tv After Words CSPAN October 14, 2013 12:00am-1:01am EDT
from cabdriver to community organizer to leading the charge for immigration reform in the u.s. house of representatives. the program is about an hour. >> host: congressman, good to see you. let's have a conversation between two puerto ricans, a liberal and conservative. we share a love for immigrants
committed to immigration reform. i found the book fascinating. there's great storytelling. you have a great sense of humor. it is fantastic anecdotes and i recommend everyone should read this book. latino or non-latino it is a fabulous book. now, if i read this, too words came to mind. identity and in power meant. two words that describe live is gutierez to the latino routes and puerto rican identity and a commitment to in power the community it is a fair assessment of who you are. >> we try to describe to the reader why is it that louis gutierez has made that a pretty? and as you read the book, you begin to understand that my mom and dad had nothing in puerto rico. they had no future. they had gone to great school
and then they came to america without a coat, without language skills, nothing except for desire. as evidence continue to come to this country now they are puerto rican. they came as citizens. every other aspect they had to confront. they came in 52. so in new york 50 years ago the better headlines would be that we were bringing disease. how do we stop them from coming to new york. but they were criminals. they didn't speak the language that they wanted to get on welfare. how many times have we heard those discussions of immigrants today. so i wanted to inform people about how it is the time brought up. i remember look i was born in 53. that was ten years before the civil rights act. north of the mason-dixon line that chicago was a segregated city. the police were hostile to us. they were not there to serve and
protect their there to put you up against the wall and ask you what were you doing. you were always a suspect in your own neighborhood. but moreover, and you knew better than to go to. there were swimming pools and neighborhoods that were not accessible to you because they were for whites only and that might have been in chicago. so inform people and then going to pottery go all of a sudden i'm not puerto rican anymore. >> host: we really have to see your childhood. as you were saying, growing up in puerto rico lincoln park and then when you were 15, your dad tells you we are moving to puerto rico and this is where you say in the book i think now living wasn't a choice for my dad, it was an obligation. or my parents tie your of the english stations, yes but in the and it was the drugs and the riots and assassinations. it was time to go to puerto rico. so you're just told your going
to puerto rico. at 15 you are leaving our friends and everything you knew. he went to a place that you heard about but you were born in chicago. how was that experience? >> guest: i grew up in a puerto rico bilingual household. what do i mean by bilingual? my parents spoke to me in spanish and i responded in english. the understood my english and i understood their spanish. so i was never equipped to go to puerto rico. this was my dad and my mom's dream. it was their goal. my dad didn't call family meetings to discuss the future. you did what you're told. it wasn't hard. but as i described in the book there and later on, think about what it was like for my mom and dad. they came to america. they had to teenagers and what did they see around them? they saw gangs and drugs and they were deeply devout
catholics. what did they see? they saw john f. kennedy. we have a picture of john f. kennedy and a picture of jesus christ -- we had a picture of john f. kennedy. they saw him murdered and then another good catholic in their mind, robert kennedy, martin luther king. they saw kpps in the movement and drugs. it was such a time in the united states. when martin luther king was assassinated, they saw the national guard on the streets in the city of chicago. i think my dad kind of said it's time to go back to the mountains of puerto rico. a place that safer so that i can finish up ways -- >> host: it's interesting because you grew up in this neighborhood but then you go to puerto rico and they see you as the guy from the u.s.. >> guest: there's a great story here. you are in class and go to talk to this rural and approached her
and introduce yourself. they are bothering me. and was she really talking about me? so all of a sudden you go to put a week away all the sudden you are the gringo. how do you deal with that? >> guest: it was a very painful time. i used to think that adolescents was the science of pain. pain and science. but it's about growing. it's a very painful time. adolescents could be the science of pain and to be rejected and to be isolated. you know what? i also write about my friends and how they took an interest in me. how people came up to me from the puerto rico independence
movement and said you are a part of the diaspora. welcome home. there was a very important time in my life. i learned spanish. you and i understand that in 1969 as we talked about earlier, the mountains are much more of a tradition to porter rica -- puerto rico. it's more of a tour this phenomenon. we are not a country of surfers. with sugarcane it was the lifeblood. when i get there and i see sugarcane's and fields and coffee and agriculture and i say
to myself i've got to learn the language. the interesting thing as i describe in the book, too is that it taught me in chicago bears won social class. you were all puerto rican. there wasn't an upper class, middle class, lower class, we were all in the same class, the puerto rico society that lived in chicago because of rebel leader of a cab or worked in a factory or swept floors or washed difference to the condition is -- washed dishes if. it wasn't the color of your skin but income and in terms of who you are and i try to describe that. >> host: the unity that you saw in the states among the puerto ricans isn't necessarily when you're there. >> guest: let's say the greatest guy in my neighborhood, the top guy might have been who owned the local grocery store
and he probably was wealthy in comparison to the rest of us. we know he had more money because he always had more what at his counter. how much it took in credit that day and how much he made. it was an institution and i never remember him charging credit -- i mean interest. what he did is kicked you as a client. was a part of par rico in the united states and every now and then they would show up. >> a sense of family when you go to places like that. now in puerto rico is where your political conscience awaits. you become involved with the independent people party. what was about the minority party your parents -- the power
that supports the political status. what was said about the defendants party that excite did you and lead you to get politically involved? >> guest: two things. number one, remember [inaudible] and then it's still a fire in the belly. the puerto rican independence has never gained more than four or 5% of the vote. but there were doctors, dentists, lawyers, architects, many men and women of the industry as we would say. you know how many teachers? they were everywhere. and i looked at them and they were important women and men. so i listened to them plus they didn't call me bring go, they
called me american. they thought they had been exiled as a part of the colonial status of the united states that my parents and hundreds of other thousands have fled the islands in the 50's to try to find a better future because the island didn't sustain any hope. so i like to say you had to be there to see that young man. and you could take an extended metaphor and build it into the speech to the point where there was that. and lastly as i relate in the look maybe you could be in education. if you have a son and he comes to you and he asks you for political advice be careful what you tell him not to join because maybe that's exactly where he's going as i relayed in the new book. >> host: in your political career there's something that struck me in the book that says a lot about you and about
immigrant families and your work ethic. it certainly comes from your father. when you move back from chicago to puerto rico he starts a restaurant that didn't go very well. but after that when he went to college and after college you were always working up to a point where they started driving a cab because he wanted to make money to go back to puerto rican of to meet up with your future wife. it seems to me from reading the book and i think you said at one point that you felt it was important to show that you were hard-working and that they have a good work ethic because sadly there are many still today that like to use racist characterization's of puerto ricans and immigrant saying they are lazy and they just want welfare. but you were always working. >> i was always working and, you
know, i like when i told the story of my dad and his restaurant there were many times as you relate and you go back and you become sad to think they worked so hard saving all that money to have this restaurant, to have this beautiful place. my dad never even gave it a name. never even gave it a name that he worked so hard. i can only imagine how disillusioned he must have been, how heartbroken he must have been but he persevered and continued forward. look, i'm understand there is a time when you need the government. i'm understand that. i don't question -- i don't judge people if they come upon hard times. i think there is a role. i've always felt and i've always strived with every part of my life when i couldn't find it. secure ryan and chicago, i am married.
its 1977i have my bachelor's degree, and latino. you'd think that they would be looking for bright and articulate people like me to come and work for your company. but no one. one application after another. so i thought to myself i did this in college. but i have to tell you it was hard because i was driving a cab and so many plans and i remember when i went back to see my dad that year at christmas, he said after the with the effort and all of the expense for you to wind up doing exactly what i did. and i kept saying i have to work. i have to keep my self-respect and dignity and this is something that pays for food and pays the rent. having said that, it was good for me. from all over the world, lawyers, doctors they have to
give it to sustain a family. >> host: and they do all kind of work. they are the assistant to the assistant in the medical office when they have a medical degree. they are a legal aid. some paralegal. this happens, but they work their way back. but i think it's the story of america to tell you the truth. part of -- sometimes i look at the immigrant community and they don't want to work. are you kidding? degette one job and many times with immigrants they think what am i going to do for the next eight hours? beebee i need a second job. they are always looking for a way to advance economically. so the political interest was there. commitment to the community. and something happens. you married the love of your life. so how many -- >> guest: 35. >> host: congratulations. and two kids. but by that time, you went back to chicago just like your parents did, looking for a
better future. not necessarily at that time thinking he would get involved politically. but something happens that makes you think i have to get involved. can you describe a little bit what happened? >> guest: i think it's a very important moment in my life. we would not be having this conversation had it not been for that moment. in chicago there was an election for the mayor in 1983. the incumbent and richard daley, the son of mayor daley and the attorney. harold washington, who was a freshman member of congress is compelled by the community to run for mayor and he wins the democratic nomination. they called it subsequently beirut on the lake. he wins the nomination and on my door comes knocking officials.
he is the congressman and the chairman of the ways and means committee. he's a counselor to the democratic president's and a leader in the democratic caucus and what are the workers doing? supporting the republican nominee under the theme before it's too late. and i'm sitting there in my home listening to these guys ask me to be a bigot, to be recessed, to somehow be prejudice. i said no, he won the democratic nomination. in the democratic party. even all of the right democratic parties should be a symbol of yourselves. >> host: they didn't want -- >> guest: they didn't want a black man to be the mayor of the city of chicago. they said the light wouldn't come on at night, the garbage wouldn't be picked up. there are the chaos and
pandemonium under the theme before it's too late. mondale came to chicago to campaign for him and they were graciously booed at church on sunday. so i just want you to think of the time in which the city stood up. it was a beautiful life and my time. we had just gotten our first house. we used to watch this old house and watch how they would stand there floors and refinish the woodwork, how you did a little dry walling and free grout if your bathroom. we were happy. on weekend i played dominoes with my friends. i had a job. was happy. a birthday party here and there, but tourism and abiding and your life was complete. we also planted in the yard to make sure we kept up with all of our neighbors but then they knocked on the door and i said maybe i'm going to have a few
less games of dominoes on the weekend and we will bader those a little less. i need to get involved politically. i supported washington and ran against them and got beaten. >> guest: i got 24% of the vote. >> host: we can't underestimate this. you are taking the chicago democratic political machine supporting harold washington and then challenging him. we are going to have to cut it short because you are being called to a vote on the floor. >> host: you decide to take on the political machine in
chicago. i'm sure they were not happy with you. how was that? >> guest: number one, i was angry and disillusioned but at the same time very motivated with a high levels. to say we need a democratic party that doesn't use racist as a barometer. i kept thinking of martin luther king and how people were going to be judged by the content of the character and not the color of their skin. yet in chicago we were still judging people on the color of their skin. >> host: the incredible thing is you decide to fight them and you win. >> guest: in 1983, harold washington had thousands of volunteers come in young people who'd grown up in the 60's and 70's and were ready for change. harold was a larger-than-life figure. eloquent and and at the same time it was inspired me. so i went to my precinct 280 to
220i remember winning that so the next year i ran against him for the committee men and i think i just have to replicate this in 50 more. it wasn't quite that way. i got 24% of the vote by one the public to understand the next time you say there's 87% of the votes, the election last november it wasn't always that way. i got 24%. every and i want to underscore every one of my neighbors had a poster in their window. >> host: you start getting your reputation and you are even willing to go against your own. >> guest: it was the right decision to make. the campaign and asked me to join the administration and he
becomes a mentor. just think a kid like me and i'm sitting down with the mayor of chicago. he's teaching me. i'm learning. he gives me a job with responsibilities that i have. my story is not unique. there were hundreds of other young men and women that were given their first opportunity -- he opened it up for women, gays, latino and black people to finally have positions of responsibility to the they got a fair and square deal. >> they won the office of mayor but they have -- he asks you to run for older men to see if you can control the city council and you delivered.
>> in the city council that 15 members, 25 to 25 as a tie. guess who breaks the thai? the mayor of the city of chicago. i was the 25th vote. once i become the 23rd vote, the commissioners on the board of education and the commission on the park district and economic development board all those things open up and you finally get the discipline tease and he sells general obligations how with streets and the voters and the bridges and begin the infrastructure in. >> i have to say one thing. i had a lot less power and influence at 50 than i did as a member in the inner circle working with the administrative assistant. the government yields a lot of power.
now in washington the values unexpectedly and everything goes back to what i was before. it to say that i cried is an under state. what happened. even though i just got elected it was like what four? i ran for committee and a couple of months. i was struck -- lucky to see him before he died of a heart attack in that office and was told we were going to name our sun herald if it was a boy and [inaudible] he passed away knowing that but we thought we would name a next child if it was a boy and we had
a girl. so her middle name is so proud because leader in her life. thank you. what a great man you need me. so that was the kind of experience. the city council fell apart but in '89 i had to make a decision about my future. i wanted to continue to work and there was an election. mullen career is there a figure of washington. but i didn't want it to be. here's a set of agreements we
need to reach. he expanded the number of commissioners to six. >> really essentials. >> when they thought it was pretty important to have the guy that stood out there for change and reform and it was with harold washington to say that he could bring -- what does the city council want? they want peace, tranquility, council that worked together and stopped fighting one another so since i was a fighting figure in the beginning they saw you as a controversial figure. >> guest: it was wonderful because i got to negotiate with who has become the secretary of the commerce. he was then the mayor's brother and became chief of staff to the
president. i got to meet a lot of different people and one and a lot of valuable lessons that one of the things that's important and as we expand the right i think that we did many of those things. i know we did many of those in 92. in '92 i ran chicago for the congress. i will say anybody felt that eight -- >> i wanted to make a difference at the national level and i knew if i was going to do that if i'm elected my first challenges the north american free trade agreement. who wants me to go for it to a
real-life father was the wrong thing to do. some people would say he was good to you. he supported you. i'm always going to be due what i believe is correct. i am here to make a difference and people were clamoring for the reform. >> the pay freeze that said that's unfair to treat to freeze the salaries of members of congress. >> one of them said a don't ever stick your hand in my pocket again. the democrats were in the majority and i was the first
one. the president gives a state of the union address and the budget, time for austerity. all i did is trying to be prepared. there were signs that said reserved for members of congress. i thought that's no way to greet the american people. two years later democrats were thrown out and gingrich's revolution. you know many things they used against democrats were the same things i said were wrong. >> host: [inaudible] >> guest: then i would have but not today.
>> your district starts becoming more diverse. you get a company that is growing and in your district office use start getting more questions about immigration issues and citizenship. this is something dear to my heart because i served in the bush administration and just helping the prospective citizens and giving to the ceremonies it is wonderful and you mentioned in your book help every american should go at least once to understand what america is about and then you say this is what i am going to champion. it's printed be about immigration and you start doing workshops. >> you aren't there but i had to deal with your predecessor they said the only one authorized to do that are these community-based organizations. i said that's not right.
i'm a member of congress and we should be able to help people become citizens. i want to go to the aarp to get a citizen. i was the first member of congress authorized by the services to conduct citizenship workshop. many women i wanted to leave a legacy of power regardless of the congressmen this. i just think to walk into a citizenship ceremony there's been times when it's 80, 90, 100 so these people when they walk in and walked out, the united states of america.
so i saw the need of my district and then continue to fix that system so many people were trying to find eight legal way to get their son to bring their parents and they were all shut down so i said it's time to reform the system and that is what i dedicated my life in the congress to. >> host: we have a dysfunctional system. i've never been a fan of barack obama. however, when he got elected the first time i was encouraged that he promised he was going to deal with immigration reform in the first year and i said great let's get this done. but a year passed and nothing happened and you were very frustrated and you made it very clear to the president that you were carried telling him and his debate for the reelection you
make the process and the promise is a promise. >> i sat down with barack obama. he said i'm going for tradition. i thought know you've already decided that. but think about i was the only latino that he could ever get to endorse his candidate. i was from chicago and well-established of the country. i didn't ask for an ambassadorship or to be the co-chair of his campaign. i asked him to support comprehensive immigration reform and that's what he did in the
first year. he made that commitment, not on political but on public policy. i went around the country collecting petitions and i took those to the white house people saying we need you to take action. it's not my opinion. it is a universal opinion in the latino community and immigrant community what you did is it went up and he told us he was going to prioritize deportation on the criminals. when you look at that number is there were over 50% and those were the struggles that we had.
>> he had promised it and then at the meeting he tells you. there's a good meeting mr. president and he says to you why don't you get off my back. president obama many times seems to things through a very personal lens and doesn't from the public policy he sees a criticism of fostering a greater reputation for yourself that is that it's that. if you have power to be the
greatest sin is to waste it. what do i have to lose? ibm a kid who came here with nothing who slept on a cot in a hallway any apartment in chicago and got to sit down and negotiate a comprehensive immigration reform. i can say something the president wouldn't even acknowledge. the most important thing, don't use the brinton need to -- i've always tried to do a good buy yes. defy have a relationship in the book i think barack obama is a better president of the united states because of our criticism
and for two years he said i don't have that power. meeting after meeting at the white house he said he singled me out along my colleagues. >> to provide action to the so-called dreamer's the kids who came to the united states when they were miners had a discussion. speaking to the president can't do that but when he got tired he did and the supreme court invalidated it as well. >> the communality embrace it there were hundreds and thousands and when he ran for the reelection of was october, a month before.
i'm working that tv commercials there is barack obama in spanish i did this discussion because the values that i saw that my wife and i am still i said we've turned this around. at the end, and i hope we can get a reform out of congress. i've moved critically in italy for the rhetoric but some of the decisions they've taken that i think are anti-immigrant and i am still working hard to open a party to go back to the principles defendant for that based on compassion and free-market.
he did admit his promise and even after that he election because at this point he still talks if you told him puerto rico and not help the process. i think it's the end if we get to the immigration reform it's not going to be because of the politicians but because of the latino community and the message i think for both parties. sell for the republicans to get their act together on immigration but the democrats to keep their promise to deliver. >> guest: we met with the president and we said we know you are going to las vegas. don't introduce a bill.
it means to be republicans and democrats in the house and senate. we don't need a bill to come down and say this is what i want s to all of your come planning and demanding that i take more action now you are asking me not to introduce the bill? but to his credit they didn't. i still have one word. he said you were not subtle. you know what i thought?
they are not settled either. so maybe we haven't been faeroe but we have been forthright. i think that he's a better. we were disillusioned but once we took a step in the right direction obviously helped by the fact that mitt romney didn't help himself by saying that he was for deportation and we should simply have arizona ten 70's. was he bit offended by that? i have an issue with barack obama. if it were proposed by barack obama we are going to fix this
country. and i think that his legacy is that he does. estimate the government of the united states is dysfunctional because everybody knew it by partisanship. but when we get together in chicago and speak together about our commitment and transforming our system every that he that applauded that is sent applauding it. they are ignoring it or when to go to the caucus. because he is a friend on this issue. he has received a lot of criticism from the republican party for standing up and hundreds of thousands of dollars of negative ads around them. democrats have to understand because democrats negotiate.
we have to stop and that may be clear that they lost the referendum on this issue. so you lost a referendum, we are in the. is it important to understand immigration reform is not dead. the conversations continue to do the >> guest: we are meeting regularly. you have to understand from my perspective i believe in movement. i believe in power of people so
this is in on deniable quest for justice you cannot stop the ultimate achievement because over all, that is in the community. >> we would have too many before shows. and i want to ask about the puerto rico political status of the would require like him shows to the i want to finish something you said the last chapter of the book. you said it is the story of my life. perhaps there's a different option. peery it perhaps there is no contradiction. they continue with a culture and faith but they are fully american as well.
>> i relate that because when i go they say you're getting involved in the issues so when i go there i am to puerto rican. walking to work one day i was told what many have heard go back where you came from. that is a statement that too many have heard. too many booed had been courageous and defended this nation, loved the united states of america and they are still seen and to be 100 years they tell us to go back where they came from. some of the things i can go back to is the park where i came from >> congressmen, a great book. i highly recommend it. let's make sure the democrats and republicans get a form this
year. >> guest: thank you. >> that was "after words," booktv signature program in which authors of the latest nonfiction books are interviewed by journalists, public policy. "after words" errors every weekend on. you can also watch. go to booktv.org on the upper right side of the page. >> as a young child i tasted a that of the racial discrimination and i didn't like
it. as my mother and father and grandparents and great grandparents, why segregation, why racial discrimination? and they would say that's the way it is. don't get in trouble. don't get in the way. but in 1955 when i was in the tenth grade, 15-years-old, i heard of rosa parks. i heard the voice of martin luther king and the words inspired me to find a way to get in a way. in 1956, my brothers and sisters and some of my first cousins we went down to the public library in a town of troy alabama to get library cards, trying to check some books out and we were told by the library in the library was for white only and not for colored. by july 5th, 1998i went back to the library in alabama for a book signing of my book walking
with the wind. and hundreds of blacks and whites showed up and they gave me a library card. [applause] walking with the wind is a book of faith hope and courage. it's not just money story. it is of hundreds and thousands of countless men and women in black and white put their life on the line in an important period to end segregation and racial discrimination. on capitalism i wrote
because i was worried that people in business --. they can leave and come back to the world. it's easy for a lawyer to go into government. it's very hard for a business person. if you are a small business person it's their business and they have to be there. if they want a larger corporation, then they get knocked off the ladder. it's very hard to re-enter. as a result, you have people in business and i will admit, confession is good for the soul, my wife tells me. but if you are in government looking at business you understand intellectually but it is one-dimensional. you don't have any idea what the deily does if you're in government what it does to business. you don't have any idea what uncertainty does to business.
you don't feel the impact of the regulations. i send my taxes every year and add a letter to whom it may concern. i want you to know why don't have the vaguest idea if they are accurate. [laughter] i said i went to college. i've got average intelligence. and my wife went to college and she won't even read them because she knows she doesn't understand them. i just want you to know that's the case. i pay money to an accountant. if you have a question just give us a call. can you imagine the country with a lousy tax system like that? it's inexcusable. how many people here understand their taxes? i don't see many hands going up.
but i wrote the chapter because i felt i was in business and i know that a businessman has in a large company has shareholders, the of customers, and they have employees. shareholders, customers and employees are all across the spectrum in political views and ideas and parties. and therefore, business people are very reluctant to challenge the government. they don't want to divide their stockholders or their employees for their shareholders. they also worry about the irs. [laughter] if you don't understand your taxes, you ought to worry. i don't know. and also if you're in the pharmaceutical business like i was coming you've got the food
and drug administration and the of the securities and exchange commission and these alphabet to regulatory commissions add to the extent someone criticizes the government or challenges an approach they are taking they worry that the government could be turned on them. and that is in my view why this current irs thing is so critical because american people don't want to feel that their government could be turned on them in a way that target's people. if you can target one person you can target someone else. it doesn't matter if you're a liberal, conservative, democrat. and i think that is why they are so central. now, what i would like to do this have somebody -- you have microphones cracks i think you do. there you are. i would be happy to respond to
questions and even the answer some. [laughter] i will do my best. what you need to do i suppose is raise your hand and he will bring you a microphone. >> i always hit the first question. anyone who pops up like a jack in the box with a first question scares me to death. those lights are bright [laughter] me get a good one. i'm going to embarrass you if you don't. >> someone is going to have to turn his microphone on. who has the first question. you've got it. >> is your microphone on? >> mr. secretary i do have two quick questions. no, 81 in july. i do not need multi part questions.
[laughter] it is 715 here and 1015 in washington where i flew in from yesterday. symbol part question. [laughter] but i mean feel free to go ahead. [laughter] first question is -- >> no, you only get one. turn off his microphone. [applause] will you write a book for republicans that says they will not do without a tax increase, they will not raise expenses without some sort of cut in the middle. i remember when i watched your interview on the letterman show, you had suggested that there was a time in which i forget what it was like 100 billion bolivars was moving like that and the world went crazy.
>> host: it was in the presidency of lyndon baines johnson, and was the first federal budget in our history that hit $100 billion. and everyone just cast at the thought. >> now we have the trillion dollar deficit to get >> i think the republicans there are people all across the spectrum of different parties. but i was asked -- i was speaking about my other book known and unknown at fort leavenworth, the military base, not the prison and i think there were 1490 majors from our country but from around the
world, too. what is the biggest problem i worry about when i go to bed at night and the answer was american weakness. why do i say that? i think the signal that is being sent out from this country is that basically we are modeling the american economy on europe and it is a field model. there is no way you can have the deficits we have had and that debt that we are entering without sending out a signal to the world this country isn't going to be what it was in the past. there is no way you can do that. if you're not going to act irresponsibly people take that message and they see it and then we were spending 10% of the
gross domestic product and today it is less than 4%. allies in europe are spending less than 2%. and the signal that goes out of the world with the sequestration is that we cut $493 billion out of the pentagon defense budget and are about to cut another half a trillion which brings it closer to $950 billion out of it in your budget. the signal that sends to the world is that the united states isn't going to be in the position to contribute to a more peaceful and stable world in the decade ahead. >> you can watch this and other programs online at booktv.org.
welcome to the session prognosis' american mental health at home and abroad. i am gregory, a professor of medical and the college of vanderbilt university. today's session is an extension of part of a yearlong program sponsored by the robert morin center for the humanities at vanderbilt titled diagnosis and context and i would like to think the humanities tennessee and vanderbilt center for the medicine health and society in addition to the center for the financial support of today's session. ..