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tv   Book Discussion on Extremism in America  CSPAN  May 11, 2014 11:00pm-11:54pm EDT

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in issue individually but you do tend to take each issue is a comes before you with my overall philosophy. ..
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across the political spectrum a spouse platforms that label people other extremists although most of the groups and the subculture are small collectively the president suggests some interesting trends in american politics and society. now some observers are in the fragmentation of the country that while others they are just another example of american pluralism at work so political extremism has a long tradition in the united states there've been protest movements, dissident movements that have punctuated american history. the colonial rebels wanted government, independence from england. not long after the revolutionary war in 1787, daniel and farmers in the revolt in springfield massachusetts. for several historians cite the anti-masonic party of the early 19th century as the first right-wing reactionary movement
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in america. the anti-masons were very suspicious of the freemasons but figured so prominently in the american establishment at that time. a few decades later there was the know nothing movement. this movement arose as a backlash against the influx of irish catholic immigration. in the reconstruction afte recoe civil war, domestic terrorism with the ku klux klan and at the close of the 19th century a very robust left-wing movement centered on labor union activism began to take hold. it is really nothing new. there is still no general consensus on what the term means, so suffice it to say as the term generally has a negative connotation.
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so extremism can be defined in three ways. in the first case it can be defined statistically with attitudes towards good particular issues arranged on a left right continuum. the left and right labels originated in the national assembly in 1789 and i in a situation that sat on the left side of the presiding officer and conservatives sat on the right side. so in this scheme of those people that favored the positions on the far left and far right of the continuum would be labeled extremists whereas those people identified with positions would be identified as moderates. second, extremism can't be defined in terms of style. extremism can't be defined in stylistic terms such as fanaticism rather than any specific ideological substance. this definition is reminiscent of the notion of the true belief are. that is to say someone who is
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supposed to be totally consumed by his cause. and finally as the scholar chris hewitt once argued, extremism can be understood as being socially defined. as he noted in any society at any given time, certain social and political views are considered normal and acceptable while others are not so the range of views may be broad and narrow and change over time, said to characterize someone as extremist is considered to be beyond the pale of acceptable discourse. so what constitutes extremism depends on both public and easy to opinions at a particular point in time so therefore the concept of extremism is essentially socially construct constructed. i think the topic of extremism is important today because of several trends going on in
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america. for instance, the last two presidential elections seem to have a poor rating effect on american politics. now while many americans took pride in the election of barack obama as the nation's first black president of the people seem resentful for a variety of reasons. furthermore, the persistence of the economic downturn has contributed to the sense of national trepidation over the direction of the country. on the political right a variety of activists decrying big government have coalesced under the banner of the tea party movement. on the political left, some progressives were disappointed that the obama administration continue to prosecute the war in the middle east. they argue that the war on terror distracts the federal government focus on sovereign domestic problems such as unemployment and health care reform. so the growing chasm appears to be growing among the public on a number of important issues
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including things like the proper role of the government, the multiculturalism, immigration, abortion, religion and the public sphere and the proper position in global affairs. so in such a charged atmosphere, political extremism has the potential to push. here's an outline of the remaining part of my lecture. the subcultures for rich in america today including small groups on the political far right, the political far left. there are separatist movements such as black nationalism, there are variants of religious extremism including radical islam for jewish extremism and the christian identity movement. there are single issue movements including echo extremism and radical pro-life groups. not surprisingly, the prison system is an incubator of extremism, and finally, although
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most extremists are not terrorists, most terrorists have been influenced by extremist subcultures. so i will discuss extremist terrorism as well. in addition i will discuss some signs of convergence and extremist subcultures. in the cases of tamerlan tsarnaev and finally in the conclusion i will talk about the implications of the current trends and how they relate to political extremism. so my book endeavors to put these variants of extremism in context. first let's look at the extreme right. during the 1990s, the extreme right appears to gain the ground as a social movement, but the movement suffered a series of setbacks in the aftermath of 9/11. many of the leaders died or were arrested and prosecuted. but the financial crisis in 2008
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and the election of barack obama in the same year catalyzed the movement. in 2011, the law center and that is a monitoring organization based in montgomery alabama, announced that the number of so-called hate groups have reached over a thousand. furthermore the number petri attended militia groups talked 800. these were the largest figures ever recorded since the southern property law center began accounting such groups into the 1980s. the extreme right exhibits the affection with the government, the federal government in particular. people in this movement often have a conspiratorial worldview. they tend to look beneath the surface of american politics and find what works and the subverting society. finally the extreme right often espouses the element of racism and entice them into some. in the recent years, they saw an
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opportunity to ride to the populace weighs in the form of 13 party. although less radical, the tea party movement echoes some of the same themes as the far right. for example, the teeth party movement is also very critical and suspicious of the federal government. many people who identify with the tea party voiced concern over immigration policy. however, the public representative of the tea party do not use the racialist and extremist rhetoric that is common in the subculture. nevertheless, there is a persistent recession that is broad a substantial increase in unemployment and a decline in the life opportunities for many people who are formerly part of the middle class. what's more, uneasiness over immigration could galvanize support for both the nationalistic patriots segments
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to the far right in the forms of other issues that typically designate for the conservative voters such as welfare and multiculturalism, so in short the issues that give rise to the extreme right will become or pronounced in the century. and so as a consequence, the movement could gain traction despite the formidable opposition against it. although the demographic profiles of members of the far right and the tea party are similar in some respects, there is much that divides the movement over ideology. in order to be viable in the long term, the tea party really must coalesce around a unified platform and a set of principles that can be presented to the american public. and so, whether the tea party can connect with a large segment of america's increasing nonwhite population will in large measure determine its electoral viability. so, if the tea party fails in
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this respect, it could coalesce with the extreme right and be in a more radical direction. they analyzed the anti-globalization and the new anarchists movement. the anarchists seek to create a globalization to replace the capitalistic economy with more that is more a dallas-area based on the precepts. now initially after the cold war, far left groups lost to the ideology and collapse of the soviet union other than that era, but despite the setbacks the far left managed to reinvent itself. so the anti-globalization movement designates the sections of the disaffected young people around the world. these anarchists have disrupted many cities that have hosted meetings and conferences by the
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organizations for example back in the fall of 1999, there was a disparate collection of protesters interrupting the trade organization meeting that was taking place in seattle. through the protest committee's new anarchists seek to hasten the demise of the capitalism which the leave is in a state of the crisis. and although these groups have not been responsible for the fatalities into the department of homeland security has identified these new anarchists groups as a serious potential threat because of the potential to disrupt the major cities. moving onto the black nationalism, there are several variants of the black nationalism today including groups like the nation of islam, and the new black panther party. at times the nationalist movement has been repressed as witnessed by the fbi operations
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back in the 1960s and early 70s. it was an illegal and secret fbi program that sought to disrupt and neutralize various dissident groups in america. but it's mentioning that on occasion, the representatives of the black nationalist movement have garnered grass-roots support in washington, d.c. back to 1995. bearing malloy had one of the -- the black panther party for self-defense. this group was founded in 1990 and malik is the leader of the group. the black panther party holds the racist, conspiratorial anti-semitic. on occasion the members of the groups have supported the islamic causes as well as members of the group protested
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as the danish embassy back in 2006 during the controversy surrounding the khartoum of the prophet mohammed that appears in the danish newspaper around that time. the group also offered support to the alleged 20th 9/11 hijacker. so this increasingly radical foster has alienated the new group from some of the activists of the original black panther party. it's worth mentioning that explicit black racial advocacy has significant support in america both in the mainstream and on the fringe. public figures, politicians, well-respected interest groups such as the association for the advancement of colored people often endorse the principles of black solidarity and empowerment but you do onl he's really withe
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rhetoric of conspiracies and racial antagonism. for example, barack obama expressed ambivalent feelings on the black nationalism and in his autobiography dreams of my father. in the book, he condoned black nationalism black solidarity, self-reliance and responsibility. but on the other hand, he sought a kind of disentangled message with white people. donald took a close look at chicago nationalism in the united states. this movement seeks to implement the mission in the american southwest. they call this aspirational homeland. it is envisioned to be a spanish speaking chicano nation. so the political identity for the members of this movement is narrowly defined by race, ethnicity and language.
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now at first blush, creating a aztlan nation on american territory might seem rather far-fetched. however, the rapidly changing demographic profile of the southwest embleton to be chicano separatist to believe the cultural unification in mexico is inevitable. it hopes to accomplish this through extensive democratic change produced by both legal and illegal immigration. and it is hoped that this large population of undocumented immigrants will eventually maintain legal status and become a very powerful voting bloc. at chicano activists are also encouraged by the high birthrate of their newly arrived constituents with a political majority be chicano separatist movement cody eventually secure and independent states through the electoral process. and by doing so, they would be no need for armed conflict.
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so currently the movement minimizes the role of violence and bringing about the goal of the separate aztlan nation composed almost exclusively of latinos. but the establishment of such an entity presupposes ethnic cleansing at large. so the popularity of the multiculturalism among the american elite has really provided cover for the chicano separatist. there are aspirations that might normally be rejected as a chauvinistic and exclusionary. it is primarily through the southwest chicano separatism has gained quite a bit of support. not only among the scholars and students and the chicago studies department but among non- academics as well. jean and brenda lutz examined
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extremism in the united states. historically the activity centered more on fund raising rather than on terrorism prior to 9/11 there were only a few incidents of terrorism by islamist extremism in america. the first major incident was the attack on the world trade center in 1993. the mastermind of that attack later transpired that he was affiliated with al qaeda. because of america's poor borders, they were able to establish the presence in america and it is of course coleman aided in the 9/11 terrorist attacks of new york city and washington, d.c.. in the aftermath of 9/11 there was quite a bit of fear that sleeper cells might spring into action. and although they later transpired to be overblown, there have been a number of plots that have been uncovered. and some of the deadly attacks to date have come from solitary individuals who have self
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identified with the global jihad. in november of 2009 the major nidal hassan wounded 31 people. months later attempted to detonate a bomb in times square in new york city. to be expected, the u.s. authorities are concerned about radical islam in america and in march of 2011, the congress held hearings called by the representative peter king on the topic. another worrisome prospect is that islamic terrorists might strike jewish targets in america because much of the jewish diaspora support israel and attack jewish targets outside of israel. james and brenda also looked at the jewish extremism in america.
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now, when compared to other countries in which the diaspora has decided anti-semitism has been comparatively low. nevertheless the anti-semitism have punctuated american history. anti-semitism was most pronounced in the early part of the 20th century when the jewish immigrants from eastern europe settled in some american cities. the mainstream organizations have defended jewish rights but there have been some jewish extremism that has been active as well. the best known is the jewish defense league that was created in 1968 in response to the conflict in new york city involving the public schools at a time many of the teachers were jewish and many of the people were african american. at that tim the time there was n between the two communities. however the rise of the extremism in the united states
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has been largely linked to events overseas. during the 1970s and 1980s, the jewish defense league targeted representatives of the soviet union because of the failure of the country to allow its jewish citizens to emigrate. the jewish defense league also targeted arab american groups, anti-semitic groups and holocaust revisionists. there was also an offshoot organization called the jewish defense organization. the defense groups are overshadowed by the mainstream organizations such as the anti-defamation league, the congress and the american jewish committee. these mainstream groups are very well-funded. they enjoy substantial support not only from the jewish community but also leading politicians and civic leaders. but despite their efforts, anti-jewish sentiments still persist in some quarters today. for example, on the extreme right of the jews are often
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implicated in a sinister conspiracy to defile the white race allegedly by promoting the multiculturalism and not white immigration into america. on the political left, some activists decry the actions against the palestinians. within organized divestment campaign against israel. in addition some muslims criticize what they believe is the u.s. government's unfair policies that support israel at the expense of the palestinians. now by contrast the christian right has been one of the most consistently pro- israel blocks. but there are some segments of christianity of america that have an anti-jewish animists. i examined the christian identity movement. this is a religious sector that has gained popularity in the subculture. christian identity is a religion
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that has its origins in something known as british, israel which first gained popularity in england in the 19th century. this shows the people of northwestern europe are the true descendents of the ten lost tribes of israel. in the early 20th century they found its way to america and its leader metamorphosed into the christian identity. so this has an apocalyptic armageddon that is framed in the racial terms, and this theology served as an inspiration for some of the most violent members of the extreme right. some elements of the christian identity movement has been involved in the radical pro-life movement. eric rudolph was a young man that drifted in and out of the white supremacist groups before and working on his one-man campaign of violence. they examined the history of
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extreme antiabortion activism in the united states. in particular, he took a close look at the so-called militant direct organizations such as operation rescue, and also groups that advocate violence against abortion providers and patients such as the army of god. there've been numerous loadable as including scott and paul hill. they've carried out assassinations against abortion providers. the pro-life movement illustrates the overlap between the radical and mainstream groups. to a limited extent of the mainstream pro-life movement provides organizational and grassroots support for the more extreme activists. but the abortion issue continues to polarize america. political leaders tended to handle the issue very gingerly. while the conservative right pro-life sentiments have been
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expressed by the u.s. presidents including ronald reagan and george w. bush. but more often than not, the mainstream conservatives tend to disassociate themselves from the radical elements of the pro-life movement. the violent pro-life activists have been condemned by leading public figures and the media. for example, the murder of doctor george in 2009 in the condemnation throughout america. and there has been legislation that has been enacted to protect reproductive rights. for instance, the freedom of the clinic entrances of 1994 and imposed restrictions on abortion clinic protests. but even on the political left, the candidates are reluctant to come out unequivocally for the reproductive rights. and instead, they account for the support and th the guard caf language of individual choice. now, antiabortion activists
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often identify with a black civil rights movement. they see themselves as following in the american tradition. by contrast, they place their opponents come in the abortion clinics as following in the tradition of the not the death camps. -- nazi death camps. they look at the animal liberation movement and the e-echo extremists are drawn from the ranks of main street groups that they've become disaffected with conventional political lobbying and they offer so-called direct action techniques. groups such as the liberation front and the animal liberation front. they've adopted a variety of criminal means to bring about a diverse range of goals. some of the most extremist elements such as the un a bomber ted kaczynski show the collapse of the technical civilization. without the e-echo extremists
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has been responsible for the considerable amount of property damage, so not many fatalities. there are indications, however, that some people in the movement have adopted a more apocalyptic and misanthropic worldview, so as a consequence they could be inclined to wage lethal attacks in the future. since the 1990s, the fbi has identified a co- extremist as a very serious domestic terrorism threat. jeffrey ross export extremism in american prisons. various politically expedient at tough approaches to crime has resulted in the chronically overcrowded prisons, and prisons are often named hugh peters of extremism for obvious reasons. the violins and the harsh persons to contribute to the radicalization of inmates. the 1960s and 1970s were the formative years for the development of the prison gangs.
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around that time the population was desegregated, and this diminished the steeple prison culture that had prevailed for many years. they have the various racial groups in prison. so the orientations are represented in the prison population and presently much of the gains are organized on the race and ethnicity. some of the more notable include the black guerrilla family, the mexican mafia and the aryan brotherhood. usually be inducted is to carry out what is known as a blood in and the blood out requirement. blood in the basically means the recruit must stab a member of the rifle being in the blood out into this difficult to leave once the recruit has been inducted into the group.
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the microcosm of the prison could be a bellwether of what lies ahead for america. christopher discussed terrorism in the united states and its perpetrators. he argues that terrorism has occurred in a series of waves. according to you, tourism is almost linked to the wide social movement and for instance the ku klux klan terrorism in the south was part of a broader pattern of resistance to the civil rights struggle. but terrorism in putting the killings by the black liberation army is associated with a rise from the black power movement is the widespread student opposition to the vietnam war. so the trigger was intended to occur after the social movement and joy they period at the growth and success. succumb in order to understand the domestic terrorism it must be located in its political and social context. the research suggests that
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terrorism does not worship because politicians and opinion leaders pander to extremists. rather the opposite appears to be true. that is to say extremists are more likely to move to terrorism on the hostile governmental administrations. finally, the distinguishing characteristic of the political violence in america that you had noted is a significant proportion of the terrorist acts are committed by unaffiliated individuals rather than the formal members of the terrorist organizations. although there is a great deal of hostility among the various extreme subcultures, at times the ideologies overlapped. for example environmental and animal liberation activists are usually more comfortable in the political left. the far left is more likely to be synthetic to the groups that
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espouse minority rights. even those that are chauvinistic as is the case of the new black panther party with a chicano nationalists and even radical islamists. on the other hand the antiabortion activists are more likely to find a sympathetic extreme right. there are the big fellow alliances that follow the consistent logic. for example the spike through differences on the occasion black-and-white separatists have made a common cause in their efforts to establish a dialogue on the cooperating to achieve their goals. such tactical alliances of convenience make sense when taken to the logical conclusion. for the extreme right and radical islam, there is a meeting of minds on several issues. for instance, the two movements decry the pro israe pro- israel orientation of american foreign policy in the middle east.
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and it's worth mentioning that the anti-semitism looms large in these extremist subcultures among a variety of political movements. for example in recent years, the far left has been critical of israel and has been at the forefront of the divestment campaign around the country, not unlike the campaign against the era of south africa in the 1980s. blacks and jews formed an alliance in the civil rights era that i've times, the special relationship has been strained as the case of louis farrakhan illustrates. today the radical islamists identified jews in israel as among the primary enemies. and we aztlan movement that i discussed earlier also has a very striking critique of
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israel. thethey identify them as comrads in the fight against imperiali imperialism. so to further illustrate these, let me talk about tamerlan tsarnaev. this shows the aquatic world views. as an acquaintance noted tamerlan tsarnaev was of convenience in the sense that he used the plight of the embattled muslims in the world is kin hasf an allegory for his own personal failures. and for most of his life they prayed after the boxing career faltered he increasingly latched onto the radical islam. they are online in the english-language magazine. they should be informed of you as well. and he was an avid follower of alex jones website. ithey peddled the numerous conspiracy theories for example 9/11 was an inside job.
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outside that u.s. intelligence agencies. some of his reading material espoused white supremacy. for instance in the reading collection was a copy of the protocols of the elders. elders. this is an early 20th century track that ports to be the minutes of the secret meeting of the leaders of planned a fantastic plot to conquer the world and then enslave gentiles. the short but influential track has long been a staple in the literature of the extreme right and more recently among the anti-zionists in the muslim world as well. now on the surface of these political views might seem divergent, but there's actually some common ground. extremists on the right see jews as the principal enemy of the so-called aryan people come in over the radical islam generally issues of racial themes on its version of anti-zionism in many ways parallels the version of
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anti-semitism found in the extreme right subculture from the radical islam charge that is a jewish conspiracy. so he identified himself as a part of it muslims that was under attack by both the united states and israel. perhaps a better example of convergence is from overseas and france. that is the place where he is a controversial french canadian and political activist of african dissent. he's often very critical of israel and zionism so extremists from across the political spectrum are attracted to the message including people on the far left and far right, the holocaust revisionists and anti-zionists. he created and popularized the critics called it kind of
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modified version of the hitler salute with the roman salute. it's called the canal. for his part he denies that it's supposed to be a nazi salute that is how the critic interpreted it. he claims it is an antiestablishment symbolic gesture. in december of last year, the french soccer player sparked controversy when he made a gesture after scoring the goal and an important soccer game. so this has really caught on in france with young people. extremists from across the political spectrum have spoken out in defense. for example, david duke and nationalist defended him on the website. likewise with the jazz musician and the outspoken jewish israel wrote an article in which he defended.
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at the present time the future of political extremism in america is far from certain. but there are several important social, political and economic and democratic trends. according to the census bureau projections by the year 2050 among whites will no longer comprise a majority of the american population. due in large part to increases in both the hispanic and asian segments of the population. now, this development is in the apocalyptic terms of the white nationalist segment of the ex- dream right. now by contrast in the chicano nationalist movement, this proposition is up and created with a sense othe sense of trium because it prepares the way forward with the eventual american southwest. other trends such as chronic stability in the middle east could exacerbate tensions between the muslim and jewish populations in america.
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and the festering economic crisis could create a greater poll the flood support the radical movements in the future. now, despite the multitude of the radical groups today, historically the united states has not been fertile ground for extremism although they've shown in american history their influence is usually fleeting and inconsequential. historically the american political culture has favored the centrism and pragmatism over ideology. not only that but the structure of the american electoral system works against extremism as well. both of the major parties are coalition republican parties into the democratic partieandthh considered open enough to accommodate a broad range of interests and the ominous develop it as the collapse of the center and american politics. since the 1990s the party
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system has been increasingly characterized by an ideological divide. this is reflected in the electoral map in the country after the presidential election they favor the more conservative course for the nation while the blue states pay for the more liberal orientation. so, the political center appears to be attenuating a national identity. over the years the national identity has come to be defined by the creed rather than by grace or a subsidy or culture. as of the components of this included things like the principles of liberty, equality, individualism, representative government and private property. but as samuel huntington pointed out, it is based solely on the creed that can be fragile.
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back in 2004 he wrote an important but controversial book titled the challenges to america's national identity. and as he explained the rise of the multiculturalism into the decline of the assimilationist ideal. as a political entity. because of the economic downturn that could undercut the credibility of the american dream. and by extension american national identities as a consequence, extremism long relegated to the fringe could become more mainstream. that's all i have. [applause]
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if you have any questions i will answer them. >> you talked about the polarization and how it isn't checked the polarization would that lead to more domestic terrorism? >> some people say that this polarization is overstated. there are books like one nation after wall but there needs to be strong evidence that the political center is attenuating and in such an environment i think extremism could forage in as much as the cultures often are incubators for terrorists, yes and i think there could be an increase. but after 9/11 it is worth mentioning that there has been a massive homeland security apparatus constructed. there's much were intrusive surveillance. and i think it is more difficult for the regular terrorist groups to operate that can be inspired
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by these ideologies and acts of terrorism based on their own initiative. not only that but a lot of so-called soft targets for things like for example the infrastructure and power grid. this is an issue that is going to be around for a while. it would be encouraging if both of the political parties tried to work together but of course that is easier said than done. >> what made you want to write a book about extremism. in the response to the american extreme right by both the government monitoring organizations i think it is interesting because often times in the polite society the issues that extremists talk about,
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things like immigration, multiculturalism, things reluctant on how they feel about these issues that extremists do not really have any compunctions like that. that is one of the things that intrigued me by the political so that is one thing after another that i just did a different research on different extremist groups and finally i thought it would be a good idea to assemble a number of authors so i could have a broad-based research study on the political extremism in america. is there a segment of the population that is more polarized that will allow america to become more centralized. it isn't always identified -- spinnaker bulwark against the political extremists.
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for one thing, one important thing would be that the economy rebounded. that's an important thing. i read the other day the official unemployment rate is about 6.7% or something like that. but the labor department is the story us for understanding that. there are indications the economy is doing a little bit better and i think that is the main thing. it is prominently heard of the american mythology, and i think that if the politicians, the people in washington could make efforts to improve the economy if they are worried about all workers, people losing their jobs overseas if those problems could be mitigated in the issue of extremism within the confines o-- come by and serious panic once again going off what you answered earlier, and growing homelana growinghomeland securid the growing polarization do you
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think there was a chance with those two things going on of the kind of repeat -- >> to reiterate what i said, they stand for the counterintelligence operations. it was an fbi program that was back in the late 60s and targeted the antiwar left and the black panther party and also groups on the political right like the american multiparty and some people are fearful that the department of homeland security and other intelligence agencies are making a lot of intrusive surveillance on the american public and some people worried about that repeat. we have seen for instance people arrested for terrorist plots arrested at the last moment so
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that is a provocateur element that there are people in the government instigating these things and so yes with good reason. how extensive that will be and if there will be any oversight and what of that defense i think on things like the war on terror and if the country will be experiencing more terrorist attacks if the country does not experience spectacular terrorist attacks i think the public will grow weary of some of those homeland security measures and so it might be scaled back. >> guesser plex >> do you think we are going to see an increase in the terrorism and if it is harder for the extremist groups to act within the technology? do you think there's going to be an increase in the low-level terrorism similar to the boston bombing because of the big groups not being able to carry out the plot lacks
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>> i wrote a book like that. i think that we are seeing the terrorist groups around the world today because for one thing there is a much greater intelligence sharing between the united states and there's more intelligence sharing in the united states among the federal government and the state and local governments as well. for that reason it is difficult for the organized terror groups to operate in a clandestine fashion. it will raise red flags because there is a surveillance today. with that said, we will see individuals that can be motivated and inspired by these extremist ideologies. ideologies are very available you can find them on the world wide web and so a lot of times people will use these ideologies such as tamerlan tsarnaev did as an allegory for his own personal failures. so. so the great life opportunities
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for people, then i think they will be less susceptible to extremism but i think it is something that could be expert for some time. the economic factors in the united states, whatever that identifies in fueling this bipartisanship. >> the state of the economy is one of the biggest factors in fueling of the extremism in the united states with whatever factors can be identified. it is very concerned that whites are going to bwere going to be o minority status so that is one bibig stressor that seems to be
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fueling the white nationalist movement. just to reiterate what i said about the chicano separatist movement they are becoming more emboldened because the democratic shifting in their favor in the american southwest. there are certain demographic trends that can certainly give rise to the political extremism and that would be i would say in addition to the economy the most important factor. do you think it was a legitimate possibility for the future? the dream would be like united mexico in the united states seeking a. you don't want closer ties with mexico if not political unification.
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it can be like a creeping thing that happens incrementally over a period of time and suggest as the demographics tend to go under favor. it's worth mentioning some people say that a lot of this notion like ethnic chauvinism and racism a lot of that stated because they say that america has historically been the great melting pot. there are a lot of so-called biracial people and so some people think that while there could be turbulence in between that all of these people will work himself out. that is a challenge that we will have to see.
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>> yes sir. >> what do you think is going to be the most dire part of the extremism 20 years from now? >> some of the consequences just off the top of my head terrorism could be wanting to influence people. in particular, the lone wolf terrorism. but perhaps been worse than that would be the kind of effect they could have on political discourse in america. we see a lot of polarization in america and in the media certain channels appeal to the progressives like msnbc. fox is supposed to appeal to conservative voters and it's good to have a variety of viewpoints that some people think that there should be more common ground at the center that needs to be strengthened.
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>> are we more at risk for the foreign terrorist threat? >> that's a very good question. i would say we are at a greater risk of the domestic terrorism because after 9/11 because of the apparatus and because of the greater intelligence sharing it with the more difficult i think four by four in terrorists to operate under the radar screen then it would be for the self radicalized while in wolf to the united states to commit terrorism based on his own initiative. >> thank you everyone. [applause] and thank you to c-span for running around and helping us out today area there is still some coffee and maybe two or
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three cookies that you can fight over. but again, thank you very much for coming and have a good evening. [applause] is


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