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tv   Book TV  CSPAN  May 2, 2015 11:58am-1:31pm EDT

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about these things and have -- there is no frankness about it at all. wamu last question back there, we said -- >> we are just out of time. we had a reception across the hallway. [applause] [inaudible conversations] >> booktv is on twitter and facebook and we want to hear from you. tweet us, or post a comment on our face book page
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>> here are a few of the book festivals we will be covering this spring on c-span's booktv. we will visit maryland for live coverage of the gaithersburg full book festival with congressman tom davis as well as former senior adviser to president obama david axelrod and we will close out me at book expo america new york city where the publishing industry showcases their upcoming books. on the first week in june we are live for the chicago tribune printer's row lit fest including three and our live in depth program with pulitzer prize, on booktv. >> welcome to topeka on booktv located in the northeast region of kansas, topeka is its capital city with a round 127,000 residents. leading into the civil war this region was the site of many
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border clashes will screen pro and anti slavery forces earning it the nickname breeding the the leading kansas. it became known as the site of the landmark 1957 supreme court case brown vs. the board of education which declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. .. >> i think this crash in and of itself just did not get the attention it deserved because it
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happened in, quote-unquote small town usa, toe topeka, kansas. >> we begin with kansas' role in the civil war. >> when i moved to kansas in 1992, i was very familiar with the story of the civil war. i had grown up in southwestern virginia. the civil war's everywhere. my great grandfather was a veteran. it's everywhere. it's only tony present. omnipresent. so i was certainly familiar with the civil war story. i grew up in the hometown of jeb stewart, the confederate cavalry commander. so growing up one of my favorite memories was santa fe trail where errol flynn plays jeb stewart. how good can it get? when i came to kansas, because i'm from the south and we just like dead people, i got to know the community of topeka through the cemetery. this is the oldest cemetery, the oldest chartered cemetery in the state, so i would come here to
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walk around. and i literally tripped over the grave of cyrus holiday. and when i did that's when the man and the myth all came together, and i realized that that character from the movie "santa fe trail" was real, that he was here, that jeb stewart was here that all those characters john brown were right here. it really was holy ground. so that's when my fascination with the role of kansas in the civil war began. kansas did not earn the name "bloody kansas" by accident. when the kansas/nebraska act was signed in 1854, the very act of signing it, of just signing that piece of paper was viewed by missourians as an act of war. from the very beginning every colony, all those original colonies had assumed that what was to the west of them was theirs. so virginia settled kentucky,
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settled missouri. and with that settlement went the mores and the culture and all the values, you know? the saying from north to south. it was assumed then that missouri would settle kansas, making it a slave state. so the missouri -- the kansas/missouri act, or the kansas/nebraska act was seen as a pro-southern act, it was viewed as a pro-slavery act. so when northerners decided that if popular sovereignty will decide the fate of kansas we're going to send people to settle, that was viewed as an act of war by many missourians who had just assumed this would all be theirs. it's or not, it is so important to note that before there is a slavery issue in kansas, there is economic opportunity. nobody would have cared, nobody would have come had there not
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been economic opportunity in kansas. and we look at the wide open space, of course we forget that there are actually american indians living here at the time and making use of that space but to easterners this just looked like wide open, unused country. the railroads the railroads are everything in the 19th century. the very night that topeka is founded, december 5 1854, the missouri senator thomas hart benton is standing in maryland making a speech about the rich land of kansas and how the railroad is going to cut through that and open it up for everybody. so that is foremost on everybody's mind. so black white everybody sees kansas as the land of opportunity. and it doesn't take long for the bloody struggles for that opportunity to begin.
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so as soon as northerners are staking their claims, missourians are coming over and tossing them off. they're destroying the claim markers. so probably missouri started it, but it escalates and both sides take it to incredibly heinous heights. there are raids back and forth across the kansas border almost immediately. the missourians come over to toss especially the new englanders off their claims. people are coming from north and south alike to -- before the economic opportunity. many of them for a new start in the kansas territories. the potowatomie massacre, of course, is one of the most famous events of that time. in may of 1856 john brown his sons and a couple of other follow ors dragged five --
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followers dragged five men from their cabins and they are shot and hacked to death with broad swords. that effectively cleared that area of southern settlers. now, the men that he killed were not slave owners. there's a lot, it's a really complicated story but they were not slave owners. so that massacre had a lot of mixed views around the nation. what john brown had accomplished however was to set the tone for what the kansas/missouri border would become. that would rise to new heights with william cointrell in 1863. he led a band of about 450 confederate guerrillas across
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the border to lawrence which was the second largest city. leavenworth was the largest. and topeka was the capital. but lawrence was the de facto anti-slavery capital. that was the new england stronghold. and it was the home of jim lane and charles robinson. it was where so many of the orders calm from that wreaked -- came from that wreaked havoc in western missouri. so cointrell and his men come into lawrence. they hold that up to for four hours. it is -- they hold that town for four hours. it is effectively destroyed. 150-200 men and boys are killed. they could have killed every man, woman and child in town they had that much control over it. but the town is effectively destroyed. it's literally -- there was a cloud of smoke that could be seen for 38 counties.
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it was as if an atomic bomb had gone off. that resulted in order number 11 which pretty much decimated western missouri and sent 20-25,000 people off their land and made them homeless. so it was, it was horrific no matter what side you were on. it was a horrific time. when the civil war finally came to the rest of the nation, kansas had had, of course, a few years of a head start. there are a couple of very notable contributions kansas makes to the war effort. one is that per capita we send more soldiers to the war than any other state. two is the first kansas colored. we actually raised the first black regiment to fight in the civil war. their service is remarkable on so many counts. they fight before the
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emancipation proclamation is issued. they have the promise of nothing, nothing. they are not fighting with the promise of their freedom, they are not fighting with the promise of even being paid. nothing. they're fighting with nothing except hope. following the civil war, it's very interesting to note there were survivors' reunions for years of cointrell's raid on lawrence. the perpetrators, the men who rode with cointrell also had reunions on the missouri side. and i think that's just one example of how the feelings didn't die when the war was over.
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and i have to say there's sill a lot -- there's still a lot of animosity between kansas and missouri. now it plays out in the sports events rather than on the battlefield, thankfully. but that -- those animosities died hard. one of the things i think it's really important to remember especially with order number 11 were the federals ordered -- they were trying to create a demilitarized zone. general thomas you wing was trying to create a demilitarized zone so that the guerrillas in western missouri wouldn't have a safe haven. and he effectively cleans out three and a half border counties of western missouri. had he included kansas, had he cleaned out some of the eastern kansas counties, had he done things differently, the result might have been different. but who was going over to put people off their property? those federal soldiers were mostly kansans.
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so missouri sees that as the federal government, but they also see that as kansas doing that to them. that dies hard. harry truman is one of the most famous examples. his grandmother who won't let him in the house in his blue uniform because she still equated that with the yankees and who famously would not sleep in the lincoln room in the white house and who commented when they would sit down to dinner that some family in kansas was using their good china and their good silver. but that's a great example of how generations later those feelings had not died. i was researching in the library of congress in the newspaper room one day, came across a newspaper in 1856, "the london times." the front page of "the london times" had the headline, "war in kansas." the eyes of the world were literally on kansas.
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and that territorial period was so significant in shaping the war to come. and kansas' role in the civil war cannot be overstunted and i think it's over-- overestimated, and i think it's overshadowed because you have these big battles in the east, gettysburg and fredericksburg and all these incredibly big battle that overshadow how kansas truly defined the issues, it defined what we would become. you know the entire civil war is about who inherits the mantle of the revolution. who gets that north or south? who are we to be? kansas defines that. it's all hammered out here this kansas. and kansans are the ones who define it after the war when after the, after the homestead act is enacted you've got all these civil war soldiers moving
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to the -- to kansas. it becomes known as the soldier state. we are the soldier state long before we are the sunflower state because of all these civil war veterans coming west. i don't think you can overstate the role of kansas. >> while in topeka we spoke with d.w. carter about his book "mayday over wichita," which details the worst military aviation disaster in kansas history. ♪ ♪ >> i was watching, and all of a sudden the house was shaking and i looked out the window, and our house was on fire. i raced downstairs to get my sisters and brothers out and i put them across the street. i came back to get clothes -- >> i couldn't get here fast enough because it looked like everything was getting in my way, and i couldn't realize what was going on. but i start running and screaming up and down the streets until i got here. but i couldn't see my house until i got in the house. >> the plane crash occurred on
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january 16, 1965, and it occurs early that morning at around 9:30 a.m. the plane went down at about 20th and pilot street in wichita. it crash landed in a situation typically referred to as the african-american community. 97% of the african-americans were living in this section of witch a that, so it goes down at about 20th and pyatt street, and we're talking about a 520-foot fireball engulfs this block. fire's everywhere, destruction's everywhere and ultimately, 30 lives are lost through this tragedy. i haven't found anything in the historical record that says, you know, this is why this story did not get the attention it deserved. but what i did find as i researched it out is there was a lot going on in 1965 america. i address specifically three wars that were occurring in this period. we had the war in vietnam and a massive amount of our troops are
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headed into vietnam under leadership to be b. johnson -- lyndon b. johnson. we had the war on poverty, and of course, we had the war for equality. so all of that is consuming the headlines for not just 1965, but seemingly the entire decade. thomas paine once wrote these are the times that try men's souls during the american revolution well, i say that for the 1960s because these were turbulent times. everything was happening racism was ubiquitous across the nation. so because of that i think this crash in and of itself just did not get the attention it deserved because it happens in, quote-unquote, small town usa wichita, kansas. i had never been to kansas before, i arrived in 2003. i knew of the wizard of oz and to the o. -- toto. so you can imagine me taking in my surroundings and listening to the instructors who were there. they have something called the first term airmen's center, and
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it's basically an in briefing. you learn about the is history of the city, and i did. so i'm hearing about the city and all these things that have happened, and there's a short blurb about this is where the worst nonnatural disaster in missouri occurred, and i said, excuse me, i asked questions and i didn't get the answers that i wanted. and i went to the library and i didn't want get the answers i wanted then. i just could not believe that 30 lives were taken, there is no memorial, and this is and remains the worst nonnatural disaster in this state's history, and there's not more on it. that started my initial intrigue. but with deployments to iraq and various other things in the air force, i didn't have time to dive into it more. well as fate would have it, i became a police officer, and i was stationed right there in that community right by 20th and pyatt. so i got to know these people over the years. i really got to understand their hurts, their tragedies and certainly those misconceptions and myths that were there, and
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right down the street there's the archives at wichita state university, and that essentially began the story for me to learn more about it. this is an amazing story from the standpoint of the men in and of themselves, the seven men on that plane, they were never suppose toed to be in butch that. so at the last -- wichita. at the last minute they get ordered to partake in this unique refueling mission. it was called ironically operation lucky number. so they arrived in wichita on a tuesday which was january 12th. and from that time they're not able to take off due to weather. they had terrible weather in kansas at the time. and finally on that friday captain smart, he's the leader, the commander of the crew, he asked for approval to take off on that saturday which was january 16th. and it had never been done before, but they said, look we just want to get back home. they were stationed at clinton sherman air force base in oklahoma, and they said we just want to get back home. go ahead, you have approval to do this mission. and what it was, it was a unique refueling mission.
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the kc-135 was supposed to go up and hook up with a b-52 bomber, the long range bomber for the air force. and once they hooked up, they were just going to refuel the bomber and head back to clinton sherman air force base in oklahoma. the problem arises though on january 16th, that morning -- again, it's about 11 degrees outside. the men arrive at the base well before 8 a.m. they prep the jet they get ready to go, and at 9:27 a.m. they depart. they leave the runway with 31,000 gallons of jet fuel. and about three minutes into the fight, the pilot calls mayday, mayday mayday and they're never heard from again. and that's, essentially where this story begins. on that january 16th morning with seven men who essentially are fighting for their lives in this plane that's now over wichita and over a crowded neighborhood. these were well conditioned men as far as the air force. the commander had over ten years in the air force. so well seasoned pilots. and that's one of the things that helped with looking at some
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of the rumors that came about is actually, checking the service jacket for captain shuck and captain winseth and how good they were as seasoned pilotings. sometimes skill doesn't matter. they only had a matter of seconds really, a matter of minutes at first but then seconds to respond and it was simply impossible. so when i first arrived in the neighborhood and started talking to people about this tragedy and asked them, you know, what happened the myth that came out immediately -- and this is only a few years ago -- was that it crashed to kill african-americans. now, you can understand how that can be stimulated over the years and how that can how that can come about. but it was simply untrue. that's one of the rumors that came about because a lot of the african-americans, wichita again, 97% were living in this crumpled section. so the rumor was that the plane crashed on purpose, and it crashed to kill african-americans. and that was exacerbated by some
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of the people who came into the community right after the tragedy. there was a complaint that went about, and the complaint was that once the investigators were done, once the police withdrew from the community, there was no one there to really protect victims in the sense of people would come and there were souvenir hunters everywhere, and there were people who were just spreading rumors and saying that they knew the pilotings and they knew why it occurred and so that caused a lot of the victims to be upset. and so these rumors given to stir. well, it crashed to kill african-americanings. well, it crashed because the pilots were inebriated. all these things that are terrible, terrible when you understand the event in the true facts that are there and terrible also, when you understand what the families were going through and to hear these types of things come about. but again that's what happens when there's no one there to clear up the misconceptions, to look at the actual record and to produce a substantive history on it. and that's something i didn't
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find while i was there and that prompted me to do something about it. so the air force, of course said that, you know our pilots didn't do anything wrong in that sense. they were performing a routine training operation which was a refueling operation and they were right in that sense. they didn't do anything wrong. the federal government had a difficult time responding to this event and i say that in the sense that there was a federal torts claim act that limited the amount of compensation that victims could receive. so there was a $5,000 cap. that's not a lot. and when you talk about 23 victims on the ground, that's certainly not a lot in compensation that can be issued out. so the federal government had to deal with that. the air force immediately set up reparation payments or $1,000 relief payments in the community. they had a command post right there at about 21st and minnesota. and this was for anyone in the community who had been affected. they could come in, they could sign paperwork and they could get some type of reprieve some type of payment for their immediate concerns.
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but as they do this, they find that not very many people want to come and sign any paperwork. they don't want to receive the $1,000 and they didn't really understand why, and they recruit jim garmin one of the only african-americans recruited to help out with the community and they begin to understand there's mistrust there. they don't trust the government. so the air force had a tough time even assisting the people because there's such mistrust there. the federal government, again has a tough time because there are caps in place. so it takes one man garner shriver, who went to law school near topeka, and he helps to lift the $5,000 ban that's in place. but by that time most victims had sought litigation through their own attorneys. chester lewis being one of them. and they looked at ways in which they could receive some sort of compensation outside of that administrative claim process they had in place. it was a terrible process. it really didn't help the victims, and i think that added to the tragedy because, in the end, most of the victims
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received only a few thousand dollars for the loss of a loved one. the lowest payment for the loss of a child was around $400. for the loss of an adult $700. so we're not talking about great amounts that are issued out. in many cases the loss of property or property damage paid more than the loss of a loved one. and monetary compensation can never, never equate to the loss of life. we know that. but in this case, it created a bitterness because they just did not feel that they received restitution. so in many cases and this was the same that i found across the board for those that i talked to, i'll give you two examples. one would be janine woodseth, co-pilot's wife. she gets a knock on the door, and she realizes that it's the air force with a chaplain. and she gets the news, the heartbreaking news that her husband has now perished. and she is given $1,000 by the colonel who's there. and he hands her that, and he says, you know, this is for your
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current affairs, please get those in order but don't even think about suing. that's one of the last things he says to her as he departs her home. other than that, she doesn't receive anything from the air force aside from the benefits that she would have from her husband. and that was that. and so on the other side we look at someone like irene luber -- huber, she lost her brother daniel comiskey, who's on the plane. and she remembered specificically, i put the western union telegram that she still has to this day. sorry for your loss, danny was killed on the plane and that's the last they heard. and so when i find them -- they really found me -- i find that they still didn't know why the plane crashed they still had no idea of a lot of the myths and misconceptions that were in place nearly 50 years later. but they didn't receive really any compensation. and, of course we know the victims on pyatt street really
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didn't receive any compensation. so you can see how this just continued to fester over the years. it was an open wound in the community. i'd never written a book before, and i like to say the community wrote this book. i started out with what was really going to be an article about it and i got phone calls from across the country from people who lived in arizona lived in phoenix and lived in d.c. and lived in boston and other areas who said, you know i had someone who perished or i knew someone at the time or i was there at the time, and i want to tell you my story. so what initially started as what was going to be an article turned into a book from there because of all these stories that began to pour in. one of the challenges that we have as historians is getting the primary source material. if it's not there in the record -- in this case it really wasn't there in the record -- then how do you create the story? so i was fortunate in that sense that the community and the united states, the folks who live throughout our country contacted me, gave me their stories and after a couple of years, the air force even gave
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me the accident report after a four-year request -- foia request. so this was a heavily redacted report that was finally given to me and, of course, there was mistrust there even though i was a member of the air force on what i was going to do with report and what i wanted to share. really i just wanted the truth to be out. the families still didn't know why it crashed. what happened in that sense is there's a technical term called unscheduled rudder deflection. when a plane takes off and it has unscheduled rudder deflection, the rudder -- and that's the largest control surface on the plane -- can it either moves right or left. and whichever way it moves it turns the nose of that plane. in this particular case there was a mall function and a combination of the autopilot malfunctioning jammed the rudder and when that happened, the plane turns upside down and heads into a nose dive. they were fortunate enough to recover all the engines and test those at tinker our force base and they were also fortunate to recover the crumpled tail
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section that they could test, and they were able to determine that this is why the plane crash actually occurred. the autopilot mall functioning in combination with the rudder caused this to happen. and in the report i was a able to also find that this was talked about in the days prior to the crash between the pilot and the other pilot on the b-52 who said i see that your rudder is sort of squirrely. it's moving back and forth. i'm not telling it to, and they're communicating. it's eerie, because you know that ultimately led to this accident occurring. you know, it's tough to answer for 1965, and i don't know why the families did not get copies of the accident report. what i did is i made copies of the report, and i sent it to all the families to say these are the findings. there is one good reason for the redactions, and that is you don't want the personal information of the crewmen to be out there. there's a lot of personal
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information in the report. but the other thing that i would keep in mind is that the kc-135 is still flying today, so there are certain things they're not going to release to the public in terms of that airplane and certain key secrets, i would say, about its functionality that maybe they didn't want the public to know at the time. but other than that i don't have an answer for why the community at large and specifically why those families didn't get a personal report, because i know some of them petitioned the air force for it. and as i said it took the foia request for me to get a copy of it, but i was so glad i got a copy, because now the families can say definitively, okay, this is what happened on the plane we can put that to rest somewhat. there's a great quote from judith herman and she says that remembering and telling truth. for healing to occur, we need to talk about these things. but also for the restoration of
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the social order. and a lot of times we miss that. for things to go back to normal, we need to talk about them. and every time i speak about this event in a communities setting -- community setting i can see it occur. i can see families talk about it. it gives us a sense of getting it off our chest expressing this for the first time because there were many families many loved ones who are still around today who just never spoke about it, and now they have an avenue to talk about it. >> this weekend booktv is in topeka, kansas with the help of our local cable partner, cox communications. next michael church of the kansas state archives looks at the life of local pioneer samuel reader who kept a diary for 64 years beginning in 1849.
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>> samuel reader was a kansas pioneer, farmer, soldier artist and photographer among many other things. he kept a daily journal from 1849 all the way up until 1913. there age 13 all the way to age 78 i believe, and the diary the doorlies were donated -- diaries were donated to the society by his daughter right after his death in 1914. he created 15 journals over the period of his life, but we only received 13 because in 1890 his farmhouse burned and they were only able to save 13 of the journals. two of them, volume one and volume four, perished in the tour. apparently, he was influenced greatly by his reading of the journals of the lewis and clark expedition and he was especially interested in their illustrations that they included in the journal, and he wanted to
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illustrate too because he was very interested in argument and illustration. in art and illustration. so his daily journals began in 1849 and proceeded his whole life until 1913 until he became too sick to continue journaling. these are the diaries. the 13 volumes we have from samuel reader's diary. you know, certain volumes have items of particular interest. volume three, for example is of particular interest because it's the most lavishly illustrated volume, and it's also the volume that covers the territorial period, much of the territorial period from 1855 through 1857. and in particular it includes descriptions of reader's involvement in the battle of hickory point. so the battle of hickory point occurred on september 13, 1856 when general james lane who was then leader of the free state
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forces, and he would later become an early senator for kansas, he was in the vicinity of topeka when he received report that pro-slavery forces were causing trouble up near osaki, kansas. and he took his units up to osaki and noticed that the pro-slave forces had kind of congregated near hickory point. he asked for reinforcements, and reader among other free state guards came to assist. on september 13th reader writes: got to osaki after sunup. lane there started to hickory point. fisher let me ride old gray horse. got to he cannily point. they will fight. we retreated to osaki. three of our horses and one man wounded. several border ruffians killed, horses etc. ate watermelons. eight or nine started home for fear of the u.s. and government,
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etc. i will buy a pepper box for $6. got home late, sleepy and tired but full of glory. so volume six covers the period 1864-1869 which includes the latter part of the civil war. and so this includes entries regarding his involvement in the battle of the big blue. so the battle of the big blue involved the second regiment of the kansas state militia also led by general james lane. and he pursued and fought confederate forces led by general sterling price in jackson county, missouri, near the big blue river on october 22nd 1864. reader had enlisted in the second regiment of the kansas militia when the war began, and
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he was involved in this conflict. the confederates routed lane's forces and anybody left behind who wasn't killed was taken prisoner. so reader was taken prisoner. he surrendered peacefully, and he accounts in the diary as well his time as a prisoner. they were marching the soldiers south, the prisoners apparently to texas, and reader was able to get away and escape by pretending to be a confederate soldier. on friday october 21st, before the day of the battle he writes: we went to the big blue and camped one-half mile west of the stream in a grove of blackjack saplings covered with dead leaves. angels went with the train and nearly got or stole a turkey, he said.
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we had nice fires and supper. vaughn has the doctor's pistol. we heard cannon shots from the northeast. tom march lis laughed and said he'd rather hear the baby cry. reverend burton says he wants to see a battle. well, i don't care. i'm not afraid as i can see. we loaded our guns. i slept with vaughn. he fears we'll fight and he'll be culled. i talked to -- be killed. i talked to him of a future state, maybe a better one than this, and he said, well, i don't know about that. he has no very distinct views on the subject. after the civil war he also became very active in his community, and so he was involved in building bridges and designing structures for the community. he was trustee for cemeteries and things like that so after the civil war he became much -- well, a lot of his diaries became much more community focused and just about his activities in the community and the health of his family. the most significant event in volume 12 is the burning of his
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farmhouse which happened in 1890 and he had kind of a dream, interestingly in 1887 where he dreamed that his house had burned down and he wrote: i dreamed of the house of fire. and then a few years later in 1890 his house did burn. the journal includes a newspaper clipping on the event, and he titled his entry "conflagration" with a small illustration of his house on fire and little bells ringing "fire fire." volume eight covers the period 1872-1874. at the end of the volume interestingly, reader kind of looks back in self-reflection and thinks about the value of these journals 100 years, you know after he's writing them.
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and he has this to say: if these journals observed for 100 years they will be of interest to many seekers of things of the long-forgotten past. my being a kansas pioneer and a follower of jim lane and the old border ruffian war of 1856 may also enhance their value. it will show how a farm was opened up in the old one-horse primitive way of the backwoodsman. if any one of us possessed the diary of an ancestor or relative from the years sent 16, 1749 to april 24, 1810 would we not think the old manuscripts worth keeping? like old wine, they would be improved by age and so, perhaps it may be with these journallings. au revoir, sam reader. >> while in topeka, we spoke with professors charles epp and steven maynard-moody of the university of kansas about their book "pulled over," in which
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they examine the history of police stops. >> for millions of americans the sight of a policeman instills a sense of calm, faith that order is being kept, that the good guys are watches. but for many others, thousands stopped on the streets of new york because they look or act a certain way -- >> news channel 5's cameras catch a police stop in progress. >> and that footage is now at the center of an internal police investigation. [speaking spanish] ♪ ♪ bad boys, bad boys, what ya gonna do when they come for you? ♪ bad boys, bad boys what ya gonna do when they come for you? ♪ >> police stops have a couple of different purposes. the main one that most people are familiar with is just to keep the streets and roads safe by stopping drivers who are driving too fast or blowing through stop sign or not yielding at stoplights and so
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forth. but the police in recent years have developed a second purpose for police stops. they use them to try to hunt criminals or people who they suspect who might be criminals. and so look for people who look suspicious or seem out of place or seem up to no good in one way or another. and sometimes the signs of this and the view of the police are quite subtle. but then they'll stop those people, and they will proceed to ask questions. for example, what are you doing in the neighborhood? where are you going? is this your car? and they may then, the officers may then use this context as a way to ask consent for search of the vehicle. so, for example, you wouldn't happen to be carrying any drugs, would you? oh, no no? then you wouldn't mind if i search your car would you? the first type of stop that i described we call traffic safety stops. the second type goes by a variety of different names but we call them investigatory
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stops, sometimes they're called proactive stops. they're based not on an observed violation, but on a desire to check somebody out. the police have long thought that in investigatory stops they can get drugs off the street and get can illegal guns out of -- get illegal guns out of people's hands. so they've long believed they can reduce levels of crime with this type of technique. there was one study way back in the early '90s that seemed to support that. they've used that study as a rationale for justifying making these stops ever since. it's really not clear that these stops help to fight crime in a very substantial way. it is, however increasingly clear that these kinds of stops subject a lot of people who are effectively innocent of any wrongdoing to very intrusive investigations that lead to frustration, indignation that lead to distrust of the police.
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the term "racial profiling" dates at least to the late 1980s when there were, in fact some specific profiles used in drug interdiction stops. arguably, the police have been stopping african-americanings and latinos and asians -- african-americans and latinos and asians at higher rates in these kinds of stops ever since they've first been used from the '40s and '50s and on. but the term really began to be used in the late '80s and into the 1990s. by the mid 1990s it's clear that most police departments in the midst of growing controversy around these sorts of stops had formally or officially banned the use of true formal racial profiles in law enforcement. nonetheless, it's very clear that racial minorities are still stopped at much higher rates in this kind of a stop than are white drivers. the racial disparity in investigatory stops is striking. we find that about half of
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african-american drivers have experienced -- when they report a stop in the past year -- have e appearanced an investigatory stop. this is far more than white drivers. white drivers typically experience a traffic safety stop. so they wonder what's the big deal about police stops? african-americans experience again and again and again a search on the basis of, i'm sorry, sir or i'm sorry ma'am you're two miles over the limit or did you know that your license plate light is burnt out, and it proceeds rapidly to very intrusive questions. half of the stops that african-americans experience are of that sort. that is a corrosive experience in a democracy. the premise of this book actually although we're looking at a small piece of sort of social life -- being pulled over by police in a traffic type stop -- the book actually looks at some very broad themes. and in particular, we're very
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interested in what we call state -citizen interactions. so we're very interested in the relationship between the state and the citizen, and we're looking at i how these interactions define government, but we're also looking at how these interactions define citizenship and rights. one of the things that's pulled us into police stops is actually police stops are the most common encounter of the citizen and the coercive power of the state. you know, surveys are wonderful to be able to give you strong, generalize bl information about a community and we develop this. this is an original survey that we develop so that it has a lot of interesting information in it. but it's still a step or two removed from people's experience. so we actually designed in a back door. and the back door was one of the last questions we asked, would you mind if we contacted you again? and so after we had done an initial examination of the
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survey, the numbers we then went back and called people and just asked for their stories about being stopped. and when you hear the actual words of people's experience, the sort of the subtlety of their experience, we began to see things we didn't even see in the survey data. this is a story told by an african-american woman who we named, her name is not but we named dena. and this is very typical of the experience of a investigatory stop. and so, and so dena says, okay, i've been like, driving home from work at night and get stopped by the police for no reason. just stopped stopped me to see where i was going. i was getting off work at, like, 11:30, 12.
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interviewer: so you were driving home and you remember -- do you remember how you were driving? dena: oh, i was just -- i wasn't driving fast. they didn't give me a ticket or anything. they just wanted to know where i was going. and the second time they stopped me i was pretty upset, you know? the same night about five minuters apart, and they wanted to know why i was upset. you just got me up the street and, you know, i was scared. i knew that they had stopped me, and it was a different police. they just wanted to know where i was going and where i had been. the interviewer asks: do you remember how they act? oh, they were nice. they were really nice. >> in the 1990s as this type of investigatory stop became increasingly trained and increasingly what we call an institutionalized practice, the police at the same time began training their officers to be professionally polite in in making these stops. so one of their key ways of
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addressing this persistent claim from communities that you're targeting us has been to respond by saying but we're acting respectfully in stops. and the second thing that the police do is to put out a formal directive you may not stop somebody on the basis of race or ethnicity. and so those two things are their key response to this ongoing suspicion or distrust on the part of the community side. a, we prohibit our officers from stopping people on the basis of race. that's simply a formal prohibition. it doesn't necessarily have an effect in practice. and the second is to train them to be officers, to be very professionally polite when they do this. and there are some studies that suggest that if officers are polite in making these stops people are more likely to accept the legit city of the -- legitimacy of the stop. ours is the first to test that directly and we find absolutely yes people prefer
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to be treated respectfully in stops. but nonetheless even if an officer is impeccably polite in making one of these stops the driver is still very indignant at the experience of being singled out, being subjected to searching questions and being subjected to a physical search. that's a demeaning experience even if the officer is professional in the course of it. >> this is a story again not uncommon -- well i'll tell you synopsis of this story. this was just a young african-american male who was driving a little bit out of his neighborhood, and so one of the big things that is used in these investigatory stops is to not only surveil the people, but to say where you can go and where you can't go. and so, you know, he's pulled over, asked to get out of the car. the police says you look like someone in a report. he's put in handcuffs and sat by the side of the road and then as they keep checking all
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husband information out -- his information out and then let go. and that's the end of it. what's interesting, of course, is that if you were probably to look at police statistics that that stop and the stop that i just read you about may never have been reported, right? because these are not stops that anything happened. there's no warrant there's no ticket there's nothing. but these are common form of surveillance and harassment and checking people out all the time. that becomes quite corrosive in terms of the relationship of these individuals and their government, and it's very true that these kinds of stops -- when we looked at the stop stories, actually at one point we put in two piles the white driver stories and the black driver stories, and the white driver stories had almost nothing like this. they were always just traffic stops. speeding. and then the black driver
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stories was a mix but included these kinds of investigatory stops. >> the best statistics come out of the stop and frisk program in new york city. and there it's very clear that stop and frisks yield contraband or weapons in less than 1%, 2% of all stops. in fact, one of the best analyses of that program to come out was an analysis by jeffrey fay begin of columbia law school. he showed that a targeted stop and frisk of the sort used in new york city or the sort that i'm talking about here are less successful in finding contraband or drugs -- contra are band or weapons -- contraband or weapons than are random stops random checkpoints. this means that officers are targeting the wrong people. we find in our study that -- and this is a common finding across studies -- when officers stop and search an african-american, they are less likely to find
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contraband or weapons than when they stop and search a white person. considerably less likely. this means again that they're overtargetting african-americans. they're targeting the wrong people. why have the police not changed their tactics even though they know that they're less successful in searching african-americans? it's not clear. they -- it's a racial bias, pure and simple. they think that they're succeeding in bringing safety the neighborhoods in making these stops. they're simply wrong. >> we have used any opportunity that comes our way to share our findings with the police departments and the people in the police departments. the, what's very important to, i think, acknowledge is that we don't have -- there clearly is some racism in police departments and local governments, those ugly e-mails that came out of ferguson and just a reminder of these things
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happen. but you don't have to argue like so many people do that this is the result of racist officers. i don't believe, and i've worked in police departments in any number of research projects that police departments are any more or less racist than universities. so the issue of, that this is a problem of race in police departments, i think is -- that's always a concern. we should always be addressing that, but i don't think that's really what's going on here predominantly. to me, there's two very difficult pieces to this, and we haven't talked a lot about cognitive stereotypes. but we do know and there's been a lot of discussion even in the news recently that a lot of our judgments are based upon various snap unconscious racial stereotypes, and one of the most prominent ones that we know of is black criminality.
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and, in fact, many african-american citizens will express the same negative stereotype. this is so embedded in our culture that even the people who suffer from it actually experience the same stereotype. ferguson was a flashpoint, and it was a changing, a point of change in the conversation around race and policing, i really believe. what ferguson showed in a crystal clear way that nobody can deny anymore is that there is a huge difference in perceptions of the police between white and african-american. white people will often say in radio commentary or radio call-in shows on policing, they'll say if you have done nothing wrong, you have nothing to fear from the police. african-americans, the response to ferguson shows very clearly have not had that experience. far too many of them have been subjected to stops and subjected to searches for no good reason at all.
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and so their suspicion of the police in the wake of ferguson that became chris call clear -- crystal clear in the wake of ferguson illustrates the depths of this problem. >> the thing we have to also face up as a society is we support this. the law and order mentality is not republican or democrat. it cuts across political ideology. president clinton was noted for saying i'm not going to be outlaw and ordered. the maine supreme court cases that permit stops were unanimous decisions, so the liberals supported these as well. so there's a lot, a deep part of this where this is acceptable. we also know that police work is dangerous, ask we don't -- we can't completely shackle the police to not be able to use
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their judgment to protect themselves. so these are difficult questions. but it's also very clear from our research and other research that we see that this is a very negative ultimately a very negative and self-defeating practice. >> during booktv's recent visit to topeka, we toured the library of the kansas governor's mansion. mary madden, director of the kansas museum of history, guides us through the library and explains the history of the mansion. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
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>> the name of the house is cedar crest. frank mcchenen was a very important newspaper publisher here in topeka, kansas. he built the house in 1928. he was married to madge overstreet mcchenen at that time and unfortunately he only lived here five years because he did pass in 1933. the house is just under 6,000 square feet which makes it the smallest governor's mansion. but it has the most property with 244 acres. in his will it was of his interest that the house stay as it is, as this beautiful french normandy-style chateau home and that his books stay with the
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house as well. and he was an avid reader. i think it's pretty -- it's not a big surprise that somebody who's a publisher and a writer would have a fondness for books. so he collected 1500 that are here in the library around me. he collected just about everything, but he was really into the great writers and authors, and as you look around the room, you can see the authors that he most -- he regarded most. it's like oliver wendell holmes. he did bookplates of these people that he felt that were his favorite authors. so dickens one of my favorites byron. so that's why he put the bookplates up their bookplates to honor them. some he collected himself probably most of them. and then people when they know you like something you tend to get those as gifts. so i would assume that some of them came as gifts. i think he was a very scholarly man and felt that education was
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very important and having a good library was a sign of an educated person. i think he was in company with a lot of other publishers and newspaper men at the time. william allen white who he was a contemporary of william allen white, the sage of emporia, had a huge library. william capper had a large library. so i think it was in keeping with the tradition of his profession. governor brownback and the first lady mary, do use the library and they do add to it. there are some books they've added over here and the first lady has a book festival that started about five years ago, and so the feature authors contribute to the library, and we have those books here. i think the people who live here are very aware of their role in preserving kansas history and so they take very good care of the house. so it's a very nice library/museum that's open to the public. >> book t's visit to --
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booktv's visit to topeka, kansas, continues with food writer cynthia harris. she remembers the life of clementine paddleford in her book "hometown p appetites." >> columnen teen paddleford, a personality as impossible as her name. while others wooed the nation's eaters with complicated recipes she keeps readers drooling by just telling them how good things taste. for 15 years seven days a week ms. paddleford was devoted the better part of the hours from five a.m. until lawsuit in the evening to tasting -- until late in the evening to tasting testing, eating, talking, reading and writing about food. the name of my book is "hometown p appetites: the story of clementine battleford, the forgotten food writer who chronicled how america ate." it's about a kansas farm girl who grew up and went to new york
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to become a famous food writer. clementine paddleford was a woman before her time. she was born in kansas, and in 1936 she was hired as a food writer for the new york herald tribune. she knew at a very early age that she wanted to be a journalist but not just a journalist, she wanted to be a famous journalist. and when she was born in 1898 and when she was in high school in the 19 teens and graduated with a degree in industrial journalism from kansas state university in 1921 she knew that she had to go to new york to become famous. but she also knew that journalism was a man's world. so she knew shah he was really -- that she was really going of to have to go up against men, and that was going to be a big challenge for women during the 1920sment once in new york she got a job at the christian herald, and clementine was head of the home development section of the christian herald.
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writing for women. however, during this time clementine had developed throat cancer. and the doctor told her that in order to cure the throat cancer, he could remove all of her vocal cords, and she could never speak again, or he could do a partial and perhaps to save her voice. so she decided to go with the partial. and during the -- during this time, it took her one year to learn how to speak but she decided that she was going to do it. and still from her bed while healing, she was still writing articles, submitting them to magazines; better homes and gardens and such. she just could not give up writing. she had such a wonderful way with prose. she may describe a green salad as sparkling emeralds.
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and, you know, who wouldn't want to eat a green salad if you thought you were being served a bowl of green emeralds? she did this because that was her own style of writing. but it also made her memorable. .. send the leaders in to someone
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else's home, see how they made a certain dish and that they shared with them. working with the christian herald and in 1936 had developed a friendship with malawi's davis and. end of the wes was the director of the homeeloise was the director of the home institutes in new york. with this job cameand eloise was the director of the home institutes in new york. with this job came a job with the magazine. she was writing six days we cannot just in the market but everywhere and on that sunday she had an article this week which is equal to today's parade magazine, sunday supplement magazine and she wrote about people and places she had lived,
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and here they are in the depression era in the 1930s and as we get into the depression era we are going into war in world war ii. so they had to be very inventive because things were not always accessible to everyone. so you would see things like python muskrats, anything that people would ask her to eat she would try. after it award she was invited to go to france to see how the french were eating after world war ii. the group of food editors decided to go to france she was the only female. most women were either at home taking care of children and spouses work if they were lucky enough during the war to have a
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job, but after a war they still had to go back, most of them had to go back home and work at home. you never heard of women food writers. with this being a completely new thing, paving the way for young journalists, especially food writers she knew she had to stay on the ball. when she was in france, when all the men were out drinking, waking up with a hangover, patterson was already checking out the food market and getting her column is written and sent back to new york said she was able to beat all men to have her articles published first. that was the fed aaron heck happened. she took her job seriously because she knew that women did
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not normally hold a position in journalism that men did. to pave the way for other women and to become the famous food writer she wanted to be, she had to be serious and she had to buckle down and work hard. by doing this she was able to become well-known and became a household name. her readership grew to number is over 12 million. 1949 her salary was $25,000 a year and if you put that in today's numbers, probably close to $300,000. the popularity height was in 1953 when time magazine, they did devilish things the way we talk about food. and put the food out there for
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everybody to understand that food is something we need and food is better when it is slow cooked. and not this fast food stuff. to see the obesity in this country as far as all the fast food places, frozen foods come in to play, changing with the times us all she will try to find the cooks and the chef that did things the slow way, to try to keep it in a more traditional health east thailand because she had such a large following and everything, she paint the rose for some many people people started looking at food differently.
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food editors wrote pedicles before patterson they would say a few lines end play law recipe. but this gives you the history of that dish. and start seeing the shaft on tv, traveling to different countries or cooking a certain dish, like italian dishes. and then admiral does his dishes and bobby flay and all these chefs that are out there and they i still doing the same thing patterson was doing except they are doing it on television. she was a food celebrity in her own right she did everything leading up to where julia child could step into the limelight. people did not remember her even
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though she was such an influential person, during that time. the editor of this week's magazine, when she had pneumonia offered to buy her name, to keep the column alive in this week's magazine and she turned it down and said no. because her name died when she died in 1967 and all her papers went to kansas state university and for all practical reasons they have no archives at kansas state university, the papers went into storage. they did not come out of storage until 2001. i would like people to know about her as a person who definitely was a pioneer. someone way before her time that
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paved the way for women in food journalism, journalism period that could become very popular but in other areas and i would like people to know that she was at the top of her game and she did become a famous food writer and journalist she always wanted to become. >> you are watching booktv on c-span2. this weekend we are visiting topeka, kan. with the help of cox communications. next week is the university of kansas professor donald haider-markel, co-author of "tsansgender rights and politics" which excludes issues important to the trans gender community. >> traditionally when you think about bill g b t rights and laws that ban sexual orientation, as these laws are considered at the state and national level
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oftentimes to include language like gender identity for many people believe that would simply be a poison pill kind of addition to legislation, that it would kill a bill or any chance the bill could pass if you attach terms like gender identity to it. whether or not that is entirely true isn't clear but most of the time the language was not included or it failed to be added to existing legislation, some of the dances with same-sex marriage as well as other advances in the lgbt movement, there has been what they call a clean back to the trends in their rights she is adding gender identity to local and state laws and federal executive orders, president obama included gender identity, trends gender issues, just a few years ago, very unlikely those would be concluded. the transgendered portion of the lgbt movement first, the lgbt
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movement is a completely unified movement, with organized set of priorities that everyone in the movement agrees about which is entirely true. and same-sex marriage had been pursued as priorities. the issue in the transit gender community have been left on the sidelines and often left out of legislation at the state and national level when those bills are considered. as a portion of the movement that has been underreviewed the. is also a portion of the movement that doesn't have the same level of resources lesbian and gay men do. in terms of priorities in the lgbt movement the big overlap is nondiscrimination policies, trying to make sure policies exist, are in place to prevent discrimination in terms of housing, employment, any number
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of areas on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. traditionally gender identity has been left out of that legislation, into more recently when it has been more inclusive at the local and state level. some of the other issues that are a priority for the lesbian and gay portion of the movement have been same-sex marriage but for the transgendered portion same-sex marriage is not typically a significant priority for that portion of the movement. likewise issues such as being able to change the documents for sex identification has been a priority in the transgendered portion of the movement, not an issue for the lesbian and gay portion of the movement. that is where they diverge and what our work shows in part that is sort of looking at the politics of adoptions of the different policies, priorities of the trans gender movement are a little different from the politics involved in looking at laws banning sexual orientation and discrimination. issues related to health care and access to quality health
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care within the transgenic movement is a significant issue, certainly with issues like hiv/aids, health care has been a big issue in the lgbt community but the specialized nature of health care issues and access to health care for the trans gender community has been a persistent problem. access to quality healthcare in the form of doctors faced by transgendered individuals has been a significant issue. in terms of groups like transgendered americans left out they get it twofold. they're left out of a broader society a sexual minority, but also within the movement they feel sidelined with and the movement but they are very small portion of the overall population and the lgbt population but nevertheless nobody feels good about being marginalized but it is also meant in part that might generalization has occurred
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because they haven't had the same resources as lesbian and gay individuals have had in part because of struggles facing they face as transgendered individuals in society, losing jobs, getting discriminated against and some of those things have led to lower resource base even though they have their own groups that are separate from broader lgbt groups and those groups have become a little larger more recently, they are still relatively small compared to the main lgbt groups. if you think of the development of the lgbt movement in the united states in many countries from the 1916s and 70s going forward the group was dominated by white gay men and it wasn't until the 1980s and 1990s there were more advantages where opportunities for lesbians and non-whites to participate in movement, leadership and movement activities and decide some of the priorities for the
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movement overall. the fact that trains gendered individuals have been sidelined, they are not the only group. even this very inclusive movement has followed the same patterns other movements have within the united states and elsewhere where white men typically lead the movement. others were marginalized. that his only changed more recently as things have moved forward. thinking about trans gender issues and familiarity with trans gendered individuals there's a similar pattern to what one would have observed 20 years ago for gay men or lesbians that not many people know what transgendered individual are familiar with the issues or familiar with concerns of the transgendered community. therefore it seems strange and alien to them and they make people uncomfortable. one of the big shifts that has occurred in attitudes about lesbian and gay men has resulted in part because of popular
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culture depictions of gay men and lesbians and when transgendered people are depicted in the mass media they are sad or troubled that are not positive and make the even more difficult for people to identify with and feel comfortable about. until popular culture representations change for at least opportunities have even these hypothetical will models like this change for lesbian and gay men i don't think people will be as comfortable. i think jamie and i were particularly interested in looking at transgendered issues in part because what has been published in this area has been more narrative of individuals
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and activists or more transgendered rights, we would want people to learn primarily there are different priorities with the trans portion of the movement and understand significant social science questions by studying this movement and if this movement is important for the historical development that civil rights in the united states. >> for more information on a visit to topeka, kan. and many of the cities visited by local content vehicles go to >> in clinton cash, peter schweitzer looks at the money made by bill and hillary clinton.
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look for these titles in bookstores this coming week and watch for the authors in the near future on booktv. >> every moment, you always want the other end of the line. i was only there a week or so.
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i had an office down the hall. a large office and i had my own -- recalls one morning at 8:00 and by secretary -- a call from lyndon johnson. we had a line that range intermittently. it rang and you could ever pick it up fast enough. always -- where is he? he is in the bathroom mr. president isn't there a phone in their? she said no. he said put a phone in their. so i came out and she said the president wants a phone in the bathroom and i said forget about it. the next morning, same time, i am in the same place, the same
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call and he shouts i told you to put a phone in their! end she said yes, mr. president. by the time i got out of the bathroom their retreat to army signal corps guys standing in my office and the phone was installed. he wanted you all the time. secondly he saw things, always a way to do something, not sure -- one of my kids in virginia in washington, my son joe had swallowed a bottle of aspirin. i just ran. didn't leave a phone number and he got to me at the hospital and he said what you doing there?
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i said my son swallowed a bottle of aspirin. he is 2 years old. he said fed is terrible. we should make these people have these bottles so that little kids can't open them. that is why most of us in this room have trouble opening our medicine. it is called the child safety act. he knew how to take care of you. elementary and secondary education. for years we have been on the democratic platform, federal aid secretary of education, couldn't get it. the problem was that catholics were able to block it unless you provided aid to parochial schools and evangelicals standard and secular jews were
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able to block it. couldn't make any progress and johnson started working on it and working on it and it got more complicated with the civil rights act of 64 because then we had this charge that it was going to be more money , adam clayton powell was chairman of the house education committee and president johnson finally says adam, you got to leave town and turn this over to somebody else. some of you may remember that is when he never quite got back. and he said he wanted you a congressman from brooklyn to try to put the bill together. kerri was in a district in brooklyn that had orthodox jews roman catholics, this beret of
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incredible clinton area, the fact that johnson knew that was incredible. and kerri came up with the idea of leasing books, leasing secular books and leasing equipment to parochial schools. johnson started selling it there's a wonderful meeting billy graham, arthur goldberg standing astride the white house pool, they were in their clothes. that is the hottest room and got's search the hottest remand johnson. and he is working on it. in the background is bill malware and me a picture in my office and was so hot in there you could see the sweat through his black casket. it was incredible. he worked on it and they finally agreed. it was fantastic. he got the bill passed and john
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mccormack, speaker of the house, said hold the bill up. if you get a bill and don't sign it within ten days it is up pocket veto. told the bill for a month. mccormick said why? johnsen said because i want to sign it on you kerry's birthday. we would not have the bill without him and he did sign it on his birthday. that kind of thing. >> host: how did he know so much about so many people? i am told that he had the phone number and name of every member of congress on his desk in the oval office with little notes about what they might need or want. how did he assemble all this? where did he get all this information? >> guest: he accumulated it. it was absolutely stunning and it was invaluable to him. he loved politicians. spent time with them. he knew when their wives were sick or their kids were sick or
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when they had a problem or didn't. and he knew what would move them. it wasn't always hugs and kisses incidentally. we needed to raise the debt limit once. in the course of hearing it we lost the vote. we lost six liberal democrats voted against raising the debt limit and we had this meeting and johnson used to have these long sheets of everybody's name so we count votes for or against, and decided. we had the sixth congressman and we are going through them and one of them, from westchester county, lovely county in new york, the war was taking money from people that needed it,
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people put needed housing and poor housing and johnson says joe, call up ottinger and tell him we are going to put the biggest housing project in the history of this country in the middle of his fancy westchester district. i did and we did get his vote. >> you can watch this and other programs online at presidential candidates often released book to introduce themselves to voters. here are some recent books written by declared and potential candidates for president. former secretary of state hillary clinton looks back on her time serving in the obama administration in hard choices.
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more potential presidential candidates with recent books include --
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look for his book in june. ended alan booktv our coverage of the third annual san antonio book festival in texas. over the next several hours we will bring you discussions on classic american writers, women in the military, u.s. internment camps during world war ii and the important entrepreneurship. we begin with the panel on latino america with matt barreto and henry flores.
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[inaudible conversations] >> welcome to the panel. the panel is called the latino vote, where it is going to. my name is gilbert garcia. i am honored to be here today with two great authors. to my right, matt barreto is the co-founder of research and polling for latino decisions and is professor of political science and chicano studies at ucla and co-author of latino america:how the most dynamic population is poised to transform the politics of the nation. to my far right henry flores is distinguished university research professor in the department of political science at st. mary's university and he has testified in more than and 50 civil and voting rights cases going back to the mid 80s it is the author of a book


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