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are better off, more productive, happier if they have freedom? >> uh, i'm not sure i made that distinction. in my own thinking. interesting one. uh, freedom is inherently, it has something to do with human dignity, autonomy, responsibility and so on. but people who are free and, at the same time, responsible, if they've got virtue are, in turn, will create a better society. i'm not sure if that answers your question. >> well, ladies and gentlemen, i'm going to have to reluctantly draw this conversation to a close. we've been privileged to spend an hour with a gentleman who pulled off a political hat
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trick. [laughter] representing all three of our branches. the government did that so wonderfully, and i recommend to you highly that you can learn more about his service and, also, the recommendations so that we don't become a european-style democracy by getting copies of "freedom at risk." mr. buckley will be happy to sign them for you. thank you all, indeed, and join me in thanking him. [applause] >> for other books on the current state of the federal government, visit and search federal government on the upper left side of the page. >> this tuesday, february 23rd, visit at 7 p.m. to watch bruce riedel live online
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discussing his book, "deadly embrace." simply go to and click on the watch button under the events information in the featured programs section of the page. also, follow us on twitter at booktv for up-to-the-minute schedule updates on future, live online programming throughout each week. >> marc aronson and marina budhos examine the impact of sugar on world history. they recount the role it played in the atlantic slave trade and the industrial revolution. during this event they speak to a group of students at the brooklyn public library in brooklyn, new york. >> well, the first thing is today in about an hour we're going to cover several thousand years of world history and touch every part of the planet. are you ready to roll? you ready to go on the journey?
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and this is a journey that as we touch all these places did actually start from a family -- two family stories. and so if we can look at the world map, marina and i were in jerusalem in israel visiting with my family, and i learned -- i asked about the story of one of my aunts, a mysterious aunt of mine, a non-jewish woman who had married into our jewish family. and i wondered about her, what's the story about her? it turned out that her grandfather had been a serf in russia. did any of you remember what a serf is? hold on, you in the back row, could you hand this to him and -- >> i think it was a slave? >> a serf was very much like a
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slave. he was a person or a woman who could be bought and sold with the land. so my aunt's grandfather was a serf, but he had invented a process for working with beet sugar that was so useful, he became so rich, he bought his freedom. when he learned about that, we suddenly learned about a connection to marina's family. >> so i had always known about my family's connection to sugar because my great grandparents traveled from india across to guyana which is in south america, but it's considered part of the caribbean, and they came to cut, to work on sugar plantations. so part of what fascinated us was what is this substance where someone in his family all the
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way in russia, a serf, and someone in my family looking to get a better life over here in india and then over to the caribbean, what is this substance that could effect people from such different parts of the world? >> and before we traced that out, we want to ask you a question. how many of you think you might have sugar somewhere in your family background? so that's one, two, three -- oh, man, yes. yes. >> all right. let's -- what i'm going to do is i'm going to bring it out. i just want to hear from a couple of you where your family might have been from. okay? >> >> well, i think my family might have been in the caribbean -- >> caribbean. >> okay, absolutely. >> very good. okay? >> i feel my, i feel my family was either in the caribbean or in europe. >> okay. >> very good, both.
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>> okay. >> i think my family was either in the caribbean or europe. >> okay. very good. anybody else here? >> actually, i know that my family was from the caribbean, and that's where i get it from. >> get sugar. >> excellent. >> so if you have the caribbean in your background, you definitely have sugar in your background. but we believed that many more people have sugar in their background than they know. and we're about to take you, as i say, spinning around the world. and the subtitle of our book is "a story of magic, spice, slavery, freedom and science." and let's start out with magic. why might we relate sugar to magic? well, sugarcane if we go back to the world map originally was very first, you know, off at the edge on the far edge. we know that it was first grown
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in new guinea. and it was -- they grew sugarcane. have any of you seen sugarcane before? >> okay, good. >> have any of you ever tasted sugarcane? all right, all right. we know that -- we do know that sugarcane was first grown in new guinea, and then it was brought up to india. and the reason we know that is there are prayers to the goddess durga where you would burn various offerings to the goddess. and one of the offerings that you burned was sugarcane. and we know that the original word in the ancient indian language of sanskrit for sugar was that which brings sweetness to the people. but at a certain point the name for this substance changed, and the new name for it was sharkara
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which means gravel. can anybody guess why you might use a word that means gravel for sugarcane? or for sugar? this gentleman. >> you might use gravel because it, when you put it in your hand, it kind of like -- it came out like sand, and sand is like gravel. >> you're exactly right. originally they had cane, but they had learned how to make cane into sugar. and this is one of the crucial things. sugar granules do not exist in nature. what exists in nature is the cane. we had to learn how to turn the cane into those little pieces of sugar. and we'll get to that. but before we get to that, the question is how did knowledge of sugarcane spread? how did people learn about this
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plant growing in new guinea, this substance used in religion in india? does anyone remember who might have brought knowledge of sugar across -- that back row there is great. i think the second guy there hasn't spoken yet. >> um, christopher columbus -- >> this oh, no, you're ahead of us, buddy. you're ahead. we're way back. >> um, i think it's the, it spread because it went across the world, and i think china had it? >> yeah, but before china gets it, there's someone who brings -- there's a woman here on the end, marina. >> um, i think it was, i think it was the slaves. >> that's later. any -- we're way back. we're in b.c., guys. we're way, way back. >> the australians? >> nope, no australians. >> ah. >> the greeks?
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>> yes. alexander the great. if any of you remember the stories, alexander the great is conquering across from greece. he's conquering across iran. he's conquering -- he gets to the edge of india, and his troops say, i won't go any further. i've gone as far as i'm going to go. but alexander is conquering, he has this hunger to know. alexander can never know enough. so he sends his friend in a boat saying go explore india, find out stuff for me. and his friend comes back and talks about the reed that gives honey though there are no bees. now, why would you describe sugarcane as the reed that gives honey though there are no bees? >> because it was sweet? >> yes, and why else?
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you'll get a chance. >> because the honey, bees usually produce the honey, and with sugarcane they didn't need bees. >> right. because what they knew -- before people knew about sugarcane, how might they have sweetened their food? what, what ways might people have used to sweeten their food? >> they would use mashed fruits and honey and sap from a maple tree? >> very good. you all my remember that in north america there were no bees, north and south america. they didn't have honey. so what they had is maple syrup, they had the agave cactus, and in the rest of the world they had honey. so we've, we've had sugar used in magical ceremonies, we've had sugar, now, is spreading, people are starting to learn about it -- >> but one thing we want to
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mention when you say that they use, let's say, honey or fruit is sugar or sweetness at this time is not the way we think about it where you're going to have a chocolate bar or a cookie. it is just a taste. it is a spice. it is something you use in your meal to give it one of the flavors, okay? >> let's say there's a meal you just had where you use sweetness as part of the meal. what big meal did everybody have just recently? >> breakfast? >> okay. [laughter] think of a holiday. >> thanks giving. >> thanksgiving. typical thanksgiving plate you might have meat next to sweet cranberries or relatively sweet cranberries. you're using sweetness there as part of your main meal. it's not -- maybe you had pecan
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pie or sweet potato pie later, but also you had on your plate sweetness was a spice. >> so this is sweetness, now, as a spice. >> and when sweetness was a spice, do you think sugar was easy to get or hard to getsome. >> hard. >> how many say easy? how many say hard? right! >> so when it is as a spice, it is what we call a luxury item. it's not something that you can just go to the corner store and get a bag of. it's something that will cost you a lot of money. it's very special. you just use a little bit of it. >> and we know that the place that really caused this, the growth of knowledge of sugar is this wonderful, mysterious school. it was a school in what is now iran. >> [inaudible]
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>> it was the first university, the first medical college where doctors trained while they healed patients. it had an observatory of the heavens. and here to this day on the palace of justice in the tehran there is a sculpture of hazra the just who was the king in iran in the period when this academy was the world's center of knowledge. so people were coming from india, from greece, there were christians there and jews and persians all sharing knowledge about the world and sharing, in particular, knowledge of sugar. sugar was also considered a medicine. they actually gave sugar to people to try to heal some of their ills. although they noticed that it wasn't too good for your teeth. the key next step comes in the
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600s and 700s a.d.. can anyone remember what the huge change in the spread of knowledge, the spread of information that came in the 600s and 700s a.d.? the big, the new religion that was spreading all over the world? >> christian. >> no, we had the christians already. yes, sir, in the back row. >> hinduism? >> no, hinduism existed already. uh -- >> islam? >> islam. islam comes to the fore in the 600s, and as the islam spreads across iran and spreads down -- crash.
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into china, into russia, into central asia, into the middle east, into europe, islam has a common language of scholarship which is arabic. and now they are spreading knowledge of sugar everywhere anyone speaks arabic. they can now learn how to use this new substance. one way they used sugar is to make beautiful sculptures. these -- see these look like trees? these were entirely built out of sugar. so what they would do is they would have these big celebrations where a ruler to show what a wonderful, powerful, generous ruler he was would commission these huge sculptures that were made out of sugar, and sometimes there were also -- have any of you ever had mars
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pan? a mixture of sugar and almonds. and they would also make these sculptures out of the mixture of sugar and almonds. can you -- while arabic is spreading, spreading knowledge, anybody remember what we call numbers that we write? what do we call numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, the way we write them? what do we call that kind of number? >> counting numbers? >> counting numbers or there's another name for that kind of number. uh -- >> numerals? >> or what's the word that comes just before numeral? >> roman? >> no this. >> digits? >> no. >> arabic? >> yes! we call them arabic numerals because the arabs brought the knowledge of how instead of using -- remember roman numerals x, i, z, like all this kind of
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really complicated stuff, and the romans didn't have 0. the arabs brought knowledge of the 0 and what we call counting numbers all throughout the world. but was there any part of the world that didn't -- can you think of a part of the world near the middle east, near africa, near asia that doesn't speak arabic at this time? we're now talking about 1100, 1000 a.d.. where is there a place where they don't speak arabic? >> turkey? >> okay. what's another possibility? china? a possibility. what's a big place where they're not speaking arabic? >> pakistan? >> uh -- >> um, europe? >> yes! you got it. as the arabs are spreading knowledge, spreading numbers, spreading information about
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sugar all over the world, europe is going in the opposite direction. europe is shutting down, blocking out, saying we don't want any of what you've got. so europe is withdrawing, pulling in the -- >> [inaudible] >> what? >> south america? >> we ain't there yet. in europe, however, they still like spices, and, in fact, if you were having a feast, you might have boar's head. this is an actual -- we've now used a medieval recipe to reconstruct the head of -- why is it green? because they painted with, like, mashed up, like, parsley or something because they wanted to have just like the arabs made these giant things out of sugar, in medieval europe you wanted to show you were rich by using, making something elaborate, making this. and by using spices.
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spices that -- but the europeans did not know where the spices came from. so if you look at this picture in the upper corner here, this shows someone fishing in a river or that they thought came out of paradise. they thought spices floated down a river somewhere in asia which was where the garden of eden still was. because they didn't know. they didn't know where sugar could come from. >> [inaudible] >> okay o. >> so i have a question for all of you which is we've been talking about the spread of sugar, the arabs are the ones who developed it, but there's one big problem. with sugar, with this sugarcane, in fact, the one we have here right now. what is the problem with sugar? or sugarcane? >> it could give you diabetes?
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>> yes, that's one problem. [laughter] >> but when you have to make sugar. >> it -- when you cut it. >> exactly. take a look at this cane. you can see, it's pretty dry, pretty woody. do you think you're going to get much sugar crystals from this? >> no. >> absolutely not. this is a reed in which it must be milled within 48 hours of being cut. so you have to cut the cane, get it over to some kind of process where they crush the cane and they can get the pulp out, and then it has to be boiled and boiled and boiled so that we can get those crystals that we all know. and so this has to happen within a very short period of tile. time. and it is, in fact, the egyptians, the arabic world develops the system by which we
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could process these, this cane, all of these reeds. and they developed something called the -- anybody want to take guess of what they invented to make the sugarcane be processed in a timely way? what do we call that? >> it's a system. ah. >> [inaudible] >> they did use, they did use mills. >> [inaudible] >> but what's the system called? >> where you've got a lot of people working to get this sugarcane processed. what do we we call that? >> a plantation? >> very good. so it was in the arabic world that they first developed the plantation where you have lots of people working, cutting the cane, getting it over to the mill, turning those fire on so that the sugar can be processed. so this idea of sugarcane
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plantations, processing sugar spreads upward into the mediterranean islands, the canary islands, okay? and there's somebody who we will now talk about how it made it way over -- made its way over to in the 400s -- 1400s spain and portugal were competing to explore down the coast of africa and find a sea route to asia. that way they could have the prized asian spices they wanted without having to pay high prices to venetian and muslim middlemen. spanish and portuguese sailors searching for that sea route conquered the canary islands and the azors. some of them staffed by slaves,
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purchased from nearby africa. one sailor came to know these islands particularly well because he traded in white gold, sugar. and then as he set off on his second voyage across the sea to what he thought was asia, he carried sugarcane plants from one of the canary islands with him on his ship. his name was christopher columbus. >> i knew it. >> and i have to tell you, marina and i cannot agree on who wrote that passage. we both like it so much, we each want to -- >> i say i wrote it. >> i say i wrote it. >> we still don't know who the -- where the truth lies. okay. so a lot of you had mentioned south america, the west indies.
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all of you with backgrounds in the caribbean, right? so this is, now, sugar has been brought across to this whole area here. we've got barbados, all of these places that have sugarcane planted on it, hispaniola, okay? >> hispaniola is the dominican republic and haiti. >> cuba, all of these are places where sugar is now being planted. so what is this, now, the beginning of in terms of world history? >> now, to be clear, there has always been slavery everywhere in the world. slavery is as old as world history, it has existed in every part of the world. however, as marina was saying, people are now interested --
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christopher columbus brings sugar over on his second voyage. what do you need to have a lot of sugar? you need fertile soil, you need wind or water power to run the mill, you need to be near water so you can ship it, you need a lot of wood, right? because you need to keep the fires burning because you're going to be bubbling vats of sugar. but you need one more thing to produce sugar. what do you need? this. >> hard workers. >> you need hard, cheap workers. you need people who you can get to work for very little because the more they work, the cheaper they are, what happens to the price of sugar? uh -- >> it goes higher? >> or more likely it -- >> it goes lower. >> it goes lower because you're
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producing cheap sugar, the price goes down. let's look at, now, here is the most important little diagram. can any of you remember of the approximately 12 to 13 million africans sold into transatlantic slavery, what percentage were brought to north america where we are? what percentage came to north america? many i'm trying to look for someone who hasn't spoken recently. just guess, right? this is a wild guess. this is not a test, the it's not on the regents. just -- >> about 80%? >> 80% to north america is one guess. >> 91? >> 91% to north america is another guess. >> 75%. >> 57. one more guess. >> 52%. >> marina is now going to show you the actual percentage of
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enslaved africans who came to the united states. 4%. 4% of the enslaved africans were brought to north america. 96% of the enslaved africans were taken to the sugar land. if we have 50 of you in this room, that means two of you came to north america. 48 of you went to work in sugar. if you want to know the history of enslavement, sugar. sugar drove the world economy. it was the labor of the africans that spun the world. because as sugar is getting cheaper -- >> well, first of all, we're going to talk about what it was like to work on these sugar
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plantations. so we've got sugar plantations, brazil, french guyana, surname, haiti, all of these areas. that 96% are going to those sugar lands. let's talk for a moment about what life was like on the sugar plantation. you saw these cane reeds here, okay? you heard that once the harvest started, the sugarcane had to be cut and processed no later than 48 hours. what we have is we have droves of people, women, children. they were the ones who very often did the work of weeding. they were constantly hoeing the plants to get rid of the weeds. you'd stand there all day long in the broiling sun getting rid of the weed that would spring up around the sugar sugarcane.
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there were other people who were sent in to plant, and they had to plant in a very exact way. you see this tile here? it would be right in the middle of that one. and then the next one and the next one. then there were very often the strongest slaves were the ones who eventually would be sent in, and they would be the cutters. and they would cut the cane, and they'd use -- they called it either cutlets or machete. and they'd cut it. they'd cut it here, let it go down. and they would have to carry this cane very often on top of their heads, okay? sometimes they would have a cushion they called a kata that would go on top of their head, and they carried over. then there would be other people -- >> wait, wait, i want to interrupt for a second. i need a strong person to step up here. >> yeah. let's get a very strong person. right here, come on. ..
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of the weight of what robert is just not kerry to keep the process moving. >> style, you've got the people who are carrying it, taking minutes and then there are the
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people who are feeding it into rollers, into whatever milstead said they are having that will drive it. then there are people who will get the boiling house. and boy, boiling houses oiling. if you can get started out under the light, imagine a house where the furnace is going all the time, day, nights, and you have to keep working to matter what is that process the ground-up sugar into the boiling vats. then there are people called him boilers and they take these blog ladles and they are testing it and taking what we call the top. they take that off. and they are testing it for the moment when sugar turns to crystal because there's no exact moment called turkey and that is what nikos urbina liquid to a
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crystal. process down. then there's a whole other group of slaves who are there to put the sugar, either to set the sugar and put them into the barrel. this goes on and on. you'll have several harvests in a geared. it's not like there's a harvests and a half for the rest of the year. they would plant one field of a year for one harvests, another for another harvests. so you are put on this relentless cycle of work, working, working, and dangerous for particularly in the boiling house, where people's arms can get caught in the rollers. it's very, very hot and dangerous work. >> if you look carefully at the illustration of the mill, there is a site that is kept next to them no.
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can anyone guess why you would keep the sword next to the milk? >> for protection? >> nope. why would you keep a sword next to the milk? >> in case it stops working? >> nope. >> to chop up the chain? >> the reason you have a sword because people are working 12 hours a day -- 14 hours a day, have you ever been really tired and you close your eyes for a minute? if you are feeding into the mail and close your eyes in your hand goes into the milk, the millwall star appeared the only way to save you is to cut off your arm. they talked about how many wondered people they thought on
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the plantation. because that was that. what marina said was true. they will never stop the process. that is why would we talk about the 96% and why it's white so unfamiliar for so many of us, and all of the sugar land him in the enslaved people died faster than the children. the work was so brutal that you are constantly bringing over more people, simply to replace the people who are dying. the work was so relentless. >> so here's my question. we now have sugar is the cheap commodity. we do get the depth on how much sugar we? >> in 1700, the average english person made four pounds of sugar a year. 1800, 14 pounds.
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1900, 90-pound. 2000, 140 pounds in america. now in 2010, 150 pounds. sugar transformed who we were. and this acceleration is because you have enslaved people who are driving the price of sugar so far down that everyone can have it. it's not a luxury. it modified. it's not a decoration. it's a necessity. >> it's what we call a staple. now let me ask you, who are these people who work eating all this sugar? 90 pounds of sugar, 40 cups of tea, what is going on? why are people eating so much sugar in their day?
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>> because it is sweet. >> was always had this week. why suddenly so much consumption of the sugar coating on? >> because sugar is in everything now. >> why were people craving -- that's now. >> at prices gunned down so much. >> the prices come down. who are the people eating the sugar? >> who is consuming? those barrels a going off across seed. where are they going? >> what is happening is just at the moment that the sugar prices going down, there is a huge change taking place first in england and how people work. people used to work on farms. they would work in a little
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shop. starting around 1800 comely people in england are working in fact aires. if you work in a fat tree, you are working 10 hours, 14 hours. any disfigure factory and go to the firemen pick an apple? if you are working, how are you going to give enough energy to get to your day when you are working in a factory? >> sugar. and there are three substances that they would take their sugar with. tea, coffee and chocolate. so what you have if you have slaves in the caribbean producing this cheap sugar, shipping it off in barrels and it's going to england, where you have workers in fact great, working their own long shift.
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they get through the day with a sweetened tea. they drink it, pulpit, have it with bread, put some sugar on the right. before you know what we have something called the cookie. we have something called the biscuit. all the things we take for granted now. you know this energy bars people like to eat now. olivet dates back to the moment when people begin to work in fact areas. at that time, they would drink something like 40 cups of tea to get in through the day. this is why they are starting to consume so much sugar. >> at here is the twist. here's the interesting twist. readjusting sugar leading to death, brutality, enslavement. we have just seen how sugar is fueling the industrial revolution. but on the sugar island, the planters are getting really, really rich.
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they are getting so rich they don't even have to live on the island anymore. they move off to england. he mailed 2000, you know, people people -- acres and acres in jamaica, barbados, antigua, but she lived in london. and when you live in london, you can go to parliament and make the laws in england and you can make laws that say everybody in the english empire mesquite sugar only from british islands. and you know it's not about that? the americans. the americans say no taxation without representation. how come the sugar island owners are so rich they can live in london? we can't live in london. that not fair. we want to be independent. at the beginning of the drive for the american revolution comes when the americans say i
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can't stand these sugar laws that you west indians -- the sugar tax exactly what she said. you are so right. the beginning of that american revolution is started as american are angry over the british plan to. we mention the industrial revolution. we've mentioned the american revolution. anybody remember any other revolutions it happened around the end of the 1700, beginning at the 1800s? tonight around the world. what other resolutions do we know about? >> french and indian war. >> was revolution? the french revolution. >> so the french get rid of barricading. the french even abolish slavery. however, the french revolution consumes itself in violence. have any of you ever heard of
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the guillotine? the guillotine, if you think of the french revolution can you think of this big knife. they are consuming themselves in violence. soichiro was put in charge of france. does anyone remember his name? >> the famous french general, famous for being short. >> napoleon. napoleon takes over in france and napoleon says wait a second, hold on a second. this is not a good idea. so he decides that he wants to make -- she's going to feed his empire. he is going to get a lot of money for friends by going back to you love. he is going to make this island the sugar center of the world. and in order to do that he buys
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the middle of america to feed needy. anybody remember one more revolution? 1804. 1804 is the date you need to know. nope, 1804. >> at the restive donation revolution, very good. >> in 1804, vacations has defeated the two most power forwards in the world. they have defeated the british in the fridge. when haitians become independent, napoleon no longer needs the center north america. he saw the two less than that is called? the louisiana purchase. the louisiana purchase a cd skip to america. it is because he be achieved its freedom. napoleon didn't need the center of america. our rate. haiti is the second country in the world to fight for its
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european masters, to be independent. it is our near neighbor. when the united states recognizes his sister, the only other free republic and our part of the world. >> take a guess. [inaudible] >> 1862? >> yes, 1862. the united states will not recognize a republic of freed slaves. why not? why will it take us until 1863 to recognize a republic of freed
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slaves? >> that's the time of the civil war. >> exactly. until we are ready to free our own plays, we cannot accept the principle that slaves can free themselves. so you have pd that chooses freedom and we ignore it. we ignore it except there is one thing that happens. the slave masters from heating the go somewhere. they are not going to stay in a republic of sleazy pop for their freedom. where might they go? summative urea province in cuba. where did the other ones go? someone who hasn't spoke. you haven't spoken much. >> the united states. >> were in the united states might they go? somebody, come on, take a guess.
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in the united states, where? >> i don't know, the south. >> where the sabbath? who won the super bowl last year? all right. louisiana. and louisiana. friends, i have something to tell you. i mentioned that in all the sugar land, enslaved people died faster than their children. and every one of the american slave states, and if people had children faster than they died. there was one exception. what you think the exception was? >> to have for labor. >> yeah, but what is the one slave station where people died? >> so they could work?
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>> maryland? >> nope, the answer is louisiana because sugar is deadly. sugar is nonstop labor. so the one slave state in which people died faster than they had children. so we are going to now switch to the next at, but i want to tell you something, friends. this is the hard part of writing this book is that we had to write about this tragedy, about this level of brutality and death. because it is true. you have to tell the story. but we also wanted to give some voice to the people who've passed away. how could we let them speak? well, one way we code is there is a lot of music and dance that came out of the enslaved land, the sugar land. and on our website, sugar
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changed the world, there is a brazilian dance called ukulele. here we are going to see a little. and this came directly out of the sugar plantation. it was a fighting style, but also a performance. because of my master came by, they say leave us alone. they were also practicing the scale because they do want to fight, they want to rebel. we want to know how to type. and so, we have on our website, many kinds of music and dance
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that is the heritage that came out of the sugar land, so we understand this isn't just that. there is also life. >> so what we turn the next act to is how did slavery in fact end? okay, you have sugar is now being relentlessly created with slaves in the west indies. it's a very cheap product that everybody, that we are all dependent upon. you have slave owners. you have indian planters who are getting rich off of this and they basically own parliament in england. they are going to get heard. how would it be possible to have her have this idea that a slave could be free? at a slave is not the property of another person?
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where does this idea began? what we are going to do is go back to thinking about that world of england, where you had people working in fact juries, where you had people also having another kind of revolution. it is a revolution in their mind. it's a change of ideas. and with starts to happen is you have what we call the abolition movement. this is not the abolition movement of the united state, but in england, where they would launch a brilliant, really and campaign. how many of you know that sometimes it though let's say to a coffee shop or a starbucks and they will say, this copy is free trade coffee? or you might have a cotton shirt that says this has been made. children have worked in the sky tree. have you ever seen anything like
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this where they tell you no children have helped make this road, right? free trade coffee. all of that dates back to the abolition movement, where you have people trying to figure out, how do i can say to the average person the fact that the sugar they eat every day is produced by someone who is giving their life for this. so they began to create little persons that showed an image of a woman's slave we've been under a tree. they would have labels that would say, do not bring this blood sweetened beverage. they would remind people every day when a recipient that that wonderful sweetened beverage that blood when they do that beverage. they've made it to the people
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and year after year they would show the manacles and the chains that the slaves were brought over and, the whips that were used. said that people would get a feeling for this practice that took place so many thousands of miles away. all they know is sugar. >> what they did a >> at the product to the person who made it. so every time he took his sweet taste, you thought of the blood price for your sugar and a one. in 1838, england ended slavery. england, which is making by many at the sugar slavery than any other country in the world was the first country in the world to abolish slavery. >> what you have been come up much of this, 1838 in jamaica,
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trinidad, and all the british colonies, the bells rang. they rang and they rang and they bring. with emancipation day in the british colonies in the west india's. all of those slaves were now free. but there were people who were not happy with the idea that the slaves were free. there are people who listened to those tolling bells and they felt this is a death spell of my livelihood. and that was the west indian clatter. because they said he was going to cut my came for the cost that i needed to be? and we are going to find out as soon how they solved that. in the meantime, we're going to take a break. >> will take you in a quick little journey. remember the general, what was
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his name again? >> napoleon. >> polling has this problem. the british controlled the sea. where is he going to get sugar? he can't take it from the press. they are his enemy. where can napoleon get sugar? >> new guinea? >> that's not a bad idea, the brakes controlled the sea. he can't make use of any seaborne transportation. >> europe? >> europe, the sugarcane doesn't grow in europe. >> how are you going to get sugar? >> asia? >> sugar over the land from asia, not very likely. >> how this poor napoleon and the french people going to sweetened their hot chocolate? marina is going over there.
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>> by using syrup from the maple trees. >> a substitute. >> bees. remember where our story began, with mike and his grandfather had been a serif? napoleon learned that a german scientists have figured out that the sugar is chemically identical to cane sugar. this was the first time in human history that a tropical show product could be substituted by another product. science is now going to tell us where our sweetness comes from. not anymore of the plantation in the middle east could reduce slaves have been freed. science is not going to begin to give up the power sugar. >> so what you have, which is exactly what he said, the server
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that is related to his aunt, he is developing be sugar. enter in the west india's, the west indian planters are saying who is going to cut my came? >> no one is coming from africa. no one from south america. no one from north america. they did try bringing enslaved people from ireland to barbados. they said to barbados, someone was to take us lave -- which by the way shows slavery wasn't yet racial. you could be enslaved for being catholic because it was about to a record to get to cut? are right, were not getting anyone from here, here. where can you get someone to cut the cane? >> either children or family members?
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>> no, formerly in think people are as far away from the plantation that they can get. >> are going back to the plantations, right? >> canada? not canada. >> ukraine? >> now, the gas. the answer is people were brought from the other country in england in marina. marina's relatives were brought. and if you have ever been to trinidad to today ago, to jamaica, to the guyana though there are many people from india and the caribbean. why are they? because they were brought to cut the cane. >> the slaves that i don't want to work on these plantations. with the slaveowner, what indian planters did is they started a system we called indenture,
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where you are not getting slaves. you sign a contract. they bring you over and you have to work for at least five years on the plantation. you are technically allowed a passage back if you fulfill the terms of your contract. very often people did not go back, sometimes because they didn't make enough money to make it worth it. they're not going back to their village and saying look at how much money i made. or they chose to settle. most chose to settle in the caribbean and other places that they were taken to. so they are the ones who are now working the sugarcane plantations, which is precisely how it is going to my family story. we should also mention that this idea of bringing people over to work the plantation, perhaps not a slave, but as indentured
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workers also a fact that another part of the world and is now part of the united states. it is the place where they grew a lot of sugarcane. can anybody think what that place might be where there might be a lot of sugarcane? >> hawaii. >> hawaii, you are absolutely right. they brought over japanese, chinese, koreans and filipino at various ways to work this chain plantation in hawaii. so that's how many, many people still worked these plantations. now, there is another place in the world where there was sugar plantation. other kinds of


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