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tv   Book TV  CSPAN  May 3, 2015 9:26am-11:01am EDT

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ble growth. >> we have time for one more question. >> diane, former washington reporter. and press club member. we are seeing some really dramatic photographs of china's international centers in shanghai beijing, of air pollution and really poor air quality. what evidence do we have that the chinese are transition away from coal consumption for energy production due to effects on chinese labor productivity? and evidence of the economic impact on the economy. and also your risky business colleague michael bloomberg recently allocated a lot of funds to try to replace coal production in the united states. you mentioned that the chinese really respect strength and leadership. what can the u.s. government do to strengthen chinese commitments at the table,
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negotiation table in paris in december? >> well, you got a lot and that -- [laughter] >> let me just add that hank paulson as many of you know is lifelong committed along with his wife conservationists and environmentalists. so that's hit him at his everywhere he has tremendous knowledge of cross section of china and the environment. >> thank you, andrea. and the polson institute is the biggest programs we have our air quality and climate, and a u.s. of china council focus on sustainable urbanization. so him and i see where the question comes from because if you had asked me going back, if i'm sitting here today and i didn't know how bad the air was which i sure do, i just was a couple of weeks ago was at
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ground zero of this problem. you could hardly see you couldn't see the sun come and everything was archaic. a chapter in my book is called darkness at noon. but if most of all the things the chinese were doing in terms of investing in a new clean technologies, turning down shutting down dirty plants i wouldn't expect a situation would still be come would've got worse. but it's all been blown away any kind of progress by this breakneck growth, which is a model which is unsustainable. energy intensive development within energy inefficient economy. so what gives me hope okay because, so what gives me hope several things, and optimism.
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first, the leaders understand the problem picked on because the chinese people do. the chinese people are demanding action. so i think the survival of the party depends upon making progress. they have changed the way mayors and governors are evaluated. it used to be easy would visit with any senior official at the city or provincial level, they which israel off the economic growth statistics because they need if they they did that come integrated economy, avoided a big scandal or social unrest, a which is fine and were promoted. now they're being evaluated, and their performance, they become is being evaluated, what they're doing with the environment. so they will give you the progress. they rank 73 out of 73 provinces and they've got some unique problems. they talk about a 12%
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improvement. now, i think the outside and the recent we are focused on this area big time is energy efficiency. give you a couple statistics. half of all new buildings going up on earth are in china. 40% of carbon emissions come from buildings. they have lousy energy efficiency standards with buildings. want to do things the polson institute is working on with our urbanization council, and working with rocky mountain institute, are energy efficient buildings. there's big upside there. the cheapest, cleanest energy there is an energy you don't use. the most difficult issue you pointed to is a mix of coal in communist, and their overall energy usage. and projections and the deal at the obama administration came to
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come the agreement with them requires of them they will do the things are going to say they do, they'll have to change that the it's going to take a while. so this is difficult. it's important, but i would say that the obama administration's agreement is usually important because first of all, it is a demonstration that the chinese care a lot about the relationship with the u.s. they didn't have to do that when the obama administration was a better, they did. secondly they are focused on this advocate about it. they don't announce these things lightly, and greatly enhances a chance of success at paris. it just really, really enhances that. i think it would've been hard to see much progress there without this, and i think having done
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this creates a much better if i'm forgetting things done. >> i just want i guess i time's up i just want to say this book is a wonderful read, and so we have been talking about really tough issues on the economy today but just read what hank paulson right about where he was on 9/11 and dispersal engagement with these people. this is an insider's account with such a personal touch. i just wanted to congratulate you on the book and recommend "dealing with china" because it's been a fascinating extreme for me. >> thank you so much, and you. and thank you, thank you all so much for being here today. [applause] spring i want to thank andrew for being here and reading this conversation which was what i think it secretary paulson come and as is our tradition we're going to add to your collection i believe that national press club mugs. [laughter]
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[applause] [inaudible conversations] >> booktv is on twitter and facebook. and we want to hear from you. tweet us post a comment on our facebook page >> welcome to topeka on booktv. located in the northeast region of kansas, topeka is its capital city with around 127,000 residents. leading up to the civil war this region was the fact that many
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border clashes between pro- and anti-slavery forces. earning it the nickname bleeding kansas. essential medicine became known as the site of the landmark 1957 supreme court case brown v. board of education which declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. with the help of our constitution partner for the next one hour we learn about the history of the state from local authors. >> the name of the house is secret. the house is just under 6000 square feet which makes it the smallest governors mansion. but it has the most property with 244 acres. >> i haven't done anything in an historic record which is this why destroyed in the attention it deserved but what i define as a research around is there was a lot going on in 1965 america. >> beaver turpin at times. everything that was happening racism was ubiquitous across the nation. so because of that i think this crashed in and of itself just
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about it the attention it deserved because it happens in quote-unquote small town u.s.a. wichita, kansas,. >> we begin with debra goodrich bisel on kansas role in the civil war. >> when i moved to kansas in 1992, i was very familiar with the story of the civil war. i had grown up in southwestern virginia. the civil war is edward. my great grandfather was a veteran. it's everywhere. it's on the present. so i inserted them in with the civil war stories. i grew up in the hometown of jeb stuart, the confederate cavalry commander. so growing up one of my favorite movies was santa fe trail where errol flynn plays jack stood how good can it get? when they came to kansas, because i'm from the south that we just -- i got to know the community of topeka through the
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cemetery. this is the oldest cemetery, the oldest chartered senator and the stateside kenneth walker i literally tripped over the grave of cyrus holliday. that's when the man and the myth all came together and i realized that character from the movie santa fe trail was real that he was you, that jeb stuart with you, that all those characters, john brown, we're right here. that it really was holy ground. so that's when my fascination with the role of kansas and the civil war began. kansas did not earn the name bloody kansas by accident. when the kansas-nebraska act was signed in 1854 the very act of signing it, i just signing that piece of paper was viewed by missourians as an act of war. from the very beginning, every colony to all those original colonies had assumed that what was to the west of them was
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affairs. so virginia settled kentucky, settled missouri. and with that settlement with the mores and the culture and all the values. you know that saying from north to south. it was assumed and that missouri would settle kansas, making it a slave state. so the kansas missouri act, or the kansas-nebraska act was seen as a pro-southern act. it was viewed as a proslavery act. so when northerners decided that if popular sovereignty will decide the fate of kansas and we'll send people to settle. that was viewed as an act of war by many missourians. they just assumed this would all be theirs. it's important, it is so important to note that before there is a slavery issue in kansas, there is economic opportunity.
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nobody would have cared, nobody would have come had it not been economic opportunity in kansas. and we look at the wide open space of course we forget that there's actually american indians living at the time and making use of that space, but the easterners, is just looked like wide open, unused country. the railroads the railroads are everything in the 19th century. the very night december 5 1854, the missouri senator is standing in maryland making a speech about the rich land of kansas and how the railroad is going to cut through that and opened it up for everybody. so that is foremost on everybody's mind. so black, white everybody sees kansas as the land of opportunity. and it doesn't take long for the
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bloody struggles for that opportunity to begin. so as soon as northerners are staking their claims missourians are coming over and tossing off, or they are destroying decline markers. so probably missouri started it but it escalates and both sides take it to incredibly heinous heights. there are raids back and forth across the kansas border, almost immediately. the missourians come over especially for new englanders off their claim. people are coming from north and south alike before the economic opportunity. many of them for a new start in the kansas territory. the pottawattamie massacre of course is one of the most famous events of that time. in may 1856 john brown, his sons
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and a couple of other followers dragged five men from their cabins along the mosquito and the pottawattamie creek and their shot and hacked to death with broadswords. that perspective they cleared that area of southern settlers. malcolm the men he killed were not slave owners. bears a lot, it's a really complicated story but they were not slave owners. so that massacre had a lot of mixed reviews around the nation. what john brown had accomplish however, was to set the tone for what they kansas missouri border would become. that would rise to new heights with william quantrill in 1863. in 1863 he led a band of about
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450 confederate guerrillas across the border to lawrence, which was the second largest city. leavenworth was the largest and topeka was the capital but lawrence was the de facto anti-slavery capital. that was the new england stronghold and it was the home of jim lane and charles robinson. it was were so many of the orders came from the wreak havoc in western missouri. so they come into lord. they hold that down for four hours. it is effectively destroyed, 150-200 men and boys are killed. they could've killed every man woman and child in town to they had that much control over it. but the town was effectively destroyed. there was a cloud of smoke that
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could be seen for 38 counties. it was as if an atomic bomb had gone off. that resulted in order number 11 which pretty much decimated western missouri and sent 20, 25,000 people off their land and made them homeless. so it was it was horrific. the matter what side you on it was a horrific time. when the civil war finally came to the rest of the nation, kansas have had of course the futures of the head start. there were a couple of very notable contributions kansas makes to the war effort. one is that per capita we send more soldiers to the war than any other state. number two is the first kansas colored are actually raised the first black regiment to fight in the civil war. their service is remarkable on so many counts.
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they fight before the emancipation proclamation is issued. they have the promise of nothing, nothing. they are not fighting with the promise of freedom. they are not fighting with the promise of even being paid. nothing. they are fighting with nothing except hope. following the civil war, it's very interesting to note they were survivors reunions for many years of quantrill's raid on lawrence. the perpetrators and then he rode with quantrill also had a union on the missouri side. and i think that's just one example of how the feelings
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didn't die when the war was over. and i have to say there still a lot of animosity between kansas and missouri. now it plays out in the sports events rather than on the battlefield, thankfully, but those animosities die hard. one of the things i think that's what important to remember special with order number 11 where the federals ordered, they were trying to create a demilitarized zone. general thomas yoon was trying to create a demilitarized zone so that the guerrillas in western missouri would not have a safe haven come and to effectively cleans out three and have border counties of western missouri. had to include kansas, had he cleaned out some of the eastern kansas counties, had he done things differently, the result might have been different. but who was going over to put
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people off their property? those federal soldiers were mostly kansans. so missouri sees that as a federal government, but also see it as kansas doing that. that dies hard. harry truman is one of the most famous examples. his grandmother who would let him in the house in his blue uniform because she still equated that with the yankees. and who famously would not sleep in the lincoln wrote in the white house, and who and when they would sit down to dinner at some film and kansas was using their good china and their goods over. but that's a great example of how generations later those feelings had not died. i was researching and the library of congress in the newspaper room one day came across the newspaper in 1856 the london times. the front page of the london times had the headline war in
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kansas. the eyes of the world were literally on kansas. and that territorial period was so significant in shaping the war to come and kansas role in the civil war cannot be overestimated. and i think it's overshadowed because you have these big battles in peace. you've got gettysburg and fredericksburg at all these incredibly big battles that overshadow how kansas to be defined the issues to be defined what would -- what we would become. the entire civil war is that who would inherit the mantle of the revolution comes who gets that north or south? who are we to be? kansas defines the. it's all hammered out here in kansas. kansans are the one who defined after the war when after the homestead act is enacted.
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you've got all these civil war soldiers moving to kansas. it becomes known as the soldiers state. we are the soldiers the state long before we were the sunflower state because of all these civil war veterans coming west. i don't think you could overstate the role of kansas. >> while in topeka we spoke with historian d. w. carter about his book "mayday over wichita" which details the worst military aviation disaster in kansas history. >> all of a sudden the house was shaking and i looked at the window and the house was on fire and raced institute of my sisters and brothers out and i put them across the street and came back. >> i couldn't get here fast enough because a local everything was getting in the way and i couldn't realize what was going on. i started running and screaming up and down the street ends
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until i can get but a consumer house until i got in the house. >> applying pressure continuous 16, 1965 and it occurs early that morning at around 9:30 a.m. the plane went down at about 20 and pine street in wichita the northeast end of wichita. it crash landed in a section of wichita that would typically referred to as the african-american communities. 97% of the african-americans were living in this section of wichita is a ghost town at about 20 of 10 pilots become a 500 foot-high fireball and goals vince entire block, 14 homes are destroyed. fire is a war and destruction is everywhere. ultimately, 30 lives are lost through this tragedy. i prevent anything in the historical record that says this is why the store did not get the attention it deserved but what a defined as a researched it out is there was a lot going on in 1965 america. i addressed specifically three
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wars that were occurring in this period. we have the war in vietnam, and a massive amount of our troops are heading into vietnam under lyndon b. johnson. we had the war on poverty declared by lyndon b. johnson and, of course, we have the war for a quality. all of that is consuming headlines for not just i can signify but seemingly the entire decade. thomas paine once put these are the times that try men's souls during the american revolution. i say that for the 1960s because these were turbulent times. everything was going on in selma, everything happening racism was ubiquitous across the nation. so because of that i think this crashed in and of itself just didn't get the attention it deserved because it happens in quote-unquote small town u.s.a., wichita, kansas. i arrived at by paula air force base. i knew of the "wizard of oz" and toto. it was about to begin to imagine me sitting there in this new city taking in my surroundings and listening to the instructors who were there.
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at something called first term airman center. during this time is basically an increasing are doing about the history of the city and they did. i'm hearing about the city and all these things that happen and there's a short blurb about this is where the worst non-natural disaster in kansas history occurred. i said excuse me and asked a question and it didn't get the answers i wonder. i went to the library and i didn't get the answers i wanted to. i found there was no substantial history i just could not believe that 30 lives were taken, that there was no memorial and this is and remains the worst non-natural disaster and his state's history, and there's not more on the. that started like initial intrigue but with diplomats to iraq and various other things in air force i did not time to dive into it more. as fate would have it i became a police officer and i was stationed right there in that community, right by 20 and piatt. i got to know these people over the years. i got to understand the hurt tragedies and misconceptions and
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myths that were there. and write down the street is wichita state university, the archives and that essential begin the story for me to learn about it. this is an amazing story from the standpoint of an end in and of themselves the seven men who who are on the who are on that point it would never supposed to be in wichita. at the last minute they get orders the week prior to and wichita and to partake in this unique we fuel emissions it was called ironically operation lucky number they arrived on tuesday january 12. from the time they're not able to take off due to the weather. the terrible weather in kansas at the time. and, finally, on that friday, the leader, the command of the as for approval to take off on a saturday which was january 16. it had never been done before but they said we just want to get back on. they were stationed at clincher in air force base in oklahoma. they said we just want to get back on. so go ahead, you have approval to do this mission.
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what it was coming was a unique and resilient nation, that kc-135 was supposed to go up and took up with a b-52 bomber, long range bomber for the air force. wants to hook up they're going to refuel the bomber and head back to clinton sherman air force base in oklahoma. the problem arises the aunt gentleman 16th of that morning. 11 degrees outside. than in arrived at the baseball before 8 a.m. they prep for chat, get ready to go at 9:27 a.m. they deport. baby the runway with 31,000 pounds of jet fuel. about three minutes into the flight a pilot calls mayday mayday mayday. they are never heard from again. that's essentially what is the story begins a genuine 16th morning with seven and who essentially are fighting for their lives in displaying that's not over wichita and over a crowded neighborhood. these were well conditioned and as far as the air force. the commander had over 10 years in the air force. so well seasoned pilots and
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that's one of the things that helped with looking at some of the rumors that came about is actually checking the service jacket for the captain and with looking at how season that they were, how could they were as pilots. they were excellent pilots but when disaster strikes can sometimes the skill doesn't matter. they don't have a matter of seconds really, a matter of minutes at first but 10 seconds to respond and it was simply impossible. when i first arrived in the neighborhood and started talking to people about this tragedy and asked them what happened, and they came out immediately, and this is only a few years ago that crashed to kill african-americans. you can understand how that can be stimulated over the years and how that can come about but it was simply untrue. that's one of the rumors that came about because a lot of the african-americans a wichita, again, 97% were living in this crumpled section. the rumor was that the plane
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crashed on purpose and it crashed to kill african-americans and that was exacerbated by some of the people who came into the committee right after the tragedy. there was a complaint that went about and a complaint was that once the investigators were done, once the police withdrew from the community there was no one there to protect the victims in the sense people would come and there were souvenir hunters everywhere. there were people who were just spreading rumors and sang that they knew the pilots continue why it occurred. and so that caused a lot of the victims to be upset. and so these were rumors begin to stir. it crashed to kill african-americans. it crashed because there was a parachute stuck in the kitchen it crashed because the pilots were inebriated. office things that were terrible when you understand me that in the true facts that are there and terrible also engaged in with the families were going through and use these types of things come about. but that's what happens when there's no one there to clear up
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misconceptions, to look at the actual record and to produce a substantial history on it. that's something i didn't find while i was there and that prompted me to do something about it. so the air force that gore said that our pilots didn't do anything wrong in that sense. they were performing a routine training operation which was a refueling operation and they were right in that sense. they didn't do anything wrong. the federal government had a difficult time responding to this event and i say that since there was a federal tort claims act the limited the amount of compensation that victims could receive $35,000 cap. that's not a law. when you talk about 23 victims on the ground, that's only not a lot in compensation that can be issued a. the federal government had to deal with it. the air force set up reparation payments are $1000 relief payments in the community. they have a command post right there at about 21st in minnesota. is was for anyone in the kennedy who could come in, signed paperwork and get some type of
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reprieve, some type of payment for the immediate concerns. but as they do this they find that not very many people want to come and sign any paperwork. they don't want to receive $1000 they didn't understand why. they recruit jim garman, one of the only african-americans recruited at the time to help out with the community to begin to understand there's mistrust. they don't trust the government. the air force had a tough time to assisting the people because they're such mistrust there. the federal government has a tough time because there are caps in place. it takes one man, garner schreiber, who went to law school in topeka it helps to lift the $5000 been that's in place. but by that time of the victims had sought litigation through their own attorney to chester louis been one of them come and to look at ways in which they could receive some sort of compensation outside of that administrative claim process they had a place. it was a double process.
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it really did not the victims and to think that added to the tragedy because in the end most victims -- most victims receive only a few thousand dollars. the lowest payment for the loss of a child was around $400. for the loss of an adult, $700. so we talk about great amount of issued out. in many cases the loss of property by property damage paid more than the loss of a loved one. and monetary compensation can never, never be quite the loss of life, we know that but in this case it created a bitterness because they just did not feel that received restitution. in many cases, and this was the same-acrossacross the board for the i talk to come on tv two examples. one would be janine. she was the wife of the co-puppet she gets a knock on the door, she realizes that is the air force with a chaplain. she gets the news, the heartbreaking news that her husband has now perished come and she is given $1000 by the colonel who's there.
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enhancer that and he says this is for your current affairs please give those in order but don't even think about assuming. that's one of the last things he says to her as he departs for home. out of the net she doesn't receive anything. from the air force aside from the benefits that she would have from her husband. and that was about. and so on the other side look of someone like irene, she lost her brother who was on the plane. and in this particular tragedy she rumors specifically come and visit them up in the book, i put the western union telegram that she still is to this day. she gets a telegram saying sorry for your loss, danny was killed on the plane. that's the last they heard. so when i find, route tammy i find that they still to know why the plane crashed. they still had no idea of a lot of the myths and misconceptions that were in place nearly 50 years later. but they didn't receive really
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any compensation and, of course we know that victims on the street didn't receive any compensation to you can see on this continue to fester over the years. it was an open wound. i could have written about before and i would like to say the community wrote this book. i start out with what was really going to be an article about it and i got phone calls from across the country from people who lived in arizona, lived in phoenix and lived in d.c. and put in boston and other areas who said i have some who perished, all i knew someone at the time, or i was there at the time and want to give you my story. so what initially started at what was going to be an article turned into a book from their because of all these stories that they can do for him. one of the challenges that we have as a storage is getting the primary source material. if it's not in the record in this case the road wasn't in the record, then how do you grade the story? i was fortunate in that sense that the community and the united states, the folks who live throughout the country
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contacted me, gave me their stories. after couple of years the air force even gave me the accident report address for your request. this was a heavily redacted report that was finally given to me and of course, there's mistrust there even though i was a member of the air force on what i was going to do with report and what i wanted to shoot. really i just wanted the truth to be a. the family still to know why it crashed. .. and heads into a nose dive. they were fortunate enough to recover all of the engine and
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test those that tinker errors or space-bar also fortunate to recover detail section and they were able to determine this is why the plane crash occurred. the autopilot nonfunctioning combination with the rather cause this to happen. in the report i was able to find this was talked about in the days prior to the crash between the pilots in between the other pilot on the b-52 who said i see that you're rather a sort of squarely and moving back and forth and i'm not telling it. they are communicating a theory when you read the report because you know that led to the facts occurring. it's tough to answer for 1965 and i don't know why families didn't get copies. what i did was made copies and sent it to the families to say these are the findings. this is what the air force now. the report been redacted, there is one good reason for the reduction and not as you don't
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want the little information to be out there and there's a lot of personal information in the report. the other thing to keep in mind is the kc-135 and still flying today. they will not release certain things to the public and certain key secrets about its functionality that maybe they didn't want the public to know at the time. other than not i don't have an answer for why the community at large and specifically the families didn't get a personal report because i know some of them and it took before you request for me to get a copy of it and i'm so glad i got a copy because families can say definitively this is what happened on the plane. we can put that to rest somewhat. >> this is a great quote and in the book she says remembering and telling the truth about terrible tragedies, does their prerequisites, both for the healing of individual victims.
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when you talk about these things. but also the restoration of the social order and a lot of times they miss that appeared for things to go to normal we need to talk about them every time they speak about the event in a community setting i can see families coming out to talk about it and it gives us a sense that we are getting this off our chest because there are many families, and many loved ones new-line today we just never spoke about it and now they have an avenue to talk about it. >> next, michael church looks at the life of local pioneers at samuel reader who kept a diary beginning in 1849.
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>> sunil brader was a kansas pioneer farmer, soldier artist and photographer among many other things. she kept a daily journal from 1839 up until 1913. permission 13 all the way to reach 78. the diaries were donated to the society by his daughter but after his death in 1914. he created 15 journals over the period of his life but we only received 13 because in 1890 has farmhouse burned and they were only able to save her chain of the journals. two of them volume one and volume for parish. he was influenced by his reading of the journals of the lewis and clark expedition and he wanted to keep a daily journal like
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they did and he was especially interested in the illustrations. that they included in the journal and he wanted to illustrate because of his interest in art in illustration. so the daily journals began in 1849 and proceeded his whole life until 1913 until he became too sick. these are the diaries of the 13 buyers would have from sanyo printers diary. certain volumes have items of particular interest. item three for example is of particular interest because it's the most lavishly illustrated volume and also the volume that covers the territorial. from 1855 through 1857. in particular it includes descriptions of readers involved in the battle at hickory point. the battle at hickory point occurred on september 13 and 1856 when general james lane who
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is then leader of the free state and he would later become an early senator for canvas. he was in the vicinity of topeka when he received report that power slavery forces are causing trouble in new york and eight seconds units up to notice that the forces had congregated near hickory point. he asked for reinforcement and other guys came to assist you in on september 13th a reader writes got to a sake after son. ada howes says. started to hickory point. fisher let me ride old gray horse. got to hickory point. fired some. we retreated. three of our horses and one and wounded. several border ruffians killed
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horses, et cetera appeared eight watermelons. it are nine started home for fear of u.s.a. government et cetera. got home late sleeping entire book full of glory. so volume six covers the period of 1864 to 901869 which includes the latter part of the civil war and so this includes entries regarding involvement in the battle of big blue. so the better of the big blue involved the kansas state militia of the led by general james lane and he pursued and thought confederate forces led by general sterling price in jackson county, missouri near the big blue river on october 22nd 1864. reader had enlisted in the
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second regimen when the war began and he was involved in this conflict. the confederates routed veins forces and anybody left behind he wasn't killed was taken prisoner. reader was taken prisoner. he surrendered peacefully and he accounts in the diary as well his time as a prisoner. they were marching the soldiers out, the prisoners out apparently to check this in reader was able to get away and escape by pretending to be a confederate soldier. on friday october 21st before the day of the battle he writes we went to the big blue 1.5-mile west of this dream and the blackjack saplings covered with dead leaves.
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angels well but the train and nearly caught or stole turkey. we have nice fire thumbsucker. we heard candid shots from the northeast. timeless laughed and said he'd rather hear a baby cry. he wants to see a battle. i don't care. i'm not afraid. we loaded our guns. he fears we will fight and he will be killed. i talked to him of a future state, maybe a better one than this. he said well i don't know about that. he has no very distinct views on the subject. after the civil war he also became active in his community. he was involved in building bridges and designing structures for the community. he was trusty for cemeteries and things like that. after the civil war he became -- a lot of his values became more community focused about his
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activities in the community and the help of his family. the most significant event in volume 12 is the burning of his farmhouse which happened in 1880. he kind of had a dream interestingly in 1887 where he dreams that his house had burned down and he wrote a dream to the house of fire. a few years later in 1890, the journal includes and he titled his century with a small illustration of his house on fire. volume a covers 1872 to 1974. at the end of the volume, the reader looks back and self reflection and angst about the value of these journals 100
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years after he's writing them and he has this to say. if these journals are preserved for 100 years, they would be that many speakers at things that the long forgotten past. been a pioneer in follower of ken layne and the old border ruffians more of 1856. they also enhance their value. they show how a farm is open up in the old primitive way of the backwoods. if even one of them possess the diary of a name mr. relative from the year september 16, 1749 to april 24 1810, what are you not think the worth keeping like old wine improved by age and so perhaps it may be that these journals are at war. same reader. >> want to be, we spoke with
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charles epp and steven maynard-moody at the university of kansas about their books "pulled over" in which they talk about the history of police stops. >> for millions of americans come in the side of police is a sense of calm that this is the intent of the good guys are watching. for many others, hasn't stopped on the streets of new york because they look to act a certain way. >> news channel five cameras save innocent process. [speaking in spanish] ♪ >> police stops had a couple of different purposes. the main one most people are familiar with is to keep the streets and roads safe by stopping drivers who are driving
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too fast or going through stop signs are not yielding at stoplights and so forth. at the police in recent years have developed a second purpose. they use them to try to hunt criminals or people who they suspect might be criminals than so they look for people who look suspicious or seem out of place or seem up to no good in one way or another. sometimes the signs of this in the view of the police are quite subtle. they will stop the people and proceed to ask questions for example and where are you going. is this your car. the officers may then use this context as a way to ask consent for search of the vehicle. for example you wouldn't happen to be carrying any drugs, would you? then you wouldn't mind if i search her car, would you? the first stop i described recalled traffic safety stops.
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the second type is fired by a variety of names for columnist victoria starts he is sometimes proactive stops. they are based not an observed violation, but a desire to check somebody out. the police have long thought that an investigatory stops they can get it drugs off the street and get drugs out of people's hands. they have levels of crime with the technique. there is one study in the early 90s. they use the study as a rationale for justifying a kidney stop centers that it's really not clear the stops out to fight crime in a very substantial way. it is however increasingly clear that these kinds of stops subject to a lot of people who are effectively innocent of any wrong doing two very intrusive investigation that lead to
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frustration indignation, that lead to distrust of the police. the term racial profiling dates at least racial profiling dates at least to the late made teen 80s when there were inside some specific profiles used in drug interdiction stocks pared arguably the police have been stopping african-americans and latinos and asians at higher rates in these kinds of stuff services they first use of the 40s and 50s. the term began to be used in the late 80s and into the 1990s. at the mid-1990s that it's clear most police departments in the midst of growing controversy around these thoughts had formally or officially in the use of true formal racial profiles of law enforcement. nonetheless, it is very clear that racial minorities are those stopped at much higher rates than this kind of a stop them are white drivers. the racial disparity in
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investigatory stops as we find about half of african-american drivers have fixed. come on they experience an investigatory stop. this is far more than white drivers. white drivers typically experience a traffic safety stops as they wonder what is the big deal about police stops. african-americans experience again and again a search on the basis of them stars for our man you are two miles over the limit or digit megabytes of his turned out and the proceeds rapidly from there to very intrusive questions. half the folks and stop site.. that is a corrosive experience in the democracy. the premise of the book although we are looking not a small piece of social life being pulled over by police and the book actually
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has some very broad and in particular state citizen interactions, so we look at the relationship between the state and the city since. and we look at how these interactions defined government. we also look at how the interactions defined citizenship and rights. one of the things that has pulled us into police stops as police stops at the most common encounter the citizen in the course the power of the state. surveys are wonderful to be able to give you strong general information about communities and may develop this original survey with a lot of interesting information. but it is still a step or two removed from people's experience. we are defined in the back door. one of the last questions we asked would you mind if we contacted you again.
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so after we had done an initial examination of the survey, the numbers, we then went back and called people en masse for theirs doors about being stops. when you hear the words of people's experience, the subtlety of the experience that we begin to see things we didn't even see in the survey data. this is a story told by an african-american woman who we named dena. this is very typical of the experience of an investigatory stop. soon enough as okay, i've been like driving home from work at night and get stopped by the police for no reason, just stopped to see where i was
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going. i was getting off work at like 11:30 or 12:00. interviewer. you were driving home and you remember how you were driving. i wasn't driving fast. they didn't give me a ticket or anything. they just wanted to know where i was going in the second time they stuck me as pretty upset. the same night about five minutes apart and they wanted to know why i was upset. he just stopped me at the street and you know i was scared. anything stopped me and it was different police. they wanted to know where i was going and where i have been. the interviewer asks t. remember how they act? they were nice. they are really nice. in the 1990s as this type of investigatory stop became increasingly trained and what we call an institutionalized as the police at the same time begin training their officers to
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be professionally polite in making the stops. one of their key ways of addressing this process tends claim from communities you are targeting has been to respond by saying we are acting respectfully. the second thing the police do is to put out a formal directive. you may not stop somebody on the basis of race or ethnicity. those two things are at their key response to this ongoing suspicion or distrust on the part of the community side. we prohibit officers from stopping people on the basis of race. that is simply a formal prohibition, doesn't necessarily have an effect in this. the second is to train up stairs to be professionally polite when they do this. there are studies that suggest if officers are polite and making stops, people are more likely to accept legitimacy of the stock. ours is the first study to test that directly and we find people
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prefer to be fully, but nonetheless, even if an officer is impeccably polite in making one of the stops the driver is still very indignant at the experience of being singled out subject to searching questions and a physical search. that is a demeaning experience even if the officer is professional in the course of it. >> this is the story again not uncommon. so this was just a young african-american male who is driving a little bit out of this neighborhood. so one of the big things season is investigatory tops is to not only survey of the people, but to say where you can go one where you can't go. default overcome has to get out of the car. the police as you look like someone in a report. he is putting hand is sent out
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by side of the road and as they keep checking all the information out and then let go and that is the end of it. what is interesting of course is if you are probably still look at police statistics that that stop and the stop i told you about this never been recorded. there is no warrant, no ticket, nothing. but these very common form of surveillance and harassment and checking people out all the time. that can become quite corrosive in terms of the relationship of these individuals and their government and it's very true the kinds of stops. when we looked at one point we put into files the way driver stories in the black driver stories on the way driver stores were almost nothing like this. they were almost all traffic
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stops speeding in the black driver stories with a mix, but included these. the best statistics come out of the stop in first program in new york city. it is very clear stop and frisk yield contraband or weapons in less than 1% 2% of all stops. in fact, one of the best analyses of the program to come off as an by jeffrey fagan at columbia law school. he shares a targeted stop and frisk of the sort i'm talking about here is less successful in finding contraband or drugs, contraband or weapons they are random check point. this means officers are targeting the wrong people. we find in my study and this is a common finding across studies
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when officers stop and search an african-american, they are less likely to find contraband or weapons than when they stop and search a white person. considerably less likely. this means again they are over targeting african-americans. they are talking about people. why have the police not change their tactics even though they know they are less successful in searching african-americans. it is not clear. it is a racial bias pure and dimpled. they think they are succeeding in bringing safety to neighborhoods in making the stops. they are simply wrong. we use any opportunity that comes their way to share findings with the police department and the people in the police department. what is very important to acknowledge is there clearly is some racism in police department
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and local governments. the e-mails that came under ferguson as a reminder of these things name. that you don't have to worry felix though many people do as a result of racist officers. i've worked in police departments in any number of research projects that police departments are any more or less race this. the issue that this is a problem of race in the police department is always a concern. we should always address that but i don't think that is what is going on here predominately. to me there's two very difficult pieces. we haven't talked a lot about cognitive stereotypes. but we do know when there's a lot of discussion in the news recently that a lot of our judgments are based upon very snap unconscious racial
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stereotypes. one of them we know of his black criminality. many african-american citizens will express the same negative stereotypes. this is some added in our culture that the people who suffer from that experience the same stereotypes. ferguson was a flashpoint tenuously pointed change in the conversation around race and policing i really believe. but ferguson showed in a crystal-clear way that nobody can deny anymore it is that there is a huge difference in perceptions of the police between wide and african-americans. while white people will often say radio call-in shows they'll say if you've done nothing wrong, you have nothing to fear your police. african-americans shows clearly they have not had the experience. far too many have been subject it to stops and subjected to
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searches for no good reason at all. so there's suspicion that the police in the wake of ferguson that became crystal clear illustrates the depth of the problem. the thing we also have to face up as a society as we support this. the law and order mentality is not republican or democrat. it cuts across political ideology. president clinton was noted for saying i'm not going to be outlawed in order. the maine supreme court says. they were unanimous decision of the liberals on the court as well. so there is a key part of this where this is acceptable. we also know that police work is
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dangerous and became completely shackled the police do not use their judgment to protect them selves. these are difficult questions but it's also clear from our research and other research that we see that this is a negative and self-defeating practice. >> during the visit to topeka we toured the library at the governor's mansion. mary madden guides us through the library and explains the history of the mansion. ♪ ♪
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♪ >> frank maclennan was a very important newspaper publisher here in topeka kansas. he built the house in 1928. he was married to match overstreet at that time and unfortunately he only lived here five years because he did pass in 1933. the house was just under 6000 square feet which makes it the smallest governor's mansion. but it has the most property with 244 acres. in his will he was of his interest the house stay as it
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is. the normandy style château home that his books there at the house as well. he was an avid reader. it's not a big surprise that somebody who is a publisher and writer would have a fun starbucks. they collected 1500 here in the library around me. he liked to collect about everything, but he was into the great writers and authors and as you look around the room that he regarded the bookplates that he felt were his favorite authors. so one of my favorite, why he put the bookplates up to on again. some he collected himself. probably most of them. and when they know you make something, you tend to get those
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gifts. i would assume some of them came as gifts. i think he was a scholarly man and thought education was important in having a good library was a sign of an educated person. he was in company with a lot of other publishers and newspaperman at the time. william allen was a contemporary of emporia has a huge library. william cap or have a huge library. it was in keeping with the tradition of this profession. they do use the library and they do add to it. there are books they've added over here and the first lady has a book festival that darted about five years ago so that future authors contribute to the library and the people who live here are very aware of their role in preserving kansas history in so it's a very nice library/museum is open to the
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public. >> we continue a cynthia harris pitcher reimers the life of clementine pala furred in her book "hometown appetites." >> made a personality as improbable as her name while others weaker nations with complicated recipes, she keeps readers drooling by telling them how good things taste. for 15 years seven days a week and she devoted the better part of the hours by signing in late in the evening tea tasting, testing, eating, talking reading and writing of outfit. the name of my book is "hometown appetites" the forgotten food writer. it is about a kansas farm girl
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that grew up and move to new york to become a famous food writer. she was a woman before her time. she was born in kansas and in 1936 u.s. hired for the "new york herald" tribune. she knew she wanted to be a journalist, but not just a journalist. a famous journalist. when she was born in 1898 and was in high school in the 19 teens and graduated with a degree in industrial journalism in 1921, she knew she had to go to new york to become famous. they also noted there is a man's world. that will be some challenge during the 1920s. in new york she got a job at the christian herald. i maintain was had of the home
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development section of the christian herald, writing for women. however during this time clementina have developed throat cancer. and the doctor told her in order to cure the throat cancer, he could remove all of her vocal cords and she could never speak again or she could do a partial and perhaps save her voice. so she decided to go with the partial. during this time, it took her one year to learn how to speak but she decided she was going to do it and still while healing she was still writing articles, submitting them to magazines. better homes and gardens and such -- it could just not give up writing. she had such a wonderful way.
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she may describe a green salad is sparking a world. who wouldn't want to read a green salad if you thought you were being served a bowl of green on world. she did this because it was her homestyle of writing, but it also made her memorable and people continued to lag phase. they like the she was able to put a personal spin and to bring msi and the style of the series. clementina focus on the home cook because she did not want to just focus on celebrity celebrity chefs. she wanted to be able to get the ordinary person who cooked the american food the everyday food that people a period by doing that, she could allow her readers to go into someone
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else's home come and see they made assert -- and that they shared with them. clementine was working at the christian herald and in 1986 she developed a friendship with fellow with davidson. eloise was the director of the home institute at the "new york herald" tribune in new york. she offered clementina job to be the market editor. with this job also came a job with this mix magazine. this week's magazine. souvenir carol tribune she was writing six days a week column from foods, not just a market that elsewhere and on the weekend, on that sunday, she had an article that is equal to today's parade magazine and she wrote about people and places
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and things they interfered and this kind of glue. here we are in the depression era of the 1930s and as they get out of the depression era we go into war and world war ii. so they had to be calm and vincent because things were not only accessible to everyone. so she would eat things like python muskrat anything that people would offer her to be she would try. after the war, she was invited to go to france to see how the french were eating after world war ii. but this group of food editors that was invited to go to france, she was the only female. most women were either at home taking care of the children in the south or if they were lucky
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enough during the war to have a job, but after the war they still had to go back home and work in homes. the women, you just never heard of women food writers. with a speed a completely new saying for clementine paving the way for young journalists especially food writers. she knew that she had to stay on the ball. so when she was in france, while all of the men were all out drinking during the night and waking up in the morning with a hangover she was already checking out the food market in getting her columns written in fact to new york. so she was able to eat all of these men to have her article published first. clementina took her job late because she knew women did not
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want to behold the position in journalism that men did. so to pave the way and to become the famous food writer that she wanted to be she had to be serious and she had to buckle down and work hard. i doing this, she was able to become well known and became a household name. clementine's readership grew to members of her than 12 million. in 1949 her salary was $25,000 a year. if you put that into today's numbers, i'm sure it is probably close to $300,000. clementine's popularity height was in 1953 when "time" magazine declared her the best food editor in the united states. i believe clementina did revolutionize the way we talk about food and that is because she put the food out there for
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everybody to understand that food is something that we need. food is better when it slow club, not the fast food staff. i think clementina would be appalled today to see the obesity in this country as far as all of the fast food places. frozen foods were coming into play. clementine was not very happy with that, although she was still trying to find a cook and a shaft that did things the slow way, to try to keep it into a more traditional, help the style. but because she has such a large following and every thing and paved the way for so many people. people started looking at foods differently. some of the food editors they
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wrote articles with say a few lines and then just throw you out of recipe. clementine is going to give you the history of that. in today's world you start seeing the chefs on tv traveling to different countries where they are cooking a certain --. like libya does her italian dishes and then you have an world who does his dishes and bobby flay and all of these shots that are out there doing that. they are still doing the same thing that clementine was doing except they are doing it on television. clementine was a food celebrity in her own right. she did everything leading up to where julia child's stepped into the limelight. people do not remember
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clementine even though she was such an influential person that she was well known during her time. i believe because her added their ad in "newsweek" 1963 had offered to buy her name to keep the how america eats column alive in this week's magazine and clementine turned it down and said no. because her name just died when she died in 1967 and all of her papers went to kansas state university and for all practical reasons they had no archives that kansas state university. the papers went into storage and they did not come out of storage until 2001. i would like for people to know about clementine is a person who is a pioneer someone way before
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her time that paved the way for women in general his son that could become very popular. not just in food, but other areas. i would like for people to know she was at the top of her game and she did it come the famous writer that she wanted to be calm. >> next, we have donald haider-markel co-author of "transgender rights and politics" which explores issues important to the community. >> traditionally when you think about lgb teabags, orientation discrimination, these laws have
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been considered on a national level oftentimes too crude that would be a poison pill in addition to legislation, that it would kill a bill if you attach to it. certainly most of the time the language is not included or fail to be added to existing legislation. some of the advances with same-sex marriage as well as other advances in the move and come and their assorted bad at coming back for the rights issues for adding gender gender identities of local and state laws and federal executive orders by president obama included issues in any of those a few years ago. some of the misconceptions over the portion of the movement is
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first that the movement is completely unified movement with an organized set of priority that everyone in the movement agrees about, which isn't entirely true in the portion often times left on the sidelines as issues such as nondiscrimination laws has been pursued as priority. the issues in the community have been left on the sidelines and oftentimes left out of legislation at the national level in those bills then considered. that is a portion under viewed. also a portion of the movement that doesn't have the same level of resources. in the lgbt movement, the one big overlap is on nondiscrimination policies. making sure policies are in place that prevent discrimination in terms of
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housing, employment, on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. gender identity has been left out of the legislation until more recently when some of the laws have been more inclusive at the local and state level. some of the other issues that are priority for the lesbian and gay are for the same-sex marriage. it is not typically a significant priority for that portion of the movement. likewise, issues such as changing document for sex identification has been a priority, not an issue for the lesbian and gay portion. but our work shows in part looking at the politics of adoption, the priority of the movement are different than the politics involved looking at laws banning orientation
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discrimination. issues related to health care and access to quality health care within the movement is a significant issue. certainly hiv/aids, health care has been a big issue. the specialized nature of health care issue or the community has been a persistent problem and access to quality health care in the form of doctors who understand the issues faced by transgender individuals. in terms of groups feeling left out, they feel left out of a broader society as a minority, but also within the movement disorder feel sidelined. they are a small portion of the overall population and a the lgbt population, but nevertheless nobody obviously feels good about being marginalized. it is also in part that has
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occurred because trans individuals haven't had the same resources as lesbian and gay and in part because they face in society, losing jobs been discriminated against in some of those things have led to a lower resource base, even though they have their own groups that are separate from broader groups and those groups have become a little bit larger more recently. they are still relatively small. if you think about the development in the united states in many countries in the 1960s and 70s going forward the group is dominated by white gay man. it wasn't until the 1980s and 1990s for their smart manager opportunities for lesbian than nonwhites to participate in movement leadership in the dignity and beside the
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priorities for the movement overall. the fact that transgender individuals have been sidelined even this very inclusive movement has followed the same pattern's other movements have in the united states and elsewhere were white men fled the movement. others were marginalized and that changed more recently as things have moved forward. thinking about transgender issues and familiarity as a single pattern to what one would have observed 20 years ago for gay man or lesbian that not many are familiar with the issues are familiar with the can turn out to transgender community. therefore it seems strange and alien to them and may make people uncomfortable. one of the big shift that has occurred an attitude has resulted in part because of
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popular culture depictions of gay man and lesbian and when they are depicted in the mass media and popular culture, oftentimes they are relatively tragic figures or problem individuals that don't have the positive presentations of individuals, which makes it even more difficult for people to identify with in real comfortable about the individuals. until popular culture representations change her opportunities to have hypothetical role models, life has changed for lesbian and gay man. i don't think people will be as comfortable. i think gay man were as interested because most of us been published in this area has been more narratives of individuals, narratives of act
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to this for more polemics about transgender writes paranormal people to learn primarily their different priorities with the movement. we want people to understand there are significant social science questions explored by studying the move and am that this movement is important for the historical development of civil rights in the united states. >> one he wanted the staff
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there at every moment. you always wanted to at the other end of the line. i was only there a week or so. i had an office down the hall a large office because we had all of these meetings to plan. i have my own bathroom. he called one morning about 8:00 in the secretary city of a call from lyndon johnson. we had a line called the potus line. it didn't ring intermittently. it rang until you answered. and you could never pick it up fast enough. she answered the phone. he said where is it? he's in the bathroom, mr. president. he said is in their phone in their question or she said no. he said put a phone in there. so i came out and she said the president wants you on the
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phone. i said forget about it. the same time i am in the same place, the same call. and he shouts at peggy. he says i told you to put a phone in there. and she said yes mr. president. by the time i got out of the bathroom, there were two army corps signal guy standing in my office on the phone was installed. that is when they want to do all the time. secondly, he saw things can always a way to do send in. one of my kids -- i was in virginia, and washington. i said joe has swallowed a bottle of aspirin. of course i just ran. i didn't leave a phone number.
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finally, he gets me to the hospital. he said what are you doing there? my son swallowed a bottle of aspirin. and he's two years old. he said that's terrible. you know we should make these people have these bottles the little kids can open them. and that is why most of us in this room have trouble opening our medicine. [laughter] it was called the child safety act. elementary and secondary education. for years we have been on the democratic platform senator legg, secretary of education, couldn't get it. the problem was that catholics are able to block it and the evangelicals and the urban
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secular jewish were able to block it if it did provide two schools, could make any progress and johnson started working on it and working on it and it got more complicated with the civil rights act of 64 because now we got this chart that it was going to be more money for blacks. adam clayton powell was chairman of the house education committee and president johnson finally says, adam, you've got to leave town and turn this over to somebody else. some of you may remember that's an adam powell went. he never quite got back. and he said he wanted the congressman from brooklyn to try and put the bill together. kerry was in a district in
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brooklyn and then had orthodox jewish, roman catholics it was incredible, clinton's area. the fact that johnson knew that was incredible. the idea of leasing books and leasing secular books and equipment to parochial schools. johnson started selling it. there was a wonderful meeting with cardinal spellman from new york. billy graham and arthur goldberg standing in their clothes. that is the hottest room on god's earth, the hottest room. and he is working in the background. bill moyer and me in a picture i have in my office. it was so hot in there that you could see the sweat. it was just incredible. he worked on it and worked on it and finally agreed, it was fantastic.
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he got the bill passed and he said to john mccormack, speaker of the house, hold the bill up. if you get a bill and don't find within 10 days hold the bill for a month. mccormack said why? john said because i wanted to sign it on your birthday. we wouldn't have the bill without an era >> how did he know so much about so many people? i am told he had the phone number in the name of every member of congress on his desk in the oval office with little notes about what they might need or might want. how did he assemble all of this? where did he get all this information? >> hs was absolutely stunning. and it was an valuable to him.
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he loved politicians. he spent half the time with them. he do otherwise reset when the kids were sick or when they a problem or did and he knew what would move them. it wasn't always hugs and kisses infinitely. we needed to raise the debt limit once and in the course of hearing that, we lost the vote. we lost six liberal democrats voted again raising the debt limit. we had this meeting and johnson used to have these long she got everybody's name so they could count those four or again undecided. we have the senators said we are going through them. one of them from westchester county, very lovely county in new york said the war was taking
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money away from people that need it. people that needed housing. and johnson says joe, call have not. you tell him we are going to put the biggest public housing project in the history of this country in the middle of his fancy westchester does it. [laughter] to show him there's plenty of money for housing. i did and we did get his vote. [laughter] >> each year the commandant of the coast guard's assembles a list of books he recommends for men and women.
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