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tv   [untitled]  CSPAN  June 28, 2009 9:30am-10:00am EDT

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>> martin anderson was formerly
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a policy advisor in the reagan administration. he's currently a fellow at the hoover institution and co-author with annelis anderson of reagan's path to victory. reagan in his own hand and reagan a life in letters. annelise anderson was a reagan advisor to the presidential campaign and a director of president reagan's office of management and budget. she's currently a fellow at the hoover institution. the reagan presidential library in simi valley, california, hosted this event. for more information, visit ♪ >> this summer, book tv is asking, what are you reading? >> what are you reading this summer? >> well, elmore leonard has a new novel out and george pelecanos has a new novel out so i'm reading some new novels.
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i'm listening on recorded books driving over here and will listen going back to the history of jacksonion called waking giant. >> there's predictions books might go the way of news and that is all digital. >> well, the kindles are out there. i tend to like a great thump and a feel of a book in my hand but then i am a fossil. >> to see more summer reading lists and other program information, visit our website at z is the author branding new york how a city of crisis was sold to the world is the book. professor miriam greenberg, when you think of new york city of the '50s and '60s, what do you think of? >> well, i think that new york in the post-world war ii period
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was in a position e$cof, you kn preeminence really of the united states and its fortunes were rising for a time. i think it was -- it was a famous kind of working class city to quote another book by joshua freeman. it was a city that had had a lot of business during world war ii and its industries had been employing many, many new yorkers. and it was also a growing media capital. it was expanding its office infrastructure. it was growing in terms of the it was getting a lot of international attention in a new way politically and it was part of, you know -- it was seen internationally kind of as the capital of a resurgent u.s. following world war ii. yes, very much so. so its star was rising in that period. >> what happened to new york in the 1970s?
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>> well, it's a complicated question that has global, national, local reasonings behind it, political, economic, culture. it was a period of crisis on many levels. and it was a period that began, really, in the 1960s, the decline and really reached a nadir in the 1970s that had to do at the local level with a mismanagement of funds and a fiscal crisis of the state that led to the city technically going bankrupt. and when i say a mismanagement of funds, you know, this is a complex story over which historians debate, it had to do with on the one hand the city government spending an enormous
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amount to build massive amounts of high end private sector office space and residential buildings as well as maintaining its level of social spending at a times when revenues were shrinking so that created a crisis for the city's budget. on the other hand, new york was not alone. there was many cities -- there was a period in which cities across the country and indeed the world were facing bankruptcy to do with a global recession. to do with, you know, inflation and stagflation as a result of, you know, recession and inflation combination. the global oil crisis. so it was a complex time and it was a time when the fortunes of cities in particular given the retrenchment of the federal government were put in this very difficult position. they were having to find new sources of revenue. >> was new york losing population in the '50s, '60s, '70s? >> no. well, there was suburbization that was going and had been going since the late 19th
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century in new york, in the surrounding suburbs. one thing that was occurring was the rise of suburbs more widely in the united states and the expansion of suburbs and so there was, you know, a loss of population to the growing sunbelt region that was going on since the '50s, so the west and southwest of the united states. and the sunbelt was also -- you know, the suburbanized sunbelt was the base of a growing, more conservative political movement in the country which saw new york, despite in this period, you know, its strength, saw it as reflecting an old guard form of civic populism, if you will, the republican party, the right wing republican party was trying to supplant. and so new york was losing population to some extent as
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well as finding itself in competition, in serious competition with other cities that were more in -- you know, in that republican orbit. >> well, in your book, "branding new york: how a city was sold to the world" you talk about the crisis of the '70s and new york's response. >> yeah. >> how severe was the crisis and what was the response? >> the crisis of the '70s was extremely severe. as i mentioned the city went into technical bankruptcy. as a result of which -- so i think the crisis on the one hand was produced by these, you know, local, national, global circumstances but also was produced by the reaction so it was -- it was a crisis that not only befell new york but that was produced as a result of the reaction of it so it involved the imposition harsh spending so
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they cut back on fire protection, sewer, laid off thousands of public sector workers, led to the increased exodus of people in corporations that led to these cutbacks and to this day the reaction of the city, the degree, you know, what some people might call the draconian severity of the reaction has been questioned and, you know, i think -- >> what do you mean by that draconian reaction? >> well, i think that there was a kind of calculus that, you know, where the priorities should be placed by the city. i think the city essentially decided that under intense pressure from the ford administration, you know, there's the famous daily news headline -- you know, new york
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city drop dead, which was something ford was not only saying to new york, it was saying to many cities in this period, he didn't literally say it but the federal administration was saying in the sense that cities were no longer getting the kind of resources that they got under, for instance, the model cities programs of the '60s and the kind of municipal funding that they once got and there was intense pressure by -- on the city to kind of privatize and to downsize its public spending and to increase its competitiveness. and to attract new investments as opposed to taking a route which would involved trying to, you know, maybe similar to keynesian approach in the middle century and what obama is talking about investing in a stimulus package that could have grown the middle class of the city and the working class of the city. i think there was a calculus in the city, if one could be lost would be the lost for the quality of life for the working and middle class of the city in order to bring in new funds into
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the city in the form of new corporate headquarters, tourism, and a new upper middle class into the city. and so there was a whole restructuring of the priorities and ultimately, you know, the budgetary priorities and ultimately new forms of incentives were provided for investment and relocation and tourism at the same time that money was spent from social spending for existing residents, you know, and workers in the city. >> and what was the effect today of those changes? >> well, i think it created what some -- what some people have started to actually call already in the 1980s a kind of dual city. a city that was far more divided and unequal between classes. it created a city that was far more focused on the center, on manhattan as opposed to the outer boroughs which really lost
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out in this calculus. so a kind of new form of centralization. i think it created a city that -- you know, what i focus on in the book is how marketing and media were used in concert with these new priorities, these new political and economic priorities and so it also created a new kind of imaginary, a new identity for new york. no longer was it this, you know, famed working class capital. now it became really represented as a more elite, luxury-type city and a city that could be, you know, prominently placed in advertisements in association with products that wanted that kind of cachet. >> in fact, in your book, "branding new york" you talk about a very famous brand, i heart ny. >> that's right. >> what was the effect of that? >> well, i think that campaign
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kind of had two phases. in the initial phase of that campaign, this famous campaign that was designed by melton glaser the artistic director of new yorker magazine and a greater graphic designer in his own right, i think it really stimulated a kind of solidarity with new yorkers and made people think about what were the essential qualities of new york that they loved and which they would be really sorry to lose because, you know, when i say this was a severe crisis, there was media and there was a lot of hype nationwide to the glee of some people that new york was going to cease to exist, you know, and there were kind of satires about new york sinking into the ocean. you know, the famous scene in planet of the apes and the final episode where, you know, you see the torch of the statue of liberty rising above the sand, so there were a lot of caricatures of the city and representations of new york in
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which the city ceases to exist and i love new york, i heart new york really responded to what was an anxiety about that, i think, for new yorkers. you know, many new yorkers wore i heart new york and embraced the campaign and identifying with i love new york with the idea that there was something kind of in the urbanity and, you know, the cosmopolitan nature, glaser i write about this was really playing around with the font of the campaign, the kind of gritty newspaper-style font and the softness of the heart and that juxtaposition and the early newspaper -- sorry, print and television campaign featured prominently broadway stars and broadway shows from cats, from chorus line, from some of what
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remained to be some of the great -- the great musicals and productions that were -- many of which originated in the '70s and early '80s and annie and other things and so there was also, you know, this -- characters from those performances gave those services for free and so there was also a sense of the great creativity and vitality of new york in association with broadway and times square so that was kind of the first phase. i think in the second phase, and this was a campaign that was launched by the state and not the city, so what was called the -- what now is called the empire state development corporation, who was the department of commerce at the time, they kind of shifted focus largely away from this intense personal identification with new york and a kind of innovation of the crisis itself to much more bland imagery of shopping and
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downtown finance and the skyline of the city in association with the natural escape that you could have in the rest of new york state. and i think that was kind of part of the planning all along. i think that the early phase was so much in the midst of the crisis that people wanted that kind of identification and later the more business development side of the campaign was what was focused on. so, you know, from the beginning, i love new york was kind of the front stage of this deeper restructuring that i was talking about. and that became more and more clear as the campaign went on. and i actually also talk in the book -- about this transition of another side of the campaign that was less publicized that involved -- instead of having broadway stars perform involved having syrias of major corporations talk about why they love new york and they say, you know, there's a 30% tax break for relocating to the state, i
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love new york. there's -- you know, all of these different kind of deals that corporations could get was the reason that they loved new york. >> so what is new york's brand today? >> well, new york's brand -- i think that i love new york was very successful in many ways and was held up as perhaps one of the most recognized city marketing campaigns globally. and was copied enormously. so much so -- and actually that was allowed in the early phase. it was allowed -- it was not copy written and was allowed to virally travel and i think there was an effort following 9/11 to rebrand the city. i think there was a feeling amongst now a new much more professionalized cohort of branders that the brand value of i heart new york had been watered down and that they needed a new more resonant kind of brand in order to do the kind of economic development, business development that they envisioned.
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and so they rebranded immediately following 9/11 with very patriotic imagery. and given the loss of the world trade center towers, which had figured prominently in a lot of the commercials, the skyline in particular, of the second phase of the i love new york campaign, that had to be completely revised and there was an intensive focus on the statue of liberty and the association of a kind of patriotic red, white and blue infinity logo with the statue of liberty so a patriotic image. with bloomberg, there's been a shift again in an interesting way. bloomberg had spoken about a need to see new york as a luxury city again. so there's been a lot of marketing along the lines of, you know -- that was done in association with the effort to
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attract the olympics to new york. that was done in association with the republican national convention. that has been done in association with a lot of different events that have been hosted by a much larger, beefed up professionalized marketing apparatus that has been -- that has been produced under his administration. so there's been a lot of very kind of luxury-like images that have been -- that have been produced. and there's also been a new campaign called this is new york, which interestingly associates that luxury image with a very kind of utopian -- a utopian version of a diversion city that harkens back to the early days of i love new york. and i think that juxtaposition of that kind of -- of a kind of longing, a utopian longing with this luxury-oriented, elite-oriented way is one of the things that makes these campaigns so successful and allows people not to sort of think so critically about them
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as i think they should. >> as a sociology professor at uc santa cruz, why are you writing a book called "branding new york." >> well, i recently relocated to santa cruz. not that i wouldn't have been in it otherwise but ikçy in new york for 20 years before i moved to california, and so -- and over the course of living in new york, i became, you know, very fascinated with theology -- sociology of the city, i was a media maker, a representation of the city. and i became fascinated with this period which i see is really formative in the contemporary form that new york takes and this strange juxtaposition on the win hand these draconian cutbacks and on the other hand these investments in marketing the image of the
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city at the same time that, you know, resources for the livelihood of the city were being taken away. so i think while in new york, that really fascinated me. i've taken that fascination with me to california and tried to convince people in santa cruz of the importance of this, and i think it has resonance because cities around the country, faced with crisis, have a lot of these kinds of decisions to make about how to represent themselves. >> miriam greenberg is the author, "branding new york: how a city in crisis was sold to the world" is the book. >> the publishing imprint twelve publishes twelve books a year. we have the publicity director at twelve. what are some of the books you got coming out in later 2009? >> well, this summer we're
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publishing henry waxman's the waxman report in july. it's a look back at some of the legislation that the congressman has been involved with, tobacco, clean air, nutritional labels and what he does is complains to us how collisions are built, how bills get moved to the subcommittees to committees. how you collect votes and it's really a look at how the sausage is made and, of course, the congressman has got a couple of big bills going on the floor. >> did you approach henry waxman or did he approach you. >> our publisher approached the congressman and thought that he would be the perfect person to explain how congress works and i should add that josh green has written with with the congressman and done a fantastic job, so. >> another book by peter peterson. >> pete peterson has lived a fairly phenomenal life. he was born in 1926, raised by greek immigrants. was the born into the depression-era nebraska, worked in his father's diner. found himself the secretary of
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commerce for nixon, chairman, ceo of lehman brothers and cofounded the black stone group and here we are in the greatest recession since the great depression and he's got a sort of bird's eye view of this that few people would have. >> who is po bronson and ashley merriman? >> po bronson is a journalist and writer. ashley merryman is a science journalist and they've taken a look much as leavitt did for the economy. they are looking at the way the way we raise children. there are certain key twists that science has overlooked and recent research shows conventional wisdom about raising our kids is all wrong. and so they won a national magazine award for a piece done on praise. it turns out that we all think praise your children give them a sense of confidence, you're very
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bright and good-looking. overpraising your children will, in fact, make your children less inclined to do attempt things they don't think they are good at and more inclined to cheat. there are also chapters on siblings. there are chapters on gifted programs, testing for private schools. it turns out that the testing for gifted programs they do in kindergarten and testing for elite private schools they've retested a lot of these kids three or four years later and they have found they have misplaced these kids 73% of the time. three years later, they've developed differently and at different rates. 73% of these kids should not be in the programs they're in. >> is it risky in today's economy to publish only twelve books a year? >> actually, i think it makes a lot of sense because -- i've talked about this with you before we put all our publicity and editorial on one book and we can be creative and we can not just publish one book one way but publish it several ways.
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a good example would be robert feldman's the liar in your life. this is a book about deception. robert is one of the leading authorities on deception. he's the chair of the department of behavioral science at umass and -- he's written this book about lying. when he was a young assistant professor he went to the national archives 'cause he thought he would listen to the nixon tapes and go to the greatest liar ever and learn a thing or two and what he discovered was remarkable. besides for being unremarkable. even he and experts couldn't tell when nixon was truthful. it's not about your madoff and clinton scale lies. it's about the lies. we tell three lies every 10 minutes. it's nice to see you. you feel good. i feel well. the moralize we're told, the level our own lies increases. clinicalcally depressed people have more accurate views of
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themselves than powerful people who tend to maintain a façade of strength in order to maintain their ambition. so it uncovers all these things. it's not just about these sort of small lies but how to handle lies in the office, lies in your bedroom, lies at the dinner table. but he published it it's a psychology book. it's a book about business. it's a book about becoming a more honest person yourself. >> how far in advance do you plan your 12 books a year? >> well, we've acquired -- we've got books scheduled through next august. >> august 2010. >> yeah, august 2010. so we're scheduled through august 10. we're starting to think about the following fall. not all of those manuscripts have been delivered yet but we know exactly what's coming up. there's some great stuff coming up throughout this next year. >> as an acquiring editor and an editor, what do you do? >> most of my job, 90% of my job
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is spent promoting the books. but i also have the opportunity to edit about a book a year. edited one novel last summer. i'm working on a book by professor jerry weintraub but what i do is look at the proposals that are coming in. i'll weigh in on proposals that our publisher is reading and let him know whether i think we can spend a full month promoting these books. that's one of the things we're thinking about. it's not just great writing first and foremost. singular books which there resident other books like in the market but is this a writer and is this a subject that we can focus on for a full month beyond review coverage. >> is the website.
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>> either you're on the talk show line in the afternoon and you say there's no such thing as climate change or you say it's the end of the world. and this applies to both sides of the issue. i'd like to talk about how we -- the facts appear to not matter. things go unchallenged in the climate of extremes. people accept the strangest things without really fact-checking. and i'd like to begin on may 22nd, 2007, the larry king show. this is one exchange that lasted only a mere few minutes, if we could.
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there we go. "larry king live" on 2007. one exchange that lasted a few minutes contained an incredible of unfactual statement. it says. >> so the implication is that global warming is increasing drought in the united states. fine. this statement went completely unchallenged. how hard is it to check? it turns out it's six mouse clicks away. on the upper graph here is the percent of the united states experiencing drought conditions. this is something called the palmer drought severity index.


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