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tv   Paolucci Award Dinner  CSPAN  November 20, 2016 9:45am-10:31am EST

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that existed in parts of this country. think about the role that women were forced to play 100 years ago. people struggled and they won and they made progress. that was true then, that is true today. [applause] >> without putting you on the spot, the next question was will you run in 2020. [applause] >> my wife said this, it's not the right question. because we've got to struggle tomorrow. we don't want to get hung up, and i say this with all humility and i thank you for your also port but it's not about wheat me. we've got to struggle tomorrow.
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our job is to educate, organize, mobilize people. or years from now is a long time. we've got other things to worry about today. [applause] >> you talk about universal healthcare and it's something that so many of us believe in. what do you think is the straightest path to get that at this point? >> the problem lies in a corrupt campaign finance system. and the first thing we've got to do is overturn citizens united. [applause] and in my view, moved to public funding of elections. what we also have got to do, and this worries me very much , it's directly related to healthcare or the environment or anything else. you have to pay a lot of attention and fight back against voter suppression.
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there are cowardly republican governors all over this country who are afraid of free, open and democratic elections and they're trying to make it harder for young people, for old people, people of color to participate in the political process so we got to resist that and move toward a nation in which everybody , every other citizen has theright to vote . [applause] >> and when we do that, we will be able to do that, we will be able to take on the insurance companies and drug companies.they are are the impediment to a national healthcare system. they want to maintain a health care system in which they can make hundreds of billions of dollars a year in profits and our job is to tell them that the function of the healthcare system is to provide quality care to
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all people the most cost-effective way. not make drug companies and insurance companies make billions of dollars a year. [applause] >> it's interesting because the next question was, someone from the audience pointing out that 1.7 million former felons votes were suppressed in florida. >> florida i think is one of the worst places. in vermont, in vermont what our state has done and a few other states have done, we have done what was right. that is, we said that you served your time in jail. you pay your debt to society. when you get out, you have your democratic right. [applause] but when we talk about voter suppression, that
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is certainly one of the areas we have got to focuson. if you served your time , you have the right to regain your ability to participate. >> thank you. do you expect a fight in the senate over the supreme court nomination?>>. [laughter] >> i know the answer i think to that. >> the answer is of course. >> we don't know who the nominee is quite's i think it is fair to say that the candidate, it is based on, it's not only what we feel who might be the nominee or at least the politics of the person who might be the nominee. but we come into that with the reality that republicans in the senate, their leadership ignored the constitution and refused to
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even allow hearings. president obama's nominee. all of you know the constitution is not ambiguous about this. the president has the right to nominate somebody and the senate has the right to hold hearings to determine whether the person is qualified. and the republicans said obama is president, we don't want to have any hearings at all. i think that with that background, probably mister trumps nominee will not win the most enthusiastic response from the democratic caucus. [applause] >> this is the way some of the much younger folks in the audience are feeling, this question comes from a 13-year-old. what can we doto keep trump under control ?[applause] i think it's a very interesting question. >> all these questions, and
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trust me it's not just people in this room for 13-year-old kids. it is people all over this country are worried. and the answer again, i don't mean to be beating a dead horse is that we have to rethink our role in our democracy. and that is that if there are actions that are taken that we think are unconstitutional or simply bad or unfair, we have got to stand up, mobilize and fight back. that's called democracy. we can do that. and that's what we've got to do . >> we will take two more questions. the first one will be , can we take you todinner ? this is, including jane. this is from jen and lily in the audience. >> in vermont, we always have
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food so maybe next time. we will fly there and have some food together. >> the more serious question is it isyour feeling about the electoral college? >> as i began in my remarks , hillary clinton., we think, california, it takes forever for them to count votes. i don't know why but it does. but we think she will have ended up with 1,000,000 and a half to 2 million more votes than mister trump. in a democracy, one might assume that if you get more votes than your opponents, you win. that's not the case now. this happened obviously with al gore and it says something about the state of florida about that. all right. that's number one. am i comfortable with the fact that somebody wins more votes than her opponent and is not inaugurated? i am uncomfortable. number two, maybe as a
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politician i see this more. 50 states in this country and every one of these states have serious problems and their people have needs. but what has happened in the last number of elections, everybody knows there are 15, 16 battleground states, florida being one of them. you in this state, there's a whole lot of mrs. clinton and mister trump because everybody knew it was about a battleground state . the same thing with iowa, same thing with michigan, pennsylvania, ohio, wisconsin, etc. meanwhile, there are 35 other states in this country who very rarely see a candidate for president , who very rarely have their issues being discussed, there needs being discussed. there's something wrong with that. 320 million people living in 50 states, politics with all due respect to florida and the other 15 states, should not just be about 15 or 16 states, it should be about 15
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state and all of us. >>. [applause] >> you've brought and energized so many people that i think the last question to ask, particularly after a difficult week of hearing so many speakers be so fearful and concerned about where the future lies. what hope can you give us? given all that you've seen, all that you know and all of that? >> it gives me a lot of hope and i think again, this country, if you study our own history, we've been through very dark period. i don't have to relate to anybody in this room what people in this countryway back when, the native americans, african-americans, latinos . you know, the struggles
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delegate and so far and so on and yet over a period of time, people came together and they made life better. 100 years ago, you had children working in factories using their anchors and workers said no, i can't go on. public education, free public education didn't come out of nowhere. it came because people fought for it. these are dark times. thinking back now, i went to vermont a couple years ago and they showed a film, probably december 8, 1941. you know what that was about? that was the day after pearl harbor. and president roosevelt goes before congress and declares war on japan and a while later on germany. in that moment, the military of this country was not prepared to fight wars in east and wars in the west, we didn't have the resources to do that.
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and yet a united country, 2 and a half years later for all intents and purposes, by the end of 1943, the war was essentially one. we were producing incredible amounts of tanks and planes and guns to unite, the military was extraordinary. united america and they took on powerful forces in europe, powerful forces in asia in the three years, four years. so yes, i understand people are distraught. i would say two things. don't lose faith in our capabilities. that's number one. we have, through very difficult times in the past and number two, despair is not an option. you don't have ... [applause] when somebody throws their hands up and says i'm giving up, you don't have that right because this country is not
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just about you. it's about your children. it's about the future of this country. you want to give up? you know what that means? you're going to do this planet literally as a result of climate change. you don't have a moral right to do that so i think maybe worry a little bit less about football. i know i am treading on very controversial areas and maybe pay a little more attention to the issues facing our children and our parents and our families and stand together. when i use the phrase political revolution, that's what it means. it's not that i have an 86 point program. it means you've got to decide the bestway forward. what does it mean? in florida you know what climate change can do . to this very city. are you going to allow an expansion of fossil fuel in this country to make a bad situation worse? i hope not you've got to figure out the best way to put pressure on your elected
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officials, on washington. figure out ways to do that and on many other issues as well. i am ready for a fight. i hope all of you are ready for a fight. that's what we've got to do. thank you all very much. [applause] >> you so much. senator bernie sanders, thank you so much. [applause] well, thank you all for coming tonight to this remarkable evening. we have senator sanders book for sale to my right. we thank you all and we will see you all tomorrow as well, thank you.
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>>. [inaudible conversation] >> that concludes today's coverage of the miami book fair. we will be back tomorrow with more. you will hear from dana perino, miami book fair cofounder mitch kaplan and national book award winner colson whitehead area go to to get a complete schedule of events for sunday. >> c-span: where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america'stelevision companies and is brought to you today by your cable or satellite provider .the duquesne incline 77, one of four inclines use to transport people to the top of what was once called cool he'll. >>
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special collections room the carnegie library, pittsburgh. we will come back later to look at some of his materials but right now we're going to make our way down to the second floor to the reference services department to look at the reading room. right now we're going to pass through our books tax. we have 11 storybook start at the rear of the building, and we're going to move from their to the second floor. yoyou'll notice in the book stas that the floors are all green glass panels. that is so that light can pass
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through all of the floors of the stacks and help to illuminate them. we have to remember that when the book stacks were built at the turn of the 20th century, lighting was not as superior as it is today. everything that they could do to make it easier for the people, the librarians defined the books and bring the books out to the public was an asset. so that's why we have the green glass floors. the library was built in two parts, the museum was added at the second building. the original building was built in 1895 and dedicated by mr. carnegie at that time. that building was judged to be too small, and mr. carnegie
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added additional monies to expand and add specific art galleries and natural history galleries to the building. and the books, the book stacks and recognition to the interior come everything in was rededicated in april of 1907. we're going to move from the pennsylvania department down to the second floor to the reference area and that is our main reading room. this hallway is the main hallway on the second floor. this and the marble staircase was added during the 1907 renovation. all of the declaration here, including above all the doorways was done by elmer who also supervised the declaration of the library of congress and the
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boston public library. the individuals in all of the decorative our images from renaissance medallions. that was the theme for this particular hallway. all of the declaration on the marble staircase has been restored. this is all as it was when it was first rededicated in 1907. the colors, the gilding come everything was restored to make it look new again i. here we are in the main reading room on the second floor. this is the home of the reference services department. we have both reference and circulating material, so we also are a depository for little
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documents. all of that material comes from this particular room. at one time the very beautiful ceiling, vaulted ceiling, where skylights but they were painted over in both world war i and world war ii and so the company was never removed so that no longer function in that way. but they still have been restored and all of them have been repainted. the murals were all cleaned and sealed. the lamps on all of the reading tables are replicas of the original lamps that we had in the early 20th century on all of the reading tables. so this is, we try to keep the atmosphere here as true to the original as we possibly can. mr. carnegie was extremely interested in the early creation of all of his libraries because all of those communities were close to his heart.
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when we go up to the oliver room, our archivist will be able to show you correspondents were mr. carnegie was interested in every part of the library construction. after a certain amount of time, so many communities were asking for libraries that mr. carnegie created the carnegie corporation of new york, and to secretary continued through the carnegie corporation of new york to make sure that funding was available to keep creating public libraries across america your. >> today i've selected from the archives andrew carnegie related materials. so that would be correspondents, photographs, some brochures pertaining to carnegie and his involvement with the library from the beginning until he passed away. this shows is thoughtful us in
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developing not only this library but his granddaddy of libraries throughout the world. in the colonel anderson collection, we are going to see some books that carnegie looked at when he was a young boy that may have influenced him later on. and the idea that these holdings would be wonderful for the city of pittsburgh as well as for people coming from all over the world. i've selected today a number of items you can see that are here on the table that traces carnegie library from its beginnings to its opening in 1907. if you look at the four photographs that are here, you can see that this very which is a pretty big complex shows that
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it was a field and there's a hill, and it's pretty undeveloped, as well as out in front of the building you can see that there were trolley tracks because the trolley would go past and stop right in front of the building. those tracks remained for many, many years after the building was opened but it's just hard to believe when you look at this complex how extensive it is that it basically was goalie and he'll and cobblestone streets. carnegie wanted to be in the oakland area of pittsburgh, in this area fit perfect with his vision of having a large complex. carnegie commission this area as an educational area of the city which is very true today because both the university of pittsburgh and carnegie mellon university border the carnegie library. there's also not far from here
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several other colleges. there's also pittsburgh public schools are around here as an educational area in the city of pittsburgh. as we move along here, i pulled from the invitation that was sent out to the public for the opening of the original library building in 1895. now, i pulled some carnegie correspondents. his letters are fabulous on many accounts. one, they give detailed information what's going on in the building of the building, but as you can see on a number of these, carnegie just did not hand a piece of paper over to secretary to type.
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carnegie, and then he would sign the letter when it was finished. he would go in afterwards, cross things out, to post-it notes, anything that needed to be added in. he just did. so it's a wonderful chance to see carnegie's own handwriting. and they're really pretty interesting as well. when the library initially open in 1995, carnegie knew immediately that it needed to be larger, as has been mentioned earlier. and so he decided that he wanted to have a larger space. he at the time did not like the two towers that were outside in the building. as you can see on our photogra photograph, there are these two towers that are out at the front, which i personally like but carnegie himself didn't and
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he had the means to remove them. one of the most interesting letters describes his dislike of those two towers. and if i may just quote briefly a sentence or two from the letters, he says those were the two very famous architects of the time who designed the building, are not proper judges about the towers because they are their own work. i should like the opinion of all the -- other architects. the building was look like a mule with long ears, has become one of the famous carnegie lines about the towers is that they are a mule with long years. are 90 also -- the carnegie also wanted a list of famous individuals to run along the outside of the building. it was supposed to be the four building blocks of culture,
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literature, science, music and art. so before carnegie approved of the names of outside of the building, it got leaked to the press, and carnegie wasn't happy at all because the original list omitted robert burns and sir walter scott, two very famous scotsman like scott himself, and dickens was on there, and it wasn't so happy with it. so we wrote a letter criticizing some of the names that were on their, approving others come individual it was all worked out for the names are outside of the building. but again it's one of the interesting correspondence that you can see how he thought about who should be represented and who shouldn't be represented on the outside of his building. the library is blessed with two
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historic old collections that deal not only with carnegie himself, but represent his interests when he was a young boy. but carnegie was a young boy, he would visit every saturday the home personal library of a colonel anderson who lived in allegheny city, the north side of pittsburgh. and he would be exposed to books in all topics, all genres. that library in its day at colonel anderson's house was well over several thousand volumes. currently what's left of that collection, which is about 400 bucks, is housed in special collections. we also have a wonderful collection that was given to the
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library actually by mrs. carnegie. the collection was the working library of a woman named margaret wilson. she wrote an anthology on carnegie, and to books that she used fall into relatively two categories, books and pamphlets and journals that carnegie have wrote things in himself, his own personal writing, and also material books and journals or magazines that carnegie appeared in, and there may be some description about him. so this collection is very important for somebody who is doing research on carnegie. when you look at it first plans it may look like it's a hodgepodge of things like why is there a biography of mark twain, something undergoes about policy?
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but carnegie is mentioned in those. and so it helps to get the wide angle view of carnegie the man. i think by looking at some of materials we have selected, that carnegie really has a love for learning, and through this wonderful institution felt this is -- that this would be a way for the public to escape into another world, whether they are doing research or enjoyment, and he felt very and editor colonel anderson with his library, and i think he felt that giving a slider to the city of pittsburgh, he was doing the same thing that colonel anderson did to him. >> we are standing in elliott
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overlook park with a view of the west end of pittsburgh behind me. as we tour the city were going to take a look at its nonfiction literary scene. next went on here about the differing perceptions the blacks and whites have about the criminal justice system. >> would you please stand and face the jury? >> superior court of california county of los angeles in a matter of the people of state of california or says orenthal james simpson. we the jury in the above entitled action find the defendant orenthal james simpson not guilty of the crime of murder in violation of -- >> we started paying attention to a lot of high profile cases, particularly in the 1990s. you couldn't help but be struck some years after that, actually before that by the o.j. simpson verdict.
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where the predominantly minority jury in the simpson case acquitted simpson on two counts of homicide. the coverage that night, no matter where you look at of course you didn't have a lot of cable stations but no matter where you look the coverage was almost identical. looking at people in stores fro, watching the verdict about on television, on street corners, and you found this expressions on the faces of whites when he heard the verdict who were absolutely appalled, horrified because it was a substantial amount of evidence incriminating o.j. simpson in the murders. these were juxtaposed against the faces of african-americans who were ecstatic, primarily in most cases because they thought justice has finally been served. every single survey that came out looking at the paintings of opinions of african-americans on the o.j. simpson case all point
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to exactly the same conclusion, that african-americans had become extremely cynical about the building of the criminal justice system to do its job right, to do a job in a nondiscriminatory way. this is what the subtitle of the book separate realities of blacks and whites. when the two races look at the criminal justice system they seem very, very different. basically whites are very sanguine about the criminal justice system that they believe it does its job and fiddly bits does its job very, that pretty much treats anybody the same and not for the most part minorities don't we have much to complain about. when you talk to most african-americans you said something very different. very different, which is the system does not treat people fairly. that no matter what part of the criminal justice system you're looking at, whether it's racial profiling, stopping motors, for
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example, with its interrogation, whether it's arrests, whether it is jury verdicts, whether its incarceration, that at every stage along this process the argument is that african-americans are treated far more harshly, far more putatively. and that the system of justice is just broken. it is absolute broken. we also talk about racial fairness. if this is the criminal justice system in particular is unfair towards african-americans, the entire race, one of the ways we look at this is we ask people to explain something for us. what we ask them to explain is why is it that blacks are so much more often arrested and incarcerated down our whites? that's an indisputable fact. typically would ask people questions about that sort will
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give you one or two types of responses. they will even make what refer refer to as external attributions, in other words, the reason this happens is because something in the environment. or they will give you internal attributions which is the reason we find these differences is because there's something different about portability or the characteristics of the dispositions of people which makes things turn out differently or so when we ask people how do you explain the fact african-americans are so more often arrested and incarcerated, we ask whites and they consistently give you internal explanations. they get arrested, incarcerated more because you don't respect authority. because they are just more criminal, more violent in nature. they are likely to commit war crimes. we ask african-americans the same question, they will focus on external explanations. the reason why we are
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incarcerated, we are arrested so much more often has to do with the fact that criminal justice is itself is very, very heavily biased. so we found he perception of unfairness at a personal level, at a racial level, the group level but also a very, very general sense of what we call systemic unfairness. if you ask people brought questions, questions like u.s. people to agree or disagree the justice system in this country treats people fairly and equally, overwhelmingly whites say yes, it does. yes, it does treat people fairly and equally. african-americans overwhelmingly say novak, doesn't it or the courts can usually be trusted to give everybody a fair trial. again becomes differences. i'm talking to voters in the city of 50 or 60% with us budget of whites say the courts to give us the same treatment everybody. african-americans say no
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absolutely does not. those are some of the areas in which we find these enormous differences between blacks and whites. when people look at the criminal justice system today, especially with this rash of police shootings of minorities, especially african-americans, when people look at the inequity in the criminal justice system, of course those all happen at the level of the policymakers. make decision about what are the laws and other laws fair to everybody. or it's the police officers who make the decisions in many cases. it would make perfect sense to interview police, to interview decision-makers, image of police officers, that would be an outstanding research opportunity. we focus instead on citizens.
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we focus on africa citizens not because they make the policies but because they have an incredible influence over people who do make the policies. this was the issue that consumed us, whether citizens choices in the criminal justice domain are reasonable, whether they are logical, whether they are formed. and, unfortunately, we found a lot of evidence that's not the case. what we've found is that, and i'm generalizing a certain extent what we found to a large extent is that when people think about crime they think about race. when people think about race they think about crime. we spent a lot of time talking to people about racial stereotypes. do you see both african-americans and white respondents by the way, do you see african-americans as being lazy? do you see them as being violent? do you see them being hostile?
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do you see them as respecting authority? it astonishing on one level to see how readily people say yes to those types of questions. people apparently willing to admit that yes, they have stereotypes, negative stereotypes of various minority groups. the real numbers are much higher than we found because a lot of people don't admit that actually feel this way. you are in many cases very close relationships between how whites perceive african-americans. had negative our stereotypes are of african-americans on the one hand and argues other criminal justice system, that the more negatively we tend to stereotype blocks, the more we see the system as being fair. the reason for that being that if i see african-americans violent, as they see them as whatever that i'm going to think
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sure, they end up in the penitentiary more often but that's the way should be. they need to be in the penitentiary more often. so it colors the way that we see the system itself, are very definition, our perceptions of the fairness of the system. even though we would basically motivated to write this book because of things happened in the 1990s, we are certainly seeing even more of the sort of incidents today than we did back then. ferguson, missouri, baton rouge, baltimore. over and over and over again of high profile instances, very high profile instances of predominantly minority's been shot and killed by police officers. just as we saw in response to the o.j. simpson verdict, just as we saw in the case of rodney king we are seeing substantial differences between whites and blacks in terms of how they view the source of incidences. that whites, again not always
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but whites had a much stronger tendency to not decide with a police officer not just excuse was a police officer did as being a rational or reasonable response, but to attribute to the victim sort of desirable characteristics, to focus on opie, he might not have a gun in his hand but he had just robbed a convenience store, something of that sort. african-americans, if you see this especially with the development of the black lives matter movement, african-americans are not sanguine about what is going on, nor should they be. but erica davis is skeptical that these things are being investigated the right way, that these things are being prosecuted the right way, that the behavior of police officers is at the level we would like to
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see it. still there's a tremendous amount of cynicism, despair and anger on the part of minority communities. there are some signs of hope. one of the areas is that if you look at laws which themselves can be considered to be racially discriminatory, the most obvious example is the 101 provision where people are given the same prison terms for 100 grams of powder cocaine as one gram of crack cocaine, even though they are pharmacologically similar. powder cocaine use much more often in the white community, crack cocaine used much more often in the african-american community. under president obama and the attorney general's office, the department of justice led by eric holder, they tried to
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equalize those laws. what they did several years ago was changed from 101 to 18 to one. that's still discriminatory and yes, it is, however they are at least trying to move in the right direction. the other thing is that this is one of those issues that believe it or not is uniting republicans and democrats, liberals and conservatives for the simple reason that a lot of reforms we happen to see the crime of justice system are budget driven. that as b budget stick at the state level become worse, it is simply far too expensive to incarcerate so many people there what you're finding even in the torso most conservative states, even in a state like texas, the state legislators are coming to the realization that we can't afford to do this anymore. so they're starting to experiment with early release programs and job training programs in prison, education
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and alternative sentencing for nonviolent offenders. sort might not be for the reason we would like, that is to say we would hope that those reform for the pages because it's wrong, but at least le led to such a beginning to address those issues because they don't have any other choice. i think that what we would like people to come away with is an understanding, especially among whites companies see movement like black lives matter movement, this doesn't mean they are explicitly say white lights don't matter. has nothing to do with the black lives matter movement. rather, it's an attempt to try to deal with this climate of racial discrimination in the justice system in the only way they know what to do, don't wait they can think of, which is to call attention to it over and over and over again. whether that's fallen on deaf ears i don't know. i guess time will tell what's
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going to happen but think what people need to realize is that just because whites see the criminal justice is as fair, balanced and equal does that make it so. it doesn't make it the reality. >> care to look this year's winners of the national book award.
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>> welcome back to booktv's live coverage of the miami book fair. now and its 33rd year it's held on the campus of miami-dade college. we have a full list of other presentations and collins today including fox's host dana perino, journalist susan faludi and national book award winner. for a complete schedule of today's coverage go to we will kick off today with fox's host of former white house press secretary dana perino. should be talking about her most recent book at a later in the day you have a chance to interact with her in our call-in program. this is booktv's live coverage from the miami book fair.


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