tv Public Affairs Events CSPAN December 19, 2016 4:28pm-6:29pm EST
these countries. with respect to argentina specifically, i will tell a a funny story, and that is, i once asked and argentine he economist working at the world bank ,-comma what do you learn in primary and secondary school about how democracy, how your government ought to work. what are the responsibilities? what are the rules of the gang. this individual kind of chuckled and said you know, i think we shot all those professors. but, i think the question is something we all ought to ask as we do with the region. what do young young people, whether they are in good schools or bad schools ,-comma what do they learn about how government
should perform, what the responsibilities of government are and what the responsibilities of citizens are. i think, without that glue of faith in your government and good performance on the part of your government, it's going to be very hard to deal with the questions of transnational organized crime, of gang violence, etc. i think we also need to be quite aware that an awful lot of the moneymaking traffic is moving toward the united states in the form of marijuana, cocaine, increasingly from mexico, heroin and the arms trade goes the
opposite direction so we are contributing part to this. we have, for that reason, an obligation to participate to do what we can to help resolve some of these problems, but they are problems that don't just deal with controlling gang violence or transnational organized crime. they are problems that most profoundly are related to the poor, the ineffective government and rule of law that exists in many of the countries. >> thank you. >> thank you very much. [applause] thank you for providing that overview. i think trying to focus on children and the role of education because in the final
analysis, the so-called security challenges are really to ask how the children receive their goal and we can see what that means now with the terrible threat that is elsewhere, such as in syria so the children in the refugee camps today, tomorrow perhaps they will return to the gang because they have no other skill. i'm delighted that you're trying to focus on the education. we are going to move on. obviously it's very good, a lot of these issues but they will come back to discussion. i think we move on to our next speaker right here.
you can speak about any other related issue. >> thank you very much prof. alexander and thank you for inviting me to participate in the panel here today. i am going to return to your theme, challenges and opportunities in the castro era and i will raise this in the context of venezuela. venezuela has become a cuban security state. they have cuban provided military intelligence, doctors, nurses in exchange for venezuelan oil. the existence of the state, and the problems that it cause principally for the venezuelan people are a concern not only for the hemisphere but also for us in the united states.
there are four issues i want to raise this afternoon. how does cuba and venezuela, the so-called single government, single country separate? secondly ,-comma what was cuba's role in the creation of the security state and how is it unraveling today? third, what options options are there for the venezuelan people themselves to undo repair the political and most important, economic situation? and finally what's the role of the international community including the united states?
i must give you some background and allow me to be very brief because i only have ten minutes and i really want to focus on the issues. when chavez was elected, who go chavez, a colonel in the venezuelan army in 1999, he introduces bavarian socialism. that is that the state is dedicated to bring about greater equality to transfer wealth from the riches to the poor in housing and transportation and medical health, and education so that those who were deprived in previous decades will be able to assert their rights as venezuelan people. he dies in 2014, 2013, and is succeeded by the cuban selected air, niclas maduro, a former
union leader and a man who had been trained politically in havana. he had neither the charisma nor the smarts nor any economic basis on which to lead the venezuelan people. so today, we have inflation according to the imf, at 180%. the imf anticipate that with inflation in november, last month at 58%, the inflation rate for next year will be over 600% and all of us can recall from our history the impact that that hadn't germany and the weimar republic and the lack of support of ordinary venezuelan citizens
were trust in their government. in the political round, a divided opposition decided not to participate in legislative elections which meant that the chavez party could take control of the legislature, and with that control stack the supreme court and the electoral tribunal. the result is that central control created by chavez and an inherited by his follower now faces a political and economic crisis. the political crisis is that the opposition, exactly a year ago, december 15, 2151 a two thirds majority in the national assembly, enabling these diverse opposition parties to unite,
unusual but they did with the demand for a recall referendum or what we would call impeachment of the president. the president resisted, the president used the supreme court to deny that recall referendum on grounds of fraud and despite the fact that the opposition succeeded in gaining 1.8 million votes in favor of this recall referendum, the supreme court has denied it. the electoral tribunal has not only denied that referendum but has denied the elections this month for mayor and state government. in other words, legislative participation and electoral democracy is dead at the moment in venezuela. at the same time, food is very
short, medicines are not to be found, the police stake the hospitals, guard the hospitals so that any new medication, antibiotics, anesthesia, bandages can be stolen and resold outside. the venezuelan people are suffering to a degree different from syria, but equivalent in terms of human suffering. violence now has an intentional homicide rate of 90. 100,000. that is the worst in the world, except for syria and it compares with 25 years ago when i was only 8 - 10 people.
100,000. in other words, the venezuelan state has collapsed. what does the cuban leadership, the cuban leadership who in 2007 proclaimed seven proclaimed we are a single government, we are a single country ,-comma what do they do? if they would then, if favored them back in 2007 because subsidized oil allowed the cuban economy to be able to run, but that subsidized well-known longer arrives in the quantity you use too. in 2008 it was 115,000 barrels. day. today it is 55000 barrels. day. the last venezuelan tanker to
dock at the port and unload venezuelan oil was august and the cuban leadership has recognized that venezuela can no longer be helpful to us so it is demanding that its doctors and its nurses return and it is separating itself from the doomed venezuelan economy and state. when fidel died, raul attended the funeral and he sat on raul's laughed and cried. he then said we, the venezuelan people will continue on fidel's work. the socialist revolution will continue.
i wonder what with. so as we see cuba separate itself from venezuela and shift toward a reliance on american tourism and international investment, we ask, what can and what are the venezuelan people doing to resolve the situation. here is a big question. there are those who believe that once again the students should go back into the street to demonstrate, venezuelan workers should go back to demonstrate, and there is this more violent wing among the opposition who would like to bring down the regime through public demonstration, but it risks violence on a huge scale because
the state not only has the national guard, the military and the police but it also has what they call collectible. these are young men and women who put on a uniform for their occasion, take out their bikes and slash and murder and violence is widespread and is always deniable because they're not part of the state aggregators. there is a hope, but it's only based on a hope that the venezuelan military, who have a traditional of upholding constitutional law will not allow this violence to take place, they will stop the group and restrain the police and put themselves between the demonstrators and the state to achieve some calm, but the leadership of the military has
been corrupted by participation in drug trade. so they are now participants in the transfer of cocaine and heroin and marijuana and meth. and to a degree lesser to us in the united states. there is no reliability that the senior levels of the military will actually act as that restraining force. there are those on the opposite side in venezuela who believe that discussion and dialogue is the only way forward. they have been helped by the vatican who, in october, they asked him to enter into negotiations with the opposition to seek a solution. the opposition demanded two things. one was the constitutional right for recall referendum, the second was the release of political prisoners.
those numbers of political prisoners are now in the hundreds. many of them are hauled into jail for only a matter of three or four days, but they are treated in such inhumane ways during those days that when released, they retreat into the family they retreat into their homes, fearful of being exposed once again to that brutality. so while you have this moderation wing which have, since october 20, been participating in negotiations brokered by former president of spain, the dominican republic and panama, those negotiations have gone nowhere. he has stalled at each point, such that earlier this week the opposition said it's not worth us remaining at the table, we
will not participate in next tuesday meeting. he has agreed to keep the table open, the negotiating table open until january 17 which conveniently is seven days after the constitutional deadline for recall referendum. after that date, the vice president will take leadership and they will move toward the next presidential election. in other words, he has has a way of protecting whose resume even if he has to step aside with which suggests it is the regime clinging to power because it once it's loses the immunity from prosecution as government
officials, they are exposed to cases, criminal cases for drug trafficking and abuse of human rights and other international crimes. what is the international community doing? the argentinians have taken the lead. they have said to venezuela, you are no longer acceptable within the regional grouping of south american country, your presidency is suspended and we are assuming that that. when the phyllis will prime minister arrived to assume her chair, she was not allowed in the room. she was then subjected to a little bit of jostling outside the room which they said was abuse to her since she had ended up on the floor, no one can quite see the floor or her on
the floor, but there's no doubt that there was pressure on her to move away from the room where they were meeting and she was rejected. nicaragua remains a friend. bolivia remains a friend, but neither country is in a capacity to really support the economy as it goes through this spiraling downturn. so finally, what should should we, in the united states ,-comma what could president elect trump do? i would suggest that in the same way he had a telephone call to the president of taiwan, this is the time for telephone call to the leadership of venezuelans opposition. it's a time for stating u.s. support for the opposition knowing that he will use it to say that the united states is in connivance with the opposition,
but to state that we stand for something and that the maltreatment of citizens, the humanitarian crisis is not something we can tolerate. our secretary of state elect tillman, head of exxon mobil knows the situation in venezuela since exxon mobil has had it assets appropriated and it's contract reneged and in fact in 2014, exxon mobil won a suit for damages to the amount of $1.4 billion. we have a secretary of state elect who knows the situation in venezuela, and we have a president-elect who is prepared to change some of the traditional positions of traditional u.s. foreign policies and make telephone calls which wake people up. that is my word and i look forward to questions later. [applause]
>> hopefully he is listening, but seriously i think think you touched some very important case studies. obviously, again, they set up the questions, not just visibly the situation in the country itself or the inter-american relationship, but globally, and particularly they both, for example in iran they developed a base in venezuela for many years during the time of chavez, but we will come back to it now and move on. do you have good news for us? >> i have mixed news, but first,
thank you for the invitation. it is it is an honor and a pleasure to be here. what i want to do is talk about several issues. i want to talk about some of the issues of transnational organized crime, arms, drugs, migration, touch on a couple of the geographical issues and then i want to focus on the need to build a better hemispheric framework for international enforcement cooperation. it is challenging for the new administration because of the campaign discussion of tougher border walls, some of the derogatory remarks about mexicans and also about the need to renegotiate nafta and some of the discussion against free
trade. i think, at the beginning of the administration, it would be good for the new administration to call the leaders together and to sit down and listen to them and have a dialogue about what's needed in terms of hemispheric security. let me now focus on some of starting with arms. we have already heard about the arms problem. the u.s. is clearly the leading source of arms, not only in hemisphere, but in the world. there have been two important treaties, the 199797 inter-american convention against the illicit manufacturing and trafficking in firearms and ammunition explosive and other related
materials and 20 countries, 22 latin american and caribbean countries have ratified the u.s. signed in 1997 it was sent to the senate and has been sitting there. you also have the un arms trade treaty of april 2013, 20 hemispheric countries have signed that, and that treaty, by the way it pertains to trade conventional arms from small arms to battle tanks, combat aircraft, worships and it entered into force on december 24, 2014. the u.s. signed but again the senate has done nothing. drugs are a problem. one initiative of many countries in the region, including the
u.s. is to find ways for non- incarceration treatment of people who just use drugs, including the oas itself. i think the more needs to be done atmospherically in terms of exploring that initiative and the u.s. needs to be do more with respect to the demand side of drugs. in terms of migration, there has been some good initiatives are therey, is a reference to the alliance for prosperity. u.s. and the countries in central america have had a very broad public education campaign and also there have been some
changes in the law. for example, now if you want to apply for asylum, you don't have to come here to do that. you can do it from those countries. that's an effort to reduce the amount of migration because that's where a lot of people are kidnapped, killed, but there's also a lot of it or put between the cartels. first it was drugs, but now now there is a lot of trafficking of persons and all kinds of other crimes. one of the initiatives that was useful that was done in the clinton administration was the use of sanctions against both transnational organized crime
and against narco kingpins. one thing that could be tried is more effort to get other countries to go along with those sanctions so it's not just unilateral. let me now quickly, well one other thing i want to say about migration, first of all it's a problem in the hemisphere the fact that the u.s. hasn't have comprehensive immigration policy for the longest time. another problem with respect to security has been that there is a lot of deportation of hardened criminals and it has happened in most cases without any notice, and without any planning and when you dump 200 or thousand
hardened criminals on fragile states that have no capacity to deal with them ,-comma what happens is these criminals who haven't even been in these countries for most of their lives, they end up doing more violence and the may transfer the know-how to their friends, and guess what, not only does it destabilize those countries, but because because they know the u.s., they often target their criminality back to the us, whether it's it's trafficking humans, stolen or embezzled cars and aircraft, drug trafficking, et cetera. the u.s. needs to do more what it has done with haiti. with haiti, it notifies haiti
and it helps haiti mitigate and plan for the persons that it supports. looking at a couple countries, so because this panel is entitled challenges and opportunities in the post- castro era, i think i need to say a few words about the u.s. relationship with cuba. one of the biggest problems for the region is that every regional meeting the number one question has to do with cuba and the fact that cuba has been isolated. that has changed since december december 17, 2014. there has been 11 agreements
that have been done between the u.s. and cuba, dealing with everything from narcotics enforcement to migration to the environment, and even before the new initiative, historically relations between cuba and the u.s., when they have improved, they've had to deal with the same issues where they've had to deal with the exchange of hijackers and spies and political prisoners. into very positive developments between the u.s. and cuba is that cuba has been in the forefront of dealing with hemispheric security in that
cuba has sponsored the talks in columbia. in addition, cuba has been very helpful with respect to haiti and the earthquakes and so forth cuba has used their doctors to give a lot of assistance. with respect too, well i think because of the shortage of time, let me turn now to the need for better hemispheric framework in terms of enforcement. :
basically the attorney generals meet every other year >> and they make recommendations for new agreements and policies, and they have done a lot of good work, but the problem is it's not an organic organization. it depends on the permanent council for its marching orders, for the council to draft, for its budget, and so it really can do much. some of the other entities having to do with enforcement in the oas are more organic, like the interamerican drug abuse control commission or the organization for counterterrorism.
what is needed is an america's committee on crime problems. this would be a committee that would have its own institution and would be composed of lawyers, diplomats, criminalollists and would consider all the threats and some of the solutions whether they be uniform laws, treaties, different organizations, and this isn't something out of mars. there's been something like this since 1958. the council of europe has a european committee on crime problems and that's what it does. it meetes every day and it focuses on the different threats.
i mean, it has produced over 100 conventions on enforce; many of which the u.s. has become a part of. so, to be successful, the enforcement agencies have to be -- have to network as well as the criminals. and so in order to have successful enforcement regimes, and networks, we need to do more in terms of hemispheric cooperation. thank you. [applause] >> some of the issues you raise. we'll move on. >> thank you. thank you for inviting me and the institute to speak this seminar. in 1994 interview to fidel
castro, a report from o'vanityity fair "expressed he's there nothing would happen. the country, the party, and the government, would quickly adapt to the situation, saying that all of political illegal institutional mechanisms exist to confront an -- there ises no indies spencable man in the world, particularly this condition flu. so-called castro revolution in 1959 has been a threat to the cuban democratic system of cuba and a permanent failure in projection of in --
which re -- -- accelerated cue day tau of president eye yep day, but contributed to an operation condor which created resupression in the hands of the militaries of chile, and uruguay. he-spawn was a -- spain was a country that always maintained good relationship with cuba. his support of more political and practical of the chinese passing peru also was beneficial and his presence in africa, having lost a significant amount
of men and resources which -- high pranking commanders, including generals. castro managed to subcyst, thinks to the initial support of the soviet union and subsequently by a skilled diplomaasy, and maintained relations with brazil and ecuador for support in international annexations in separation. now everything has changed but generally where characterized by the rise of the left in latin america. the extreme left led by hugo chavez has been authoritarian.
for thermo, alliances we fidel and hezbollah. due to this -- the death of fidel castro will that create anything significant turnover's political classes in the hemisphere. fidel was incinerated six days ago and nobody talks about him anymore. the rest of bolivia and the states -- manifesting their content for human rights inch relation to bolivia i would like to take this opportunity to denounce their repeated, per sis sent and wilful violation of human rights by the national state of bow liva. morales has power and control of
the the branches of government, to carry out assays nations against judges and questioning against to the defended the defendants of the judiciary. sadly, the demands against this abuse is that submitted before the commission of human rights or the organization of american states are rarely studied, and many times not even processed through its bureaucracy. in regards to the citizen security, we find ourself at this point in time with central american and south american countries who he was whose level of security extremely low and with population increased. i am recovering to honduras, el salvador and venezuela. we can also not secure a large part of mexican territory.
brazil has not improved his security, and many in argue also argue argentina such from a lack of security. despite peace agreements between to the colombia government and farc, but -- without knowing for certain whether the crimes are by formal continence. certain criminal associations the case in mexico is known by and large. organized crime funded by
narcotics has hit mexican society. by the actions taken by the different governments, emerging their political and administrative goal. the international commune must support the -- for -- furthermore, it is imperative to prioritize using consumption in countries turkly the united states and soviet union. immediately consequences such as economic instability, labor instability, and taking account when the country's judicial security mechanisms. this can be found through a system of law that takes not only the security of investments, but royalties and assistance, but also by at least a minimal of existing security for the citizens that are -- daily living living living livi.
let us consider public country. the atmosphere is changing with respect to brazil, argentina, peru, have governments of the center right and colombia. china. china who became a member of the interamerican international aborigine back and investment corporation with the full support of the united states and the european union has increased its economic anding extraic presence in the region. peru. peru needing superb attention because often its investments is and infrastructure and testifies. 13 railroad projects will -- considered to go the lima chamber of commerce. also, experts hit their second eyest number in october.
however, this favorable economic situation is not -- [inaudible] -- the economic in equalities subsist. they are the recent that the peruvian government decided to purchase -- to enhance resources and confront the establishment. we speaks that the prime contractor with economics still. the -- contribute the machine to bill a multidimensional -- by 2013. chile and colombia expressed interest in the rites. mexico. the winds of protectism and ice legislation isism are growing but i don't thing -- to be with the integrate or its economies s
and commercial versions by russian companies. it is going to be challenging to ignore the close relationship between mexico and the u.s. after the north american elects we can diu dictate a political and -- dip diplomatic -- affects security and stability of the united states as well as spain-given its investment in the region. latin american groups make up 40% of the united states experts. with the u.s. being 65% of the imports and if the territory of -- 17% of the u.s. population. we have been able to assert there are many opportunities in colombia, mexico and brazil but never be contractual fluidity
without the assure of legal security. european union has just signed a dialogue for cooperation agreement with the republic of cuba which subests the common position of the -- 1996. this entail thursday removal of the blockade and the beginning of serious negotiatings to create a stable framework of relationships through dialogue, and commerce with the basis mutual respect and repoke of the state sovereignty. the relationships will be oriented to sustain the process of modernization of the economy and cuban society, stressing human rights and democracy; their exists -- chess for respect of human rights. united states.
it is to be expected that the reproachment between cuba and at the united states allows them to be instruments of accommodation of serious -- that we -- for pacific transition in the island and seen cube cuban society by part of the solutions. it's possible that new forms of populism may appear but we must be sure the only thing that well allow is -- is the villages in accordance with the rule of law. the reporter nat i said -- at the beginning of my speech concluded her interview with castro, asking him if he had -- in the street of cuba. he said he hadn't.
and she tell it too him. she say, what are the times of the revolution? education, sports and health. what irfaults? >> breakfast, lunch and dinner. castro laughed and said, you see what happens when you have too many break fasts, lunches and dinners, it's bad forrure health. [applause] >> thank you all very much, fernando. for the very comprehensive, i think, lecture of this situation in latin america. the last three speakers, as all of us know are lawyers. of course i ask to call now on our colleague of -- who is a lawyer and a professor of law
[inaudible] -- would you like to say something about your college or anything else? >> well, i'm in going to say anything about my colleague, but i'll say something about what the said. once again, yonah has begin us aen extraordinarily rich variety of speakers. i would say that with respect to latin america which i include central american and the caribbean and also a numerous variety of conditions and it's in many ways overwhelming. every country is different with different prospects, ondepending on personalities. the good leader in purr peru. you see the change in argentina and things change. one thing that was mentioned was the fact after the growing minority in the united states of latins from different countries. wouldn't confuse a cuban with a mexican and a guatemalan but i'm sure it's relevant to how the
united states proceed. i know the chattening relates to challenges welt tend to think of challenges at the national security level, terrorism, fidel's hope for export of revolution which let to the geoff vair -- being killed. the human security. i'm involved with the university for peace in costa rica, and actually we run a confronts in europe, as it happens, on human security i've learn a little bit about it. security mens national security types probably thinked but not out military types the become but is the conditions in the countries and the difficulties in latin america and elsewhere are the failures of countries to get a grip on themselves. another person i knew was
abraham -- the general counsel of the were bank who actually persuaded the board, the executive board, that governance was relevant to economic development. it's crucial wimp think of legal intuitions then rule of law, et cetera and clearly this is a problem of varying degree in latin countries which makes i difficult for an american, who are ignorant of latinmer, although we know a little bit about cuba, and mexico, but not to much else. brazil because it's then but doesn't speak spanish. i think this is a real problem. bruce mentioned international organizations. he mentioned the european -- proposed an american committee on criminal problems but you put your finger in a way on what is the problem. latin america is not europe. there's no organization comparable to eu, although it is in trouble. its institutions are in trouble.
think this is a real challenge and there's always been a problem. as a professor i have supervised papers. or knew knew the number of reg nat agreements that they have -- it's dizzying. and most of them come to nothing. even the stronger ones, they don't come to very minute at all. the nationalism is abiding. they're all span issue speakers except for brazil, which tom dewey introduces the i'm bars of brats sill he said now i want to introduce the ambassador of our bate spanish speaking neighbor to the south. again he lost the election. finally, a word about the incoming administration. undoubtedly, donald trump is putting the cat among the billion johns, and it bell -- pigeons and it well-being to see what cat he selects and how the cat looks at the latin american
pigeons women have to wait and city what happened. thank you. >> thank you very much. >> if i. >> in they always speak about latin america, russia, painting war, democracy versus the rick dictatorship, example for examples, that's will continue not only with the question of venezuela and bolivia but the other issue that was mentioned in terms of trafficking or -- on human trafficking in terms of women, and this is obviously the
very bad news. the question is, the way of good news in terms of women or -- of the countries like brazil and -- it's changing now but before in also argentina and so on. can we address this particular issue when we talk about security? security for whom? >> i'm not sure that the women who have become leaders, perhaps with the exception of michelle -- of chile are exemplary. it is the case, however, that in their very slowly, gradually, more women are running for
political office in the legislative branch and soing for. and i think that is very, very positive. there certainly in most of the universities systems. there are large number of women who are preparing, but there's still a barrier, as there is in this country, and there will be slow progress but i think the women's organizations are very -- gradually exerting themselves, particularly in the more developed countries in the southern cone countries, and soing for. not perhaps in a central
america, bolivia, et cetera, where i think the increasing rights for women is probably a sign of higher degrees of development and -- for the latin americans are following that pattern. >> i'm not going to focus on the leadership because the three leaders you mentioned are all very unpop done unpopular in their own countrieses. i went focus on the younger generation itch want to focus on the women who are trained in the stem subjects and who are showing their leadership in forming their own companies, in joining multinational companies and are showing their skillset which will enable them to stand shoulder to shoulder with their male colleagues. that's the future.
>> any comment on that? >> no. >> no. okay. i don't see a -- i think statistics are one opinion, but the reality is the other. we can see statistics that the leaders in latin american country, women, has become president but how many leaders we have in europe also or this country. statistics talking about men and women is not the right thing. the right thing is to see if they have the equal opportunities to go ahead to become leaderships, to lead in cities to lead the companies, but not because of that, because they are women or women, because they have the opportunities to aachieve these goals. this is my position. all my -- in my family,
everybody has work, men and women and -- we have -- but things are coming, and we will see a different world in ten years. >> all right. the way i'm going to time for discussion. fred murphy, wait for the mic, please. >> my name is justin measure i -- i'm 78 years old. born before the beginning of world war ii. after world war ii, with lots of us money, europe rebuilt itself and japan did, too. chinese has practicedly industrialized and is probably a little bit freer than it used to be also. india is finally making moves lick that. i've even heard there are part of africa where middle class are developing. but in latin america seems like the same old mess.
i've heard that mexico's developing a slightly bigger meddle class than it had in the past, and also remember reading many years ago that argentina was one of the top three or four best off countries in the world until pern came along and that was 1930, and since then it juan -- it was downhill first and stablized. i can't say it's national character because spain and portugal are both doing reasonably well economically and in terms of both of them -- democracies in europe. what its about latin america that makes it different? >> well, i must respond -- just to defend -- colonialize saying. if you see african countries and you see latin america's cup --
countries there is a different. fortunately. fortunately. but the formal of the colony, like corruption, not empowering -- inequality, is still we have. still we fine that. but i don't see the population is responsible for that. they have improved a lot. i visit latin american countries from -- frequently from 1986, they will at the you change is astonishing. i'm not going to give figures now because i don't have the figures but there is a middle class, there is a government. consecutive course sometimes it's anarchies, but you see this is the situation. that's the situation and
everybody is trying to help. international organizations are dedicating a lot of money for that. but there is countries like, i think, firmer french criminal that it is one thief worst, the worst not colonialized by spain ore portugal. >> i think that some of the countries are doing quite well. chile, a good middle class. a lot offsetable. even brazil until the problems recently, was doing very well and i think brazil is a very good case right now because of the operation. there have been so many prosecutions in brazil and it continues. so, i think things are changing
in terms of accountability in the government. they still have a was to -- a ways to go but uruguay has done well. sigh don't think it's all -- >> say that the brazilian prosecution of the petro grass is due in -- owes many thinks to harvard law school where some after the prosecutors trained and took back some after the practices of plea bargaining and other practices that didn't exist in brazil at the time. i also -- i often have commented to students and others that we, north americans, don't appreciate how lucky we were in our founding, and that is that with the traditions of
democratic and participatory government that came, particularly from great britain, but then the influence between by the french revolution and others, those tend den sis -- tendencies, those traditions, that history wasn't a part of the founding of latin american states, and so for a very lock -- they're waited longer time before grass being the -- grasping the importance of institutions, education and so forth, or building a democratic participatory government, and i go back to my question that it still often ask, what do you learn in school in n brazil,
argentina, chile, colombia, how government should perform and soing for? and we don't -- i've never seen anyone focus on the answer at that time to the answer to that question and we need to understand that more. >> can say something? you mentioned the law. i think lots of fingers can point to a lot of things. we are snobsment we're lucky. my wife is an english woman and i think we tend to dismiss latedin america too quickly because we were established by angelo sackans ask the forking south americans were establish by latin, forget haiti, which had a revolution 200 years ago. one thing about america, countries base owned magna carta have an advantage and there's some truth to that. the relevant one is touched been by diana and fernando, it's
changing. not because they all went to harvard but a the truth is it's changing. sigh this as a lawyer. latins have a system like the french where the judges control the proceedings, which americans and britts too not like, particularly americans. but you to latin america, chile, mexico, hair pick 'up the adversary approach but it's happening, diana touched been -- i meet lots ofletins, women and men, and they're changing profoundly. has had a tremendous influence on the world. america has all been the world, since 1776 or 1787 and people take it seriously, latins call
us grinning goes but they come to school here. one thing that comes -- is the abiding -- two things. the enthusiasm of americans and our ignorance, and i think we really have get to out of that and see what is actually happening in these places and hopefully it's happening more and more good approved but we have to focus on that. >> okay. one mow. >> stu. i'm ron with george washington university and i'm enthusiastically ignorant about traveling the world and launching everything i don't know. certainly you al are tremendously educational an expert in legal matters and governance matters so i'm going to ask you a different question. you know that so well. one thing latin -- this mace --
this latin, regard too safety and security and well-being and particularly emergency the population, see is its different in the world today is they see -- from latin america and that leads me to ask the, what this role of faith based organization, and the role of faith in hoping for a better latin america or actually not hope budget enabling -- hoping but enabling a better lastin america? that's a big change. >> professor alex, i'd like to take that. ron taylor, you raise a very interesting question. one that is rarely discussed. the traditional ideology, religion, of latin america is catholicism. and it was dominated by a church with a very clear hierarchy, but that has faded. it's faded because the abuse of
power -- i'm a practicing roman catholic into i'm talking about my own faith but the abuse of power by the leadership of the catholic church in terms of it land ownership and abuse of human beings, has led for a search for alternatives, and the protestant religions are now making steady headway, particularly in central america, because instead of saying, if you sin you are doomed to hell, they say, you will be redeemed. god is a loving god, a forgiving god, and i am bringing health care, hospitals, education, orphanages and -- to help you. so -- [inaudible] -- >> thank you for what your various moms are bringing there. so there's a shift away which i
accompanied by what we talked about, the growing middle class. a middle class which is not only economically more independent but psychologically more willing to stan up and say, the old religious ways are no longer necessary for my family's engerman, and i'm therefore prepared to be more independent thinker, and that is having an impact also on the political thought. thank you. >> in one footnote there, where the church is having an influence now, ironically, is cuba, because the church was instrumental in enter mediating the thaw between the u.s. and cuba. the regime now has allowed the church to do a number of things. for instance, there's something called cuba intrende which is an
organization that tries to help people learn how to be proprietors, because they haven't had nat the -- had that in cuba, and because the church has been relatively diplomatic, the regime allows these programs to go on, so they're doing all kinds of training 0, an very basic level, but they're also doing some programs -- some outreach for the indigenous, and you would think the regime wouldn't like this because they don't want people to say that the state can't do that, but again, there is a lot of people that are in need in cuba, and so they're allowing the church quietly to do some of those programs. so, i think that is a very interesting development that is ongoing.
>> we're going to continue just a footnote about the questions that -- initially asked about latin america. let's look at some of the contributions of latin america to the security are in the world, being of the global interests and justice, and now at the time of christmas and christmas spirit, i'll -- of peace around the world, the pope francis provides the leadership that is so needed when we see all the atrocities around the world and inhuman, man to man, so the spiritual contribution of latin america, which is very, very extraordinary, should be
appreciated and recognized. now we'll take in more questions. you and next and then we'll have concluding remarksy, hi. i want -- a lot of us or ignore cant about what i happening in latin america, and part of the reason is that the media doesn't cover it as much has they cover other regions of the world. conflict or no conflict. we just don't ash -- it's not always in the headline news. do you believe that -- what's your opinion that at this point with the advances in technology, particularly internet, facebook, whatever you want to call it, that much of what you're saying is going to be more exposed and do you see any influence on it going in any particular direction? >> okay.
well, some of our friend ly -- other obligationsment very grateful to you for coming. thank you. so, anyone want to -- i'm sorry about this. again, you want to restate your question one more time. >> i just wanted to know whether the advanced -- technological advanced, internet and so on, openedded up in the world nor and it would affect any of the situation in latin america? positive or negative? >> i thing latin america is very much part of the internet revolution for good and for bad. but it does have access to media here.
they know what is going on in the united states, unlike northern our country -- unlike the coverage in our country. i'd have to subscribe to four newspapers to get some information and the best one on latin america is the financial times. so, isn't a u.s.-based newspaper. i think the well-educated class is very much aware of what is going on and i would say the one thing that is not addressed in the degree that i believe it ought to be are studies about united states studies as we do latin american studies in our universities.
its hard to find a program in latin american universitied that known cussed on the history, the politics can the functioning of institutions in the united states. this is something that is sorely lacking, but headlines, they know, and i think they're very, very slowly programs and classes that are working on addressing this lack of understanding and following of u.s. history and functioning. jurassic okay. thank you very much. we have time for one more question. this young lady there, hi, thank you. my name is kaitlin davis from the brookings institution. was curious -- this is a loaded question but i wanted to hear your thoughts on whether or not president-elect trump will roll
back any of owarming towards cube cuba and if he does, they results of those policies would be. >> i'm not sure that he knows yet. >> we don't know. >> i sigh you -- >> we don't know. >> he has made a couple of comments that have said that unless cube would -- cuba gives us a better deal he is going change things. than that, nothing had been said, so -- we don't even have yet secretary of state or assistant secretary after state for enter american affair interamerican a fairs. >> what is your opinion?
>> well, i would say that the u.s. just in -- as i mentioned, in terms of latin american policy, has had a much better reception from a number of governments because no longer does the u.s. have to confront the fact that it's isolating cuba. in addition a lot of the organizations that have grown up to -- as an alternative to oas, like alba, have been as a result of the policy of cuba and the relationship between cuba, nicaragua, venezuela, bolivia, and with normalization, that will to longer be as much of a threat. in addition, i think probably the biggest thing is mr. trump
is a businessman and increase increasingly in this country whether it's the agriculture group in the midwest or the tourist industry, americans want to do business with cuba, and so i -- and also there's no longer the big political majority in florida that is anti-cuba. it's split, and as the -- >> ow thunder people -- >> so they're no longer a political advantage, which used to also drive a lot of u.s. policy towards cuba. so i would say that normal ization has a lot of advantages and teen mr. trump done like a lot of the political economic human rights policies in cuba. they will probably improve with normalization because that will take the pressure off of either
the current or the -- there will be a new regime in 2018. >> once again, to wrap it up, we're already over time so well don i want to thank this panel. you've just been great, and we hope to get you back soon we want to talk about latin america some more. i'm the eternal optimist and i have been in all the latin american countries and spent considerable time in a number of them in a up number of different capacities. the latin american people are good people. some aren't, just like in this country, and we need to remember that, and i -- a number of the
latin american countries stuck with us in world war ii, like brazil and the like. i had the dubious distinction, just below the falk lands war, down in camp lejeune, my division trainedded the argentine marines and the royal marines from england so we had a big get going on who was going to win. show to point i want to make, a comment, reference here to the military side. don't underestimate the military side and the military relationships. these relationships are long-standing. they're in many, many, many young officers up from latin america who have trained in army schools and navy schools and the relationships are what you would expect. and it's not just all military. it's a personal, personal people to people kind of thing, and
even in the case of the marine corps, all the latin american countries have marine corps, and the like, and with the exception of cuba, and the relationships there, you just can explain it. they're just there forever. and so these kind -- and these kind of -- the thinking that goes into this is much more than just military and the like, and so we have a great opportunity to make things better. i think in terms ol' of policy and the like and with the new administration, he is picking people who understand what is going on. picking people who are very, very knowledgeable about latin america, for example, and the kind of challenges they face, and so on. and so we need to be optimistic here and go forward and we need
to understand that it's a little built of a different culture, and maybe the american people would be wise in learning about other cultures and other regions and other thought processes and the like. and the dream of women is a good example. that's gotten much, much, much better. 20 years ago, when i was still on active duty and a commandant. i never sent women na recents on security duty in latin america, or in the middle east. simply because the people there didn't treat our women the way they should be. and if you want to get in trouble with me, just treat our girls with other than dignity, and so that changing over time. and -- >> my comment on the -- when the argentine army began to take
women troops, women into the army, one of the generals commented that the thing to note is that the women are infinitely more qualified and prepared than the men, because -- this was not -- a new opportunity for leadership, for those women who had not had opportunities. they had the education and so forth but not the opportunity opportunities for leadership. >> we wouldn't be as prepared as we of today if we didn't have women making a contribution. but when you talk about women doing -- like infantry or something like that, that's where i draw the line but we'll talk about that another time. the point i want to make is that the young people, the illusions the young people are enhoping to change, that's going on in this country and all over the world, and so again i think we have some great opportunities. our policy has to be consistent. our policies towards latin
america have not a been very consistent in the 50 years i've been fooling around with the topic. thank you all very much and have a great holiday season, and certainly a super new year and come back. [applause] tonight on c-span2, we'll have become of the in primetime with a lochte nonfiction final yeas for the 2016 national book aired. at 8:30 p.m. eastern, poocks on the vietnam war, the divide between red and blue america, the 1971, attica prison upriding and a history of racism in america. book of there in primetime each night this week. >> sunday, january 1st, "in depth" well feature a live discussion of the presidency of
barack obama. week taking phone calls tweets e-mail and faint comments, our panel includes white house correspondent, my up close view of three presidents and raise in america. princeton university professor author of democracy in black. how race still enslaves the american soul, and a pulitzer prize winning writer, the author of "barack obama, the story." watch "in depth" on sunday on booktv on c-span2. >> in 18962, john glen became
the first american orbit bit the earth. in 1947 the first astronaut elect -- 1974 the first astronaut elected to congress, and in 1998 he became the oldest person in space when he flew on a shuttle mission. john glenn died this month and on saturday, his memorial service was held at ohio state university in columbus. among those speaking at the event, his sons, current ohio senator, sherrod brown, and vice president joe biden. [inaudible discussion] [inaudible]
of a life of service. we come from many faiths and perspectives, brought together by a desire to remember and honor the life of john glenn. in this service, we won't begin to capture the depths and breadth of the life he led, but we will try. we will try. and this afternoon we will also celebrate the unfailing promises of god. we remember that god's love for us is stronger than that. today we hold fast to that truth as we celebrate senator glenn's life. now, please join me in our call to worship.
we pray this in your name, all gracious god, amen. the following is a passage that is read on yom kippur, the wholest day of the jewish year, and lends perspective to the inevitable soil cycle of life. if some messenger were to come to us with the offer that death should be overthrown but with the one inseparable condition that birth should also cease. if we who live here today were begin the chance to live forever but on the clear understanding that never again would there we a child or youth or first love, never again new persons with new home hopes, new cded, you achievements, ourselves always and forever, could the answer be in doubt? as john glenn lived, let us treasure the time we have and
resolve to use it well. but e let us live deliberate lay and make eve mope coup, a chance to experience some beauty, to conquer some evil to relieve some suffering to love and be loved, to achieve something of lasting value. help us to fulfill the promise in each of us so that when we are gone, another generation will say our world is better because, for a brief time we left. it has been said that people come into our lives for a reason. ...
word of the 23rd psalm as printed in your program. the lord is my shepherd i shall not want he may give me to lie down in green pastures he leads me beside the still waters and restores my soul. he leads me to a path of righteousness for his namesake. i walked to the valley of the shadow of staff -- at a level that they shall fear no evil. fly rod and my staff may come for me. prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. in the ninth my head with oil my cup runneth over. share the goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days
of my life. and i will throw in-house of the lord -- dwell in the house of the lord. >> is a privilege to say of few words of our esteemed friend and colleague. those today who of known senator glenn as long as 90 years we knew him long before we met him through news reports and flickering images of what we could ever witnessed the countdown and the majesty of the liftoff. the technical brilliance
fraud in the achievement and proud of our hero and more than that we cared about him personally and paid three impersonally. for his family and happiness and faith. condition captured our mind but john glenn captured our hearts to. the first was quality of john glenn of may and a decorated veteran a fearless test pilot but also a dedicated husband and father. much like all of us come a superhuman work ethic but in so many ways like our fathers, a brother, has been , or neighbor from ohio. a consummate team nate putting faith in those who supported him and then to risk all in that tiny
capsule. to show was that we could succeed. millions of us gave the confidence to know we could reach our dreams over the past half century with exemplary and expect - - inspiring from the beginning radiating authenticity and perfect humility as a truly outstanding people do their actions speak for themselves. he was competitive police in the context of doing his best to allow himself to be able model. and to our everlasting fortune he returned home, to his home in ohio after the office in ohio state university which to loved deeply answer to energetically with
distinction as the faculty member and elder statesman through the last years of his life. we are equally grateful. in that context we met john glenn during the recruitment process for this position. we were appropriately very flattered he would take time to come out on a sunday afternoon. but the main memory from that meeting we learn to believe there's much more attuned him and we have appreciated and that was annie. the two of them together radiated warmth and optimism . we should cancer and she smiled. increase focus if we had known each other for years to die was a grandson returning home. after moving to columbus had
the pleasure to visit with them once several occasions public and private. the first was the john glenn college of public affairs with the honor that he was thrilled that the very background interest of the students did with the dignitaries os/2 inspired by example with the unwavering theme. the dedication the trees were bursting with new life. in fact, look just like what you have see behind me. in just underside of college road in those one snaking
slowly through the cloud reminiscent of something it took a few minutes to grasp but it was reminiscent on its own but it looks like a ticker-tape parade for its native son as if it was 62 all over again. kate job well done. the second moment occurred one year ago this time at a social dinner for the four of us said a local restaurant like the old school double date. we were talking broadly about university life and the conversation turned to to the '60s and the fateful event of june 68. we shared a story that you although well after kennedy was wounded they asked the
glen family to take the children home and watch over them while the offense unfolded. they did. on the morning of the second day she got the call and they drew the children together to share the unthinkable to us. they called into the room to sit on the edge of the bed while be the biggest moment his voice broke into cannot continue even have a century later. reaching out and taking his hand and i wondered & if i had crossed that privilege of the new year's day but before i could ask he squeezed my hand but then said telling those kids their father was gone was the toughest thing he had ever done. it took a few minutes to regain composure. in that moment when he was
so powerful yet vulnerable i found out what it means to be steadfast reliable reliable, compassionate, but living and loving and why they matter so much did in that moment for the bravery to defend the nation under arms or to be a servant leader in our university he exemplified by the transcendent beauty. as he would basket in the glow of greatness inspired because we could be steadfast and true and compassionate to live an outstanding life in the way that exemplifies of billion empower to honor him to do a
♪ ♪ >> when i came back from korea of was accepted for test pilot training to work out the bugs on the airplanes. >> john glenn begins the attempt at the transcontinental flight the elapsed time three hours 23 minutes and 8.4 seconds. >> we broke the record by quite a bit. ♪ >> to any the true source of john's remarkable strength with their many years together as they shared their father with a grateful
nation i am honored to be here today to celebrate the life of a man i am proud to call a hero and friend. holy a handful of people in history have been called upon to embodied the ideals of an entire nation. three or have stood to the task and and and have answered the call were perfectly. early in my career as a green he defined the age of american history bellwether he was orbiting the earth or the senate floor he was always a brain. on his way to attend annies recital he heard pearl harbor was attacked anybody who knows annie understands the sacrifice to put the
very john holt and before the fight to understand he did not see a choice. he saw his duty to serve. he tried to join the army air corps but they could not take him fast enough so he entered three cadet program. out there he met his lifelong friend todd miller he chose the marine corps for the same reason many of us to because we have the best looking uniforms. [laughter] after he earned his wings, he and his buddy were assigned to a transport squad. not in their plans. one of the first examples of what he called selective opportunity this is ricans see in opportunity to position yourself to be competitive for the position of this occasion it backfired.
he and his cowherd the record would get the fighter in the army air corps with no flight training they reasoned they were multi engine pilots to give them a leg up to be competitive. the marine corps did not get the be 38 they got the squadron and not the fighters that they maneuvered so skillfully. but just across the field for two fighters squadrons so they walked over to ask for a transfer. that sounds simple now but the johns version involves a shootout from his colonel of something like a movie. this is not the last time he paid the price to position themselves for an assignment , london other location he talked to
charles lamb lindbergh to land as he was touring around the country this audacity lead to a pointed conversation with the squadron commander even then the country had to keep up with john glenn. we admired his determination but he was not in it for himself and. service to the nation was personal for him. he lost his wing man on his very first combat mission and understood the risk firsthand the heavy task together a friend's personal effects than writing a letter to the next of kin. he would fly 149 combat missions and never shirked from danger and true enemy fire like a magnet giving more rise to his nicknames which i cannot repeat of laugh he shot down three and
done to locations when did with more than to under 50 bullets in his aircraft per copy was bulletproof. his exemplary service gave him this lot as a test pilot his most memorable mission was to fly supersonic across the country were speed. the test ductor ability was one negative jury gabelli it is important to note bill that was five minutes he across the country three hours to prove the engine was a lot better than we thought. he called the project silver bullet because he would be flying faster than the caliber pistol and during the flight conditions were perfect over part of the country for the sonic boom
from he was rattling windows will whole way not the last the america would hear from this marine. lead by example. and he said a fine example for us all. is a wing man in korea the great baseball player 10 volumes once called him one of the calmest man i have ever met not matter the situation. he may have been referring to when he was hit and is played was ablaze john pulled aside and pointed up to climb to a higher altitude bid with lack of oxygen the flames were extinguished. this best and illustrates what he did to us he invited us up to his level where we discovered what america can
do. he once said was a marine 23 years and it wasn't enough's. we had him 95 great years and is still wasn't enough. to a lawful wife is a gift and john made is a gift to was all. today we say thank-you for this service and sacrifice and faithful and friendship for always leading us hire. even though the marines him was written over to lenders ago they had given mind first for flight into keep in our auger clean to claim the title of the united states marine.
♪ ♪ to. >> i would go up everyday. >> this week our nation has bed morning its loss of our greatest heroes john glenn. his passing has affected me deeply and in the spirit of optimism he has always treated, i would like us to remember his many achievements and the pioneering spirit. i also want to thank annie annie, land and david and the entire clan family for sharing your husband, father and grandfather. every one of us has benefited to have them on our team.
annie, u.n. john exemplify from all of us what did means to be united as a couple. beloved and french bofors 73 years is unlike anything i have ever seen. i am glad and incredibly blessed the was able to witness your devotion i hope jackie and i can emulate your lifetime of love. i was so he emerged when i called earlier this year to congratulate them on there 73rd anniversary. when he put any on the phone she said charlie, you know, i think this will work. [laughter] '' john glenn always said yes to the united states marine corps and gas to be the first american to orbit earth and yes to serve in
the senate and the call of his nation to forge a at path to a new millennium. courage and grace and humility he displayed throughout his life that lifted him about the stars. as the current head of nasa i can say that we are standing on his shoulders as we pursue a journey to mars that would not be possible without his bravery in selfless dedication. i know that to the other astronauts have the of privilege to follow him in space with his remarkable accomplishments as the first american he is the seed of our aspirations even in his seventies he continued to break barriers with the
space shuttle. i was so proud to see him on the discovery mission he planted seeds sunday americans from all walks of life was made have the wonder of our planet. kennedy space center another marine recalls just how excited john was to be one of the guys and how happy and plessey felt to continue their role in the space program that he values so much. steven who is with us today flu had with him as a pilot of the discovery and said what i learned about john through that experience is that he was authentic.
every bit the a hero that our nation holds him to me he was a man of integrity integrity, humility and kindness and put others in edit himself and someone you could always count on. john glenn always represented the best of our ideals his personal popularity bias eagerness because he was sent genuine. people felt that he could set for a chat and be right at home or he would be agreed neighbor. john glenn was deeply compassionate and valued every button -- everyone better racer gender in negative this time in many ways and then was he who personally requested that the black woman fromes
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