraine. an after school program in the
u.s. is helping ukrainian american children understand the war in their native country. >> reporter: it's called the ukrainian academy. >> good afternoon, everyone. >> good afternoon. >> so today we're going to speak about war and peace. >> in the cleveland suburb almost all of their parents were born in ukraine, and many of these children were also born there. this is a private preschool, day care as well as an after school program. for children ages 6 months to 12 years. >> are we in just state a peace of, or are we in a state of war in this country? >> peace. >> what about ukraine? >> war. >> reporter: the feeling here is although what's happening in ukraine is frightening it's important for these children to learn about it and talk about
it. >> how do you feel about them? >> that they're brave. >> they're brave, right? if someone comes to your house, start destroying it, taking your stuff, you know would you be happy about that? >> no. >> do you think this is right? >> no. >> when another country coming into another country taking stuff and bombing, do you think this is right? >> no. >> who came to ukraine? >> russia. >> the teachers ask how the children are feeling about all this. >> worried. >> worried. >> scared. >> scared. what are the words of war? how can we describe a war? >> sadness. >> sadness. >> my family is -- are very scared for my gram -- my great grandma, my relatives that are also in the war.
and it's very anxious. >> i hope ukrainian won because some russia people are good and saying stop to the russians who are being bad. >> not all the russian people are bad, right? there are some people who just say no war, please stop it. they're asking the president. >> yeah, it's not because of the russian people. it's because of the president. he's greedy and trying to take over the country. >> roman and helena are the owners of the academy. do you think your students here are now prouder to be ukrainian american than even before this war? >> yes, i think they are proud about their roots, that ukraine is standing strong. >> stand together. >> reporter: before we say good-bye to the students i get to talk with them a bit. if you had super powers, what would you do if you had super powers? >> save the good people. >> reporter: save the good
people. >> yeah. >> reporter: that's what you would do as super woman? >> yeah, yeah. >> and make the housefly into the air. >> reporter: make the housefly into the air? fly to safety? >> yeah. >> reporter: the laughter of children who have a lot on their minds. gary tuchman, cnn, ohio. well, twitter's board isn't exactly excited about the possibility of a new boss. coming up we'll look at their plan to keep elon musk from buying the social media giant. that's coming up. plus kyiv and moskow have two different narratives about the sinking of a kyiv russian warship. but the u.s. now says it knows what happened. stay with us. you said you'd never get a dog. you said you'd never do a lot of things. but t you never knew all the things a dog could do for you. and with resolve you never h hae to worry about the mess.
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welcome back. to all of you watching us here in the united states, canada and all around the world, i'm kim brunhuber. this is "cnn newsroom." let's get you caught up with the latest developments in ukraine. kyiv came under fire this morning with several explosions in its outskirts. that's according to the city's mayor who says emergency crews are at the scene. now still not clear if there are any casualties. to the west ukraine says it shot down four cruise missiles fired at the lviv region. it claims the missiles were fired by russian aircraft that had taken off from nearby belarus. and also hearing officials saying russian forces shelled two towns damaging gasasas pipelines, killing two persons
and injuring three. meanwhile civilians fleeing the besieged city of mariupol have been told to get to safety on their own. that's because buses can't goy through a washed out section of the road through zaporizhzhia. the u.s. now confirms two ukrainian missiles sunk the russian ship. at least some of its surviving crew members arrived at the port at sabatapol friday. nic robertson explains how the top news program tried to bury the lead. >> reporter: russia's biggest naval loss in a generation hidden by propaganda state tv. top story on russia's most
watched prime time news show, gas exports. anchors railing against the west. almost half an hour later, the first mention of russia's prusteejs prized black sea fleet flagship, the moskva, they buried the lead, now they lie about it. it's another six hours near midnight most russians asleep when russia's military finally acn acknowledged what ukrainian officials have been saying for hours the $750 million nuclear capable guided missile ship has sunk. march 24th claiming to have destroyed an amphibious assault
ship. putin's losses mounting. his apparent callus indifference to naval losses has a track record as long as his reign. in 2000 during training exercises the nuclear powered kirsk submarine sank to the bottom of the sea. putin was on vacation, only returning later. 218 people died. when confronted back then by cnn's larry king putin's stark solitary comment. it sank. lithuania's defense minister claimed 785 crew were onboard. state tv claims all the crew survived. russia's most disastrous naval adventure was 117 years ago against japan. they lost the whole fleet.
eventually the czar and his family paid the ultimate price in russia's revolution. too soon to say if the moskow's sinking can punch a hole below pulten's propaganda waterline. nic robertson, cnn, london. honoring a group of city workers who helped save lives during tuesday's subway attack in brooklyn. on friday mayor eric adams joined others to honor five workers given a proclamation naming april 15th in their honor. here's more from the mayor. >> addicted to what's great about the service that you deliver every day, in general, specifically the service you deliver during times of crisis. >> in addition to those heroes
five people will share a combined $50,000 reward for providing critical information that led to arrest of the shooting suspect. 52-year-old frank james shot ten people in the subway attack and he's been charged with conducting terrorist attacks and other violence against a mass transportation system. twitter's board of directors hacome up with a plan to make it harder and more expensive for elon musk to buy the social media company. they basically plan to sell shares of twitter for anyone not named elon musk and get a discount and effectively dilute musk's stake in the company. brian stelter explains the social media showdown. >> reporter: hey there all eyes on twitter now that elon musk has set his sights on the company. musk pitching a take over of the company, offering to take twitter private to the tune of more than $40 billion. he says he wants to preserve free speech and help civilization, but there are many
opponents to this offer including apparently twitter's board of directors. the board announcing on friday, a limited term shareholder rights plan called a private pill that could make it harder for musk to acquire the company. a so-called poison pill is a common move in the business world to halt a hostile take over bid. effectively diluting musk's stake. right now he owns about 9% of twitter and wants to buy up the rest. this poison pill would be triggered if musk or anyone else acquires more than 9% of the company. and that may be the next step, we don't know what could happen next for twitter.
the poison pill idea, that's a pretty common move in the business world, but musk is anything but common. he's the richest man in the world thanks to his wealth from tesla and spacex. and he's unpredictable. he may, in fact, just go ahead and tweet what his next plans are for the company, but we're heading into a holiday weekend in the united states with a lot of uncertainty about what's next for twitter. brian stelter, cnn, philadelphia. it's pass over which commemorates the israelites escape from slavery. our jake tapper met jews in ukraine to find out why it's such a special time for them this year. stay with us. just without the lactose. tastes great in our iced coffees too. which makes wawaking up at 5 a.m. to milk the cows a little easier. (moo) mabel says for you, it's more like 5:15. man: mom, really? i'm jonathan lawson here to tell youou about life insurance through the colonial penn program.
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at the mosque compound. palestinians say more than 150 people were injured by israeli security forces on friday. israeli police say they made more than 300 arrests inside the mosque but only entered the compound because those throwing rocks were jeopardizing safe worship. there was a show of solidarity in rome on good friday as pope francis oversaw the way of the cross, the procession that re-creates jesus' steps towards calgary. two women, one russian and one ukrainian carried the cross together. the gesture was criticized by some catholics who don't feel much unity right now in russia. in kyiv the pass over story the exodus of the israelites from slavery in egypt is especially meaningful for ukrainian jews forced to flee their homes. our jake tapper joined with the rabbi in kyiv for pass over seder preparations. >> reporter: at every seder jews
say that all who are hungry come and eat, and at this synagogue in kyiv they're taking that literally. >> we have been providing food packages, water, nonperishable items, medicine, evacuation trying to celebrate freedom while there's so much terror going on around us is very, very difficult. >> reporter: still the consistency of tradition is all the more crucial when it's hard to uphold. last night russians were shelling nearby. tonight rabbi raphael invites me in and asks me to put in. there are people that try to get rid of our people in this part of the country and this part of the world and in fact there are some people still like that. >> this is a way of showing defiance and showing that the jewish people live on, the
jewish people are alive and well, and we're proving it by praying. we're still here. before sundown he shows me the seder table and answers the traditional question. why is tonight different from all other nights? >> there are many things about this night that's different. people who are going to come spend the holiday are spending it under curfew and arrangement had to be made for that, so there are a lot of things different about this night. pass over is pass over. it's about freedom, and we cannot give up. and the good always has to outweigh the evil and the bad, and it will. >> that report from our jake tapper. residents along africa's east coast are picking up the pieces from one of the worst storm's in the country's history. after the break my conversation with a local official about the growing death toll. plus several wildfires are wreaking havoc in the u.s., and
scientists are seeing a troubling trend as we get closer to the beginning of hurricane season. a new study blames the kriemt crisis for super charged rainfall in 2020 hurricane season. as much as 11% higher than previous years. scientists warn hurricane rains will continue to get worse, which means more flooding and hurricanes will become even stronger. cnn's bill weir explains. >> we're seeing now more data that complains the basic laws of physics which is a hotter, warmer atmosphere holds more water and moisture. that means bigger rain bomb events and heat and water are the engines of hurricanes, the food, the fuel. and so more or both of us would make what would be average categories 2 and 3s into monster 4 and 5s.
having worse is going to be tough enough. >> have a look at these chilling images from south africa's east coast ravaged by severe flooding earlier this week. nearly 400 people are have been killed and there are fears the death toll could rise. here's one shell-shocked mother describing her devastating loss. >> translator: when i arrived i asked where the children were and wasn't even bothered about my house being swept away by the floods. i asked where my children were because i told them to stay with my sister. no one answered me. i asked my son, he also didn't know. so i realized they were swept away with the flood. >> some 40,000 people have been affected by flooding and infrastructure damage, and more rain is forecast for the region through saturday evening. now, we often interpret these disasters through numbers, the size of the death toll, the cost of the damage. but it's important to remember that lives have been shattered.
earlier i asked a regional official to share some of the stories he's heard in the past few days. here he is. >> everybody knows of somebody who has been affected, either through loss of life or by being displaced and loss of all their goods. so there's some very harrowing tales which touches the heart when one listen tuesday what has happened on the ground. families wiped out, five in a family in one go, ten in a family. bodies that have not yet been recovered because they're covered with amounts of soil and to find them is an arduous task. the issue we have 111 wards in our municipality. each ward has been similarly affected. to prioritize one over the other is a difficult task to do when residents on the ground are calling for assistance. so it's the loss of life that has been the worst. in the case of a father who would refuse to leave , his youg
son carried him all the way up to the hill until the mortuary services could come and collect him, and he got into the back of the van with him to make sure that the other deceased people in the van would not fall onto his son. so he traveled the whole journey not only to protect his son not only in life but also in death. harrowing stories. >> that was regional official malcolm camon in durbin, south africa. now we want to update you on extreme weather conditions in the philippines. at least 137 people confirmed to have died according to officials. more than 320,000 people have been displaced by the disaster. thousands of hectares of farmland have also been impacted including rice, corn and live stock. megi was downgrade today a tropical depression earlier this week.
and millions here in the u.s. under red flag warnings or fire watches this weekend. friday night officials say it's grown to around 300 acres with zero containment. in new mexico officials are raising concerns over the air quality as wildfires spread across the state. fires have killed at least two people, charred thousands of acres and destroyed hundreds of structures. joining me now is meteorologist derek van dam. derek, so much to keep an eye on this weekend. where to start? >> kim, we're going to start with the fires particularly in new mexico because authorities are asking residents in the event of a fire approaching their home, they're asking them if they have smoke inhalation problems, issues around that, they should set their air conditioner unit to recirculate the air so it doesn't allow for that smoke to enter into their homes. you've got to think about a -- any kind of particle of air, wildfire smoke very, very small.
we're talking 2 1/2 micrones, and that is significantly smaller than a width of a human hair, for instance. so the ability for that particle to lodge itself deep in our lungs making asthmatics worse, upper respiratory issues worse is a serious concern. look at the western u.s. we have 90% of the western u.s. under drought conditions, about 38% of them classified as extreme or worse. and new mexico we have five concurrent wildfires burning out of control. this one started on tuesday this week, still at 0% containment. latest numbers over 6,185 acres have burned so far. i want you to see some of the video coming out of this area showing you the scarred structures that were impacted by this fire. you can see them just smoldering there and the fire still ongoing with 0% containment.
and we still have an air quality problem particularly downwind from this fire burning out of control. get back to my graphics and talk a bit about what's to come. today we have a critical fire weather danger across elements of new mexico. we have dry conditions, wind gusting and the national weather service understands they've hoisted a red flag warn. we get into the nitty-gritty. you can see the wind will pick up through the course of day and once again through the weekend and into recally next week. kim? >> busy for you keeping an eye on all those stories there. our break news coverage of the war in ukraine continues on "new day" with christie paul and alex m m marquardt. you're watching cnn.
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