natural state of affairs between the white house and the press corps because that's just the nature of what the press needs to do. they need to try to catch the white house out on whatever is going on. >> juanita patience moss is next on the tv. she talks about the role of african-americans oldsters in the civil war in "the forgotten black soldiers in white regiments during the civil war." she documents than two dozen african-american soldiers who fought in the war coming in her great-grandfather, krauter patient. the 19! offered being here tonight. i'm so thrilled to have somebody here filling up our chairs and coming to hear this wonderful, wonderful as beaker.
one needs a anti--- juanita and i met several weeks ago. as i began to talk and she was telling me about her research in such, we had somebody to make sure that we would just could not imagine. one being in councilmember meyer did not mention quite what i civil war site is. we had to be be a union soldier, lots of names on the wall of the house on the hill. please afterwards go into our gallery and see a replica attic, which has many signatures. but we have a connection because there is a connection between one of the soldiers on the walls in the house and juanita's story. and that is what is amazed. and also connection with the anti-so-called region of pennsylvania with her family and
my husband's family. that we felt we were meant to be together if she was meant to speak here and where so thrilled to have her here tonight for this whole program. juanita patience moss is the daughter of the late cora and charles edgar patience. she is retired high school biology teacher. so she told us she did not even make tonight. [laughter] we will hold her to that. she is a product of the west tipped in public school system. she attended in college, greensboro, north carolina and received a bs degree from wilkes university, wilkes burke on pennsylvania madman and tree from fairly and rutherford, new jersey. the last time i read that was before this letter came to juanita from kings college in wilkes-barre, pennsylvania.
in 2011, she received the honorary doctorate of humanities from the college. so how wonderful and i know how proud you are, dr. jay. [applause] is your retirement in 1992 as a biology teacher, in bloomfield, new jersey at the high school dare, she developed an increased interest in genealogy, resulting in writing several books, the first one being created to be free, which was an historical novel based on the life of her great-grandfather, a runaway north carolina slave. you're living in alexandria, virginia, it provided her with the opportunity to go to the library of congress and the national archives in washington d.c. in the past 10 years and she collected the names of nearly 2000 black soldiers whose participation in the civil war
had been forgotten by historians and there's quite a story to that because she was told they didn't make a dent. those she showed them what a lot of research to do. in addition to her first book, she's written for nonfiction books a battle plan that i'm a north carolina april 17, 1864. the last confederate victory, forgotten black soldiers of my regiment during the civil war, which is what we are here for an anthracite coal or a charles edgar patience. a book of 150 memoirist urbana college have also been put together from the women alumni and greensboro, north carolina. we are pleased to have her husband, edward maas here. they have been married for 61 years. wow, that's great. [applause] their parents and daughter
brenda moss green and one of their grandsons is here tonight and that is not green. without further ado, i would like to present you to dr. juanita patience moss. [applause] >> is a wonderful introduction. thank you, everyone for coming tonight and thanks especially to andrea for allowing me to share my research with all of you. i am a fourth-generation free woman of color. i am a living bridge between my grandchild, matthew, and ours right ancestor, my paternal great-grandfather, krauter patient. because of grandfather's story, i spent the last 15 years
researching a topic entirely new to me, black soldiers in the civil war. a topic little discussed prior to 1989, when the movie glory hit the big screen. indeed i have never learned anything about black civil war soldiers in any of the american history classes i ever took either in high school or in college. how about you? indeed, i had never learned anything about black history were soldiers. it was her next hearing that i knew about them. my knowledge is limited to decorating grandpas graced by content being at each memorial day after having followed the american legion's parade to the local cemetery. cannons boomed, muskets volleyed in caps were sounded. in fact, my interest in the civil war did not develop until 1998 when i read in the "washington post" about a new monument to be unveiled in the
district to one of the black soldiers and sailors. needless to say i was quite excited over thinking that i would see grandpas name on the wall of honor. however, when i checked for his name in the national parks database, i was shocked to read the following words, quote, no one knows soldier unquote. what? i exclaimed to myself. i did a lot of talking to myself. [laughter] i know exactly where grandpas grave is marked by his union tombstone and an american flag. i was soon to discover that the names of the ball were only of those who have served in segregated regiments. and only those names are stored in the national park database. when i approached several historians concerning the black man who has served in white
regiments, i was told there had been none. not nice note to myself. well, i personally knew of one, my great-grandfather who has served in the 103rd pennsylvania ballot tears, a white regiments. it's a biology teacher i hypothesized that he was not the only black soldier to serve in the white regiments and i was determined to find out if i were correct and i was now having it over 2500 names. now my past presentations that focus wholly on the forgotten lack soldiers of my regiment. tonight though i am going to discuss seven distinct categories of civil war black soldiers. now let's see which ones you already know and which ones you do not.
after the civil war erupted in the 61, 90 day militias organized to protect washington and the e., and enthusiastic like men hurried to enlist, only to be rejected due to a federal law that the 1992 for bidding colored men to bear arms in the army, even though some had served in both the revolutionary war and the war of 1812. in spite of the law, a number of new englanders known as patriots managed to serve the union without rank at what could be called a first category of blacks who were soldiers. such a pastry with the norwich resident henry johnson born in alexandria, virginia. after attempting to join the local regiment responded for the first call state militia troops,
he was refused because of his race. he was however accepted into the second connecticut volunteer infantry as an independent. after the completed duration of three months, he enlisted in the eighth connecticut volunteer infantry participated in july 21, 1861 the first battle will run as it was called by the union and manassas by the confederacy. several later, william henry johnson would participate in the birth that expedition that captured roanoke island, north carolina. in his autobiography, he wrote that other new england features of independence on roanoke island not known as the number of pitchers who served the union before blacks were officially allowed to become bona fide soldiers. a second category existed during the early months of the war because there were so holy mustard and lack soldiers such
as private junes reader of the first rhode island might country. key to find a bull run. again, not known is how many soldiers were this category. as the war progressed, southern territory under union control would provide the largest number of black soldiers seeking the employment and freedom and safety offered behind the federal line, epstein did in droves, alone or with family. general benjamin butler introduced the term contraband for those runaway slaves, rationalizing that they received in the property just like cotton, machinery and other good. due to the rapidly growing number of contraband, the first confiscation act was signed on august 6, 1861, authorizing the seizing the union forces defending confederate property and such property included
slaves. the second confiscation was past 11 later did we slaves of owners who were in rebellion against the united states. at the same time, the military act was passed, empowering the president to use those freed slaves in any capacity in the army such as quote the purpose of construction of entrenchment are performing your duties for any labor or any military or naval service. despite pleas from northern abolitionists, president abraham lincoln continued to refuse blacks in the union army. regardless of the official volunteer regiment organized at just the louisiana native guard, creole french weekend for you persons of color organized originally a relation in eight x joined to serve the confederacy
they were never accepted into the confederate army. after general benjamin butler's occupation dorland's 1862, both louisiana men joined the union army, becoming the first, second and third louisiana native guard, later having distinction of of being the first per unit officially mustered into the union army. performance later in august august 1862, another unofficial regiment, the first kansas colored infantry was organized, consisting primarily of fugitive slaves in this area. performance in the missouri raid helped dispel the notion that blacks were unable or unwilling to fight. later it would become fourth official black regiment.
also, there is their presidential or congressional authorization, and other regiment composed of ex-ways. the first south carolina raised by general david hunter at rufus saxton, later to become the fifth official black regiment. these five formally unofficial resonance make a third category of black civil war soldiers. the summer of 1862 arrived with lincoln adamantly refusing like men in the regular army, even though the black abolitionists and orator frederick douglass continued pleading with the president. douglas and other leaders viewed military service is twofold. first, an opportunity to win a union victory and second for blacks to gain equality and rights of citizens.
his pathetic words perhaps were already dead in a voice similar to a familiar one to some of us may be. perhaps paul folkestone or morgan freeman or james earl jones. as you listen to these words of frederick douglass, imagine, once the black men get upon his persons, the lack letter's get an eagle on his button and a musket on his shoulder. ..
which was finally issued on january 1, 1863. it freed all slaves in rebellious states with the exception of those in areas already under union control. and it did not free the slaves in maryland, delaware, kansas and missouri. because the president was fearful of losing those slaveholding border states. secondly, the proclamation declared that a black man could officially be received into the army. many immediately took advantage of the new ruling and joined
mixed race regiments. thereby creating a fourth category of black soldiers. again, such a number is hard to determine because no racial identification is registered on the military record. hair, i common skin color, as physical characteristics. one such soldier and a mixed-race regiment was medal of honor ruth anderson, a member of the 142nd new york infantry. he is buried in the green hill cemetery in amsterdam, new york. this fourth category includes also very light skinned colored man scattered and volunteer like regiments. at the age of 35, he joined the 13th mission infantry organized in his hometown where
his family was well known. this photograph of him along with some of his military records were sent to me by her after she read my first publication about the forgotten black soldiers. of course, i did know anything about him. he is included so in the addition to additional proof of black serving and white regiments is found in some black cemeteries. for instance, apple washington, a researcher from new jersey discovered a large number of union tombstones without the letters you sec. on may 22, 1863, war department general order 143 was issued to organize last segment -- and
almost immediately the governor of massachusetts began recruiting free blacks. flyers were distributed near and far from massachusetts to connecticut and pennsylvania, ohio, other northern states, and even the candidate. working to fill a first regiment of 1000, recruiters included prominent blacks such as frederick douglass, and the former patriot william henry johnson. the 54th massachusetts volunteers was the first northern black regiment to be organized, and among the recruits were two of frederick douglass' sons. the white officers were hand-picked by the governor himself. subsequently, a 23 year-old became the chosen officer to lead this regiment that had such great importance. first, because unlike the other black regiments already
organized in the south, it was composed of freed black man. many educated presided in the northeast states. forming this black regiment in the midst of a civil war at the time of president lincoln's emancipation proclmation -- emancipation proclamation gives us the importance for as a glimpse into movie glory, the future of all black regiments would rest on the conduct of the 54th massachusetts in battle when the naysayers were insisting blacks would not, could not fight. having no clue about the fire in their souls ready to ignite. frederick douglass new. the 54th massachusetts performed valiantly. in fact a medal of honor recipient served in that regiment.
he was sergeant william carney who was considered the first black recipient, even though he would not receive it until 1900, 37 years after his bravery at fort wagner. the first four northern black regiments were raised in massachusetts and connecticut. they retained their state designations throughout the war, 54th and 55th massachusetts infantry. the fifth massachusetts calvary, at the 29th connecticut infantry, making a fifth category. on may 28, 1863, with great confidence and high expectation, colonel shaw's regiment proudly marched down the street departing boston for the south, and for destiny. this bronzed 1897 robert gould
shaw at the massachusetts 54th regiment moral and boston, massachusetts, to fix the colonel on horseback and three rows of infantrymen marching behind. next, a sixth category, united states colored troops referred to by frederick douglass as able or. eventually there'll be 175 regiments that make up 10% of the union army and fought in 449 engagements on land and sea, including 39 major battles. just what induced those black man to enlist in the union army? perhaps know what the flyers offered. bounty of $100 at the end of the war, a $13 a month, good food
and clothing, state aid for families. medal of honor winner sergeant major christian fleetwood of the fourth united states colored troops staged his reason, quote, a double purpose induced me, and most others to enlist. to assist in abolishing slavery, and to save the country from ruin, unquote. unveiled on july 18, 1998, the spirit of freedom, an 11-foot bronze memorial created by the blacks culture at hamilton of louisville, kentucky, is located in the shaw section of washington, d.c., at the entrance of the u. street metro station. the monument memorializes the black soldiers who indeed fulfilled the prophetic words of frederick douglass.
and surrounding the monument is the wall of honor and scribe with hundred 9145 names of like sailors and soldiers, and their white officers, who served in the segregated regiment. one name found on the wall is that of private samuel james patterson. my stepmother's grandfather, he was born to free parents in berlin pennsylvania at the age of 20 left his small hometown for boston to join the fifth massachusetts cavalry. him following the war he moved to wilkes-barre, pennsylvania, where he joined the local post of the g8 are, a fraternal organization for veterans your scene in this will do very post photographs, to black veterans
with their comrades all be decked in navy blue suits. has varied in styles for some veterans choosing to wear a more formal have. while others donned the civil war work cap. samuel j. patterson poses proudly in his. the exact number of black soldiers who served in the civil war is not known but it keeps increasing of present-day researchers find additional names, such as i am doing. 185,000 is the comment estimated number, but it does not include those who are listed in white regiments as underdogs, as my ancestor had. my seventh category, therefore, includes those who are listed under general order 323. on their military record, many
are identified as colored. and others as afghan descent or negro or contraband, even servant, depending on their particular state classification. note that black was not used. i found many names in the volumes of the rosters of the civil war soldiers 1851-1855 compiled by broad worth publishers. general orders 323 stated quote, the president of the united states is hereby authorized to cause to be listed for each cook duell allowed by section nine to undercut of african descent -- descent to show received for the full compensation $10 per month and one ration per day.
$10 of monthly pay may be used in clothing. now, might i interject here, that that figure equals $7. the pay, however, for white soldiers was $13 per month, and $3.50 extra for clothing, equaling $16.50. the 54th massachusetts refused the insult in pay and would not accept any money until the discriminatory rule was changed on january 1, 1864. the war was almost over. now concluding general order 323, quote, for a regular company, to undercooks will be enlisted for a volunteer company they will be mustered into service as in the cases of other
soldiers. in each case a remark will be made on their enlistment papers showing that their undercooks of african descent. their names will be born on the company muster rolls at the foot of the list of privates. they will be paid and their account capped by other enlisted men. they will also be discharged and a same manner as other soldiers. by order of the secretary of war, e.g. townsend, unquote. and so general order 323 opened the door for contraband to begin just as soon as the yankee forces denigrated the south. my great grandfather was one of those runaway slaves and listening on january 1, 1864 at plymouth, north carolina. hence, my interest in the fateful battle that took place there three months later. 13 black cooks were -- reform in
plymouth before the battle erupted at 4 p.m. on an exceptionally beautiful spring afternoon. sunday, april 17, 1864. this siege of plymouth signed recognizes the union and confederate forces army and navy that participate in the four-day siege in the in the yankees defeat. many were killed. remaining able-bodied soldiers were sent by train to the infamous andersonville prison in georgia. one was sergeant warren bleed off who come in march 1862, was a member of the u.s. army first battalion engineer fighting in northern virginia. he left his signature on a wall in the front parlor of a house. can you see it? lee goss, company b, core
engineer, u.s.a. sometime later he was captured in battle. he became a prisoner of war and then, luckily, for old. as soon as his health permitted he enlisted in the second massachusetts heavy artillery company h., which unfortunately, was ordered to plymouth, north carolina. and so on april 20, 1864, he was captured by the rebels and again became a prisoner of war, and not paroled this time. somehow he managed to survive the war, and several years later he pinned the soldiers story, captivity at andersonville and other rebel prisons. >> still being debated even to the present time, is what
happens to the black cooks and recruits, armed waiting their orders at plymouth? they were not sent to andersonville prison. now i know about my great-grandfather though. since his regimental roster states, quote, apparently escaped capture following the bowel on april 20, 1864, unquote i wondered how that was possible when most of the yankees were killed or sent to andersonville prison, including warren lee goss. from reading books and diaries and letters, i was able to discover the surprising answer, but i never tell my audience is. because i want them to read my book. [laughter] or bust anybody's been already know that the ironclad secretly
build in a north carolina cornfield for the principal reason for the confederate victory at plymouth. how many of you knew that? one person knew that, so there's a lot for you to learn. now, even if you are familiar with the story, you must read my book about the battle of plymouth because it was the only one that has been written that chronicles the entire story from beginning to end, concluding with how the yankees recaptured plymouth six months later in what some historians call quote the most daring mission of the civil war, unquote. the defeated yankees at plymouth were dubbed either captives plymouth pilgrims, because of the hardy breast facts it to pennsylvania men were wearing. they marched into andersonville
prison and the spectators thought they looked like the pilgrims of massachusetts. each regiment had the liberty of choosing its own formal military attire, and when the rebels attacked, the yankees have been getting ready for this sunday dress parade. they thought it was such a boring thing, each sunday get ready for dress until april 17, 1864. out of approximate 45,000 yankees and incarcerated at andersonville, only 100 you know and blacks are reported, and 33 deaths. why such a small percentage of blacks? because it was unusual for captured black prisoners to be sent to the prison to gain valuable cooperative -- property, they need to be turned
to the master, not languish and die in prison, or they were killed under the black flag have no quarter, meaning no mercy, as what happened at the fort in tennessee. following the yankee defeat at plymouth military records would reveal that several black cooks and recruits were killed. others such as private richard westford served with my great grandfather's regiment were remanded back into slavery, which was a total contradiction to the unions demand that black soldiers be treated as prisoners of war. since that was not happening, 1864 almost coinciding with the date of a battle of plymouth, general grant shut down the prisoner exchanges with the hope that would change the minds of the confederates. it did not, and so thousands of soldiers from both sides suffered and died, and each side
military prisons. a contraband cook in the 85th new york infantry was garrisoned at plymouth. he was described in his military papers as hazel i with light hair. a 21 year-old mulatto who was captured and detected as such and was sent along with the other yankee captives to andersonville, where unfortunately, he died six months later from the ravages of the prison. of course when the confederates reported his death, no mention was made of his being colored. but his racial identification already was on his union papers. consequently he possibly is the only known runaway slave buried at andersonville, a fact that i
revealed to a representative of andersonville when i attended his presentation. at first dubious, he was able to locate private john breaux lock on his andersonville database. later, i received from andersonville a photograph of the graveside, 5045, he relies between two white soldiers and not in the colored section. another colored soldier of interest is private thomas candon's, son of madison innings, son of dolly hemmings of monticello. in his memoir published in 1873 in the pike county republic, madison stated that his son, thomas, had died at andersonville prison.
is graveside is not among those listed in the records. he might be one of the 459 not identified. the andersonville civil war research files includes the following remarks about thomas hemmings. quote, reported to be the grandson of thomas jefferson, unquote. they both are listed in my book along with nearly 2000 other forgotten black civil war soldiers. including my great-grandfather, crowder patience, and company c. of the 103rd pennsylvania regiment. i was quite surprised to see how my great grandfather birth certificate can his surname -- being illiterate runaway slave who had not been allowed to learn how to read or write, he
would not have been able to spell his name when he enlisted in the union army. therefore, the recruiter wrote what he presumed he was hitting. of the military records his name is spelled various ways. the final spelling is the surname pennsylvania teachers gave his first child when he entered the first grade in 1881. one of grandpa's favorite pastimes was to congregate with his local jiyai our comrades come just like sammy j. patterson would 12 miles away. i have no idea those two old veteran who knew each other 12 miles was quite a distance by wagon. interestingly, though, two of his granddaughters of samuel j. patterson's granddaughters married two of crowder's
grandsons, two generations later. 12 miles was such a great distance by automobile in the 1920s. [laughter] the g.a.r. symbol has five points at each symbolizing a branch of the union armed forces. the artillery symbol, crossed muskets. vienna treaty the vehicle. marines crossed muskets and the navy, what else but an anchor? standing soldier unrest in 1928. 80 year old crowder patience poses in front of his pennsylvania home for his only known photograph. now, i'm going to put and outside any. i always thought he looked so old. [laughter] now that i'm there --
[laughter] is february 4, 1930 of which were he reads quote, crowder patience buried with full military honors, three veterans of the civil war the detail the spanish-american war veterans were attending at home and agree. the casket was draped with the american flag. at the westminster center where the burial was made, detail a spanish-american war veteran fired a volley over the grave and taps were sounded, unquote. now, i would think that grandpa's union tombstone and the g.a.r. are proof enough that at least one black soldier served in one white regiment. but if that does not suffice, additional proof of this acknowledgment of a commemorative brick in the wall of the abbey national civil war
museum at harrisburg, pennsylvania. created to be free, and this novel i wrote about grandpa's 83 year journey from the sweet potato fields of north carolina to the anthracite coalfields of northeastern pennsylvania. i could not write his biography because i do not know that much about him. so i had to weave what i knew with my imagination. former slaves were reluctant to discuss their former lives. and their children didn't want to hear anything about their parents having enslaved, particularly way up in pennsylvania. they didn't want to hear about that. in 2008, just as i was about to publish a revised version of my
forgotten black soldiers can i received a surprise telephone call from a historic of the first alabama cavalry, glenn -- linda doctor during her search for the burial site of each member of the regiment, she had discovered 16 black cooks. she informed my very surprised itself that every confederate states except south carolina had organized at least one union regiment. wild one if anyone else had done any research on black soldiers in white regiment, she discovered my work and wanted to know if i would like to have a copy of the military records she had collected. well, would i ever? soper 16 soldiers made it into my revised edition. when i received the next telephone call from glenda, it was to inform me that she had been instrumental in having a union tombstone placed on the unmarked grave of private simon
west. moreover, she had located a boy scout troop and several local rent actors to participate in a number of service at the highland park cemetery, warren bill ohio. a volley was shot over the graveside. and homage paid to the no longer forgotten black soldier. several months later she telephony can determine that in the magnolia site cemetery in decatur alabama she had discovered the graveside of another first alabama black soldier. his name was private a ms. mckinney. just how had she found him?
it happened this way. a congressional aide for the fifth congressional district in a local past were preparing to index the historic black cemetery when they learned that a ms. mckinney was buried there. no one knew where. likely his wife had his tombstone inscribed with making and that's how her husband's grave site was located. after the story about the indexing appeared in a local newspaper, glenda todd, the first alabama cavalry historian telephoned peggy towns, the congressional aide. glinda then contacted the u.s. department of veterans affairs to order a marker for private amos mckinney, just as she had done for private simon west the year before. i was elated to be invited to participate in the ceremony. my publicist and i flew to
huntsville, alabama, and there met mrs. donnie mckinney lester, the only living grandchild of amos mckinney. having moved many years ago to chicago, she had returned to her home area recently, never expecting to become the center of fascinating bit of civil war history. her grandpa's military service was been recognized after all of these years. even though she didn't have an inkling about it, the subject was not discussed in her family, a black man having served in the union army was not something to brag about in alabama. i thought you might enjoy seeing some of the moving ceremony as photographed by ms. barnes. members of the local high school rotc were present.
as well as reenactors from the 13th united states colored troops living history association. preparing to present the colors. this elderly and act as representative of the many dedicated men and women who will don woolen uniforms even on a steamy july afternoon. and it was hot. these reenactors of the first alabama cavalry also participated. some civilian reenactors gathered. one of my favorites being the spirit of frederick douglass. as michael of lexington, kentucky, calls himself. him others are all decked out for the occasion. here is a lady in mourning
attire. i know she was hot. [laughter] this day dress was probably much cooler. and proper church of tyra always required a hat and gloves. -- always -- church attire always required a hat and gloves. we had sense enough dressing in cooling white. the mayor brought greetings from the city. to the mayors left is the flags great union tombstone of private amos mckinney. with tears of joy in their eyes, granddaughter and great-grandson undraped their ancestors tombstone. after line 4909 years in an unmarked grave, private and is beginning is no longer one of
the forgotten. reenactors prepared to carry out the following -- volleying. homage is paid to the civil war veterans, private and is beginning. in conclusion, you will learn additional interesting details, you must put on your to-do list a visit to the african-american civil war museum in washington, d.c. the museum is open to the public sunday through saturday. long vertical banners with interesting information line the visitors walk leading to the museum's entrance. on the first saturday of each month at 11:00, and 1 p.m.,
during which time guests are given the opportunity to share their ancestors story. upon request, the extremely knowledgeable curator, harry jones, will guide you along a civil war timeline. new material continues to be added such as my original research on the forgotten black soldiers and white regiment. last year, three generations of the descendents of private crowder patience presented a gift to dr. frank smith, director of the museum. this compilation of our ancestors and his discharge certificate now hangs on the wall where computers provide information for requiring, inquiring descendents of other researchers. my grandpa, crowder patience, represents the black soldiers who served in white regiment's during the civil war. thank you.
[applause] >> thank you so much. just an incredible journey, that you've taken, that your family, your ancestors have taken. and thank you for sharing all of that with those. and what other people are also discovering about their roots and what we can all learn more about the civil war. are there any questions? >> i have one. excuse me for not standing, but three months ago i couldn't walk. did anyone contact you from the
"washington post" in that section about three weeks ago in the civil war? >> no. >> i was wondering if they had, because there was so much information there. >> thank you. yes? >> when your grandfather died, were you born yet? >> no. he died in 1930. i was born in 1932. just a baby. >> with their black soldiers that served in the confederacy? [inaudible] that's for somebody else to talk about. you said yes? [inaudible] -- confederacy in richmond and
the documents down their showed us a number of roles that showed that yes, there were, that was some cases these gentlemen are these members were told we discharge because they weren't creole. as she set a year later they still showed up on the roles. they didn't go anywhere. those who were slaves, i guess creole is in a different category so to speak. if you go up to the ford republic, they have a civil war marker up there for the engineer unit which consisted of black soldiers. if you read between the lines they were slaves that were building bridges and roads and stuff like that. but there were what would be classified as colored soldiers
in the confederate army, yes. they talked to the lady down there. just like you have, you want to get your message out. so you try to get out, hey, there's another side of this story. >> yes. [inaudible] and did you just ignore that? >> in the beginning of the war? they didn't have ranked, so they were called private. they were considered independe independent. [inaudible] >> i don't know. i only know what i know. think so? okay. >> a little more about andersonville.
did she know that there were some black soldiers that reside in andersonville? [inaudible] >> undisguised curious about -- >> she would have known about the colored troops but the one i told you about was not with the crew. they didn't even know he was black. no, they didn't know he was black. under the question in the back, please. >> i have a comment. i want to thank you for your work. i am sitting here so proud of the fact that you would on her our ancestors in the way that you have. and i believe that your work opens up a whole new, and i know
you know this, a whole area that was not given the honor with which you have audited. [inaudible] your great grandfather makes it even more real for me. and i will buy your book last night for my children and my children's children. >> all, thank you. thank you. do we have another question? yes. [inaudible] >> do you have another three hours? [laughter] >> do you really want to know? do you want to know? all, this is your husband, okay last night all right -- [laughter] all right.
when the war was over -- i'm not going to tell you how he is gay. window, i'm not going to tell you that. you find that out in the book. the remnants of the 103rd return to have -- to get the last day. he was among that group. and in the history of the 103rd, it lists the men. it lists his name, no racial identification in there. no one would know he was a black man. and so he got his last day on the steps of the courthouse at harrisburg, pennsylvania. he, i don't know, my imagination since i'm not going back down south. my imagination thinks that. he worked for a man who bred horses. so my great grandfather was very good with horses. one of his jobs was to take the horses to the owners farms. so he would travel all over western pennsylvania. and one time he was asked to
take delivery of into wyoming valley. have you ever been to wyoming valley? beautiful wyoming valley along the such go on the river. and he was so enchanted by the area by the thing is married and had a couple of kids, he decided he is going to move his family up there, and that's why our family has been there for six generations. any other questions? >> i just have a question. also a comment. i also am very inspired by you as a woman, just listening to have you in just created this quest, for all the things you have found. but i was curious, when you first started research, had you come across groups of additional soldiers? was a sort of one here, tender,
20 there? >> another three hours. i started at zero. know, one. i won't see you. i start at one. so i went to professor harold tops who was the history of the history department where i got my vouchers. he was not my professor. anyway, i went to him and i said to him, i told him the story of grandpa. oh, no, there were no blacks in white register i showed them the discharge papers. wow. i said, how many would have defined to have some clout? so he said, well, maybe 50. i said, well, where would you suggest i begin? he said, go to carlisle, the army history center there. and see what you can find. so i take a trip up there and i
walked into this big building, and i see this handsome gentleman a little -- i was 15 or 16 years ago, this older gentleman walking the floor. [laughter] sigh went up to him and i said, i have a question to ask you, and i said, i hope you can give me some direction. but people tell me this did not happen. i said that my great grandfather was in a wide regiment and i want to know whether there were any more. he said, wait here for a minute. so he went back in summer and andy kay met with a manila folder. and he gave me this folder of a man called private karl from california. ..
of the pennsylvania ratchet and then i went through all of them, they risk a hundred men. that was my beginning. so i said since the pennsylvania regiment, they would be another regiments. so i came over here to the library right around the corner, the library of fairfax and spoke to someone named mrs. lee v. where are you? okay, there you are. there you are.
who sent me to her friend down in raleigh, north carolina, do you have her? she was a librarian in raleigh? you sent me they are. so i go up there to the second floor and i asked for her and i go to her, tell her what i want. stand right here, i'll be right back. i can't just stand right here. i'm looking here and looking dad and i have been to look on the left to me. there was a whole wall of books called the roster of civil war soldiers 1861 to 18 xt five ice-t. so now i pick up pennsylvania. there were three volumes of pennsylvania. i look for ta, my great grandfather's name and there he is next to his name is colored
cook. i bet he didn't cook at home. last night i bet his cooking days were long ago. this set colored cook. now i'm thinking about some of the other guys that i got from the pennsylvania regiment, one e. richard west. so i looked his name up in it just said cook. so i say to myself, i wonder if all of the cooks are black. that sent me on another road and this is what i think. the only person who is a cook, listed as a cook was black. white cooks were not cooks. that's how i got a lot of names,
from those rosters. and people have been writing to me. someone wrote me last week, said to have a lot of information, where i can go. so there are people who now have read my work. they knows somebody. the numbers and ideas. they know where to get the information. so if i live another 10 years, from your lips to god years. [inaudible] >> now, if anyone wants to trade threesome black cemeteries and that person names on the tunes from tombstones have you alters her usb ps not, then i will have some more names. but if this is u.s. dt, those aren't the guys i'm looking for. i am looking for a black union
soldiers buried in the cemetery that does not have u.s. et on the choose to. babbage's opens up to me by this woman named old johnson and new jersey. because of my work she decided to look through the cemeteries and from the ones that did not have u.s. dtd. i hope it's going to mushroom as he said, ushering. [inaudible] >> okay, all right. [inaudible] >> i want to again thank you so much.