tv Astrophysicist Hakeem Oluseyi Discusses Science and Innovation CSPAN December 29, 2016 9:32am-10:33am EST
>> i'll begin. i'll introduce myself. i'm christopher halsey, and analytical chemical professor at westminster college and it is, in fact, my great pleasure to introduce our next speaker, hakeem oluseyi. growing up in a tougher parts of nenew orleans, houston, l.a. and rural mississippi, he and his mother moved around often in the southern united states. from reading specifically the world book encyclopedia, if innocently with that, i know we know ever younger audience. that's wikipedia without the internet. that's where he was introduced to albert einstein and the three of relativity. after a short time in the navy he began his higher education at two blue college earning his bachelor science and physics and mathematics, and he tells me a minor in chemistry by the way. a masters degree and a ph.d in physics would follow from stanford. summing it up like that make it sound easy but in interviews he
points out the hardships and the rewards for his perseverance. fueled by the drive to silence the doubters. through that perseverance his resume includes eight u.s. patents, professorship in the physics and space sciences at florida institute of technology, being named the chief chief science officer for discovery communications. you might've seen him from a show called outrageous -- and most recently a position at nasa in washington, d.c. his research focuses on the development of instrumentation for space-based astronomical observation. he is most distant any area in expanding and improving science education here and abroad. he is an astrophysicist, a tv host, a voice actor, and mercenary whose problem solving across all disciplines not just astrophysics. and simply an inspiration. his welcome to the podium doctor hakeem oluseyi. [applause] >> thank you for the wonderful introduction.
it's not, it doesn't happen very often someone properly pronounces my last name, so that's quite an achievement. i would like to thank you all for having here at westminster college. it's a great honor. i recognize whose footsteps on following insult like to thank your president for having me and his wonderful family for hosting me. i would also like to thank professor russell and professor halsey for hosting me. if you look at your program you might find that what i'm going to talk about is a bit different from what's in the program. it depends on which program you have. so there is this nice pretty one, audacious ingenuity, that talks about, that describes my abstract and when i'm going to discuss. i wanted to talk about innovation because that's the theme this week. i've been able to innovate in the sciences and education. and so whenever i'm talking to
students, i want to make it about you, not so much about me. the lessons i've learned and how you can apply them in your own lives. now, when we think about innovation there is no shortness innovation in our country. we are a country that maintains a lead in science as well as in economics because of the riches of innovation that occurs in america, but there's a a particular type of innovation i want to talk about that happens in science and that's when you have these big paradigm shifts, when things just change. this hit me personally because apparently, people like me become a well-known scientist is a paradigm shift for some people. there were these articles that were written about me several years ago, and the first article was titled lies of a gangster nerd. the second article was titled they gangster physicist. and i saw these titles and the first thing i think is, it's not like i'm walking around the lab intimidating people and robbing them.
[laughter] anymore. [laughter] so why are they focused on the past what we don't look at our presidential candidates and called donald trump the wet your diaper presidential candidate. we focus on who he is today. i really didn't understand how this would impact my career either. having a title they gangster physicist. but one thing happen, i don't distance at at lunch and someone mentioned to me that they had saw this ted talk id on infinity. did any of you see that? did you know that talk took place in a prison? it turns out, i was invited to go to this prison and i cap, i was informed over and over again by the host of the event that hakeem, you're the only person that the prisoners specifically requested. which was kind of scary. [laughter] i didn't understand why do they want me?
i found out after he gave my talk. i was walking the prison, and on-site prisoners would recognize me and they say hey, they gangster physicist, right? so for a day in prison i was a shock collar. i was a man a prison. could order people around. what i realized happen is they were using articles to inspire the prisoners. they say look at this guy, look at his past, look at his life. you can do this, too. the statistics of recidivism in california state prison is really bad. for those people who are released from prison, a very high percentage return to prison afterwards. somewhere around 90%. but for those prisoners who received a minimum of associates degree, the recidivism rate fell to 6%. from 96. they were using this article and anti-recidivism coalition to coalition to help these prisoners with their lives so that's another paradigm shift.
when i think about paradigm shifts in physics, there's something going on right now in the world of physics that is so amazing. i just have to share with you. you students are the next generation of thinkers and we look at the way we solve problems in physics. sometimes it takes many generations. there is a saying that goes, the grandparents lay the cornerstone and the grandchildren erect the steeple. so here's the foundation that has just been laid. there were a couple of papers published about 100 ago and they both involve albert einstein. we've come up with this equation, not me but researchers have come up with this equation that go er equals epr. so er is the paper but einstein and rosen that predicted the existence of a wormhole. do you know what that is? a wormhole, when you have a black hole and under certain
conditions the black hole can be a portal to another location in time and space. so you can instantly travel from a location, one location in space to another location that's hundreds or thousands or millions of light-years away. sounds like science fiction and its incorporated in science fiction, but the laws of physics say this can actually happen. the problem though is that these wormholes are very unstable. so the likelihood of it was really small we thought. if you're a scientist, one way we innovate is through hate. did you catch that? through hate. here's what i mean. here's an example from history where in the 19th century there was a question of, how does the process of diffraction work? we know how reflection worked. we know how reflection worked but what is diffraction what's the most prominent example is when you see water on, oil on the surface of water you see this rainbow pattern.
what is the light doing to make that happen? the french academy of sciences held a contest to solve that problem. a gentleman submitted an essay and that as a relied on the fact that light travels as a wave. physicists did not think the light travels as weights. they thought isaac knew that thought the light is a series of articles. so he submits his essay and on this panel, the judge is a mathematician. he said this looks elegant but i know it's wrong. so what am i going to do? i'm going to take these equations and a going to see if they predict anything that i know cannot be true. he found something. he found that if you were to take a object, a circular object and take it into a dark room and cast a light on it, that in the center of the shadow of the object they would be a spot of light. that is obviously ridiculous. as shadow is the darkest and it's in it but also on the panel
was an experiment a list, and he said i never thought to do that experiment. let me take a round object into a dark room, cast a shadow and see if the spot of light is there. what do you think he saw? the spot of light was there. so that phenomenon became known as -- because he discovered it in the equation, although he was attempting to hate on the theory. so albert einstein did the same thing. in early 20th century quantum mechanics had come about and that was very different from his general relativity. so we thought let me look at this quantum mechanical system of equations and see if it predicts anything that i know cannot be true. he found what it called a spooky action at a distance that we today call quantum entanglement. so a paper was written by
einstein, epr pic we have this equation er equals epr. let me explain this quantum entanglement to you. suppose i have a twin and when we are born we share an existent. we are entangled. and so due to our state of entanglement whenever one of us is sitting, the other must be standing. we sit and stand really fast. it happens on like 1 trillionth of a second. there are people who can measure whether or not i'm standing or sitting in one of my twin is standing or sitting and they can do their measurements down to 1 millionth of a second. let's say, for example, that throughout our lives by three people observing me and our three people observing him and they keep records to the 1 millionth of a second each of us is sitting and standing. and then i decide i'm going to lay planet earth. i'm going to go to mars and my observers come with me and to keep the records. then i decide i hear there's a new planet around some going to go there.
they continued to keep the records. then i decide i would like to go 2 million light-years away to the andromeda galaxy. they continue to keep these records. and then after maybe 50 years the observers get together and they compared the records. and what they see is down to the millionth of a second that this has held true. whenever one of us was sitting the other was standing. how could that be? because in order for me to know when my twin is sitting or standing or my twin to know when i'm sitting or standing, a signal must traverse between us. so how could it happen instantaneously when we are separated by great distances? because that's what space is. space is what separates you from there. the reason you're seeing me right now is because light was traveling between us. i'm not saying you as you are now, but as you were a tiny fraction of a second ago. so how could they be
communicating? so in the '90s, quantum entanglement was actually measured for the first time. it's a real phenomenon in our universe. people have been, physicists have been trying to get their mind around how could this communication be taking place? but then not long ago it was recognized that quantum entanglement and wormholes are perhaps the same phenomenon. now, that is mind-boggling, because in order to create a wormhole, it takes an incredible amount of energy and asked to do that. these entangled particles are single elementary particles. could they possibly be connected by wormholes? that appears to be the case. that appears to be true. what does that tell us about the space in which we live? what does that tell us about space at all? this isn't something that was unforeseen. the science fiction writer had a problem they had to solve.
if you're in the starship enterprise on other side of the galaxy 1000 light years away or 40,000 light years away, how do you communicate back to earth instantly? and a communication that take 40,000 years? they invented this concept of subspace. are you familiar with that? where are my nerds in your? can the nerds section raise the hands? all right. there are my nerds over there. they created subspace communication. what does this have to do with innovation? the team that i'm looking at that i'm considering is looking at the old, but looking at it anew. so these papers existed for 100 years. we knew about these two phenomena, and only recently have they been connected. this is about to transform how humankind looks at space. however he going to take advantage of this in the future? what are going to be the new technologies will take advantage
of perhaps this subspace communication? another example that is really similar, went albert einstein came up with a special three of relativity, we learned that time is not something that is absolute. how time passes to you in comparison to me depends on our relative motion, and also the differences in gravity between us. for example, when you're in space versus being on the surface of the earth, time moves more quickly. when einstein look at it that way, einstein looke look at andd when things move fast, distances short of it when things move fast, time passes more slowly. but in the modern times we have a new interpretation of it. the new interpretation of it is this. at all times everything in the universe moves at the speed of light. so right now you were moving at the speed of light and i'm moving at the speed of light.
do you feel it? no, you don't feel it? here's why you don't feel it. because we are at rest relative to each other in space, we are together moving through space, moving through time at the speed of light. but if one of us was to take off going really fast through space, then because you must move at the speed of light at all times, you must move more slowly through time compared to the rest of us. the exact equation is that the speed of lightsquared is equal to your speed through space squared, plus your speed through time squared. here's some consequence of that. how can i take advantage of that? let's do an experiment. have you heard of the twin paradox? so any twin paradox is exactly as i said. i have a twin and one of us leave earth made a very high speed. time passes more slowly for the traveling twin. they travel for some time, come back to earth.
then maybe 10 years have passed on earth maybe 1000 years have passed. this is a real phenomenon that we measure all the time in a laboratory. act would take advantage of that? there's one measurement that we wish to make. you were the universe is expanding, correct? and so there many evidences that point to this. the thing with not been able to observe is the universe expanded in real time. can we see the expansion change? can i observe the red shift of a galaxy change, what we call the dot. so imagine the twin experiment done in a different way. suppose there's this light that fills all of the universe, because of universe is expanding, the universe expands, that migh light gets stretched y the exact same amount that the universe expands tha. it turns out that actually exist. we call that light the cosmic microwave background radiation.
so my twin and i measure the wavelet, some characteristic wavelength of this microwave background radiation. and then the twin goes and travels at a very high speed relative to me. and comes back. and we both measure the wavelength again. so we get what scientists will call delta lamba, a change in the wavelength. then we can also both measure the change in time between those two measurements. so for the twin who stayed home on earth, that time is big and so for the twin who was traveling in space, the time is small, right? so obviously we measured very different results for how fast that light was changing its wavelength. are you with me? yes. so what does this tell me? this tells me that if i want to do this observation that
physicists are trying to do right now every day of observing the changing of this light that fills the universe, or the management of a galaxy moving away, then i'll have to do is move at a very, very high-speed, and then i can observe that perhaps in the human lifetime. where as our current would take much, much longer. so these are deep, very abstract ideas of how we can use innovation. but in my work as a professor, i judge these student competitions, and with my role with discovery, i help to judge the discovery three m young scientist challenge. what i see happening is students just like yourselves are looking at the technology that it's been around you and saying how can i repurpose this technology to solve a problem that exist today? but it really depends critically on defining the correct problem. so let me give you an example. one problem that people have is
safety. so suppose you work late and had to go out into the parking lot, but to the parking lot and getting your car at night. if you talk to a police officer they will tell you that parking lots are very dangerous places. so how do you know you're going to be safe going to your car? now cars are equipped with cameras to help you back up. so this student said to me, what if i build an app that will allow you to use your phone to turn on the cameras around your car to determine if your safe going to your car at night? right? that's a wonderful innovation. let's take what always exist and that repurpose it for someone to solve the current problem of the day. now, another way we can innovate, when i look at my whole life of innovation, as a scientist, as a student you become an expert in a particular field. you are studying some phenomenon could you become really intimate with it.
so when you become a ph.d student, for example, your first job is to become current in your field. that means that you take everything on your topic that is ever existed and you read every paper you can come especially from all the top scientist. now that you know what everyone else has said about it, it's time for you to add, to contribute to this knowledge. it's time for you to give something new. that's when you received her ph.d when you make that new contribution. we had the same that goes like this. becoming an expert means knowing more and more about less and less until you know everything about nothing. right? it's kind of close to true, but here's something i found it. when i was a graduate student i was studying solar physics. i was studying processes that occur on the surface of the sun. using this pictures of the sun. i was on the team that took that technology and applied it to observing the sun for the first
time. here i am studying the sun and what's happening there, but when i go to get a job, i don't go to academia. i go to silicon valley. and i go in silicon valley and i'm working on solving this problem of efficiency in making computer chips. so here's what happened. when you make a computer chip, there's many steps. some steps deposit material on a silicon wafer. some steps removed material, some steps create patterns on a silicon wafer. every step, you need to know how well it works. because if either big, giant, you know, silicon disk of expensive computer chips, i better make make sure i got these processes right or i just lost a ton of money. so what they do is they put in these waivers that are called test waivers. so you do the process on that test wafer and then you take it out and you measured to see if the process happen as it was
supposed to. if it didn't, you throw away the wafers. at the end of all the processes come you test certain chips. every time you test a chip, you destroy that chip. it cannot be sold. so there's a lot of waste going on and there's no way to make sure in real time that, you know, you make the process happen properly. you can only tell after the fact whether or not it did. so i step into silicon valley and to work on a team that wans to address this problem. how can we get rid of a silicon wafers wax how can we make sure that every process works as it is supposed to in real-time? i look at the problem and i say, you know what? in astrophysics we have a way of measuring light that comes from objects and the able to do all these physical characteristics of what's going on inside that store. think about it. if you ever look at a store through a telescope, it looks exactly like it looks to the
naked eye. it's a dot of light. but if you ask an astrophysicist about that star, they will say it is good chemical composition, it's got temperature temperaturs moving in this way, the age, how did all that from a spot of light? let me give you the answer and get back to the innovation. if i would ask you guys what is matter made of, what would everyone safe? adamsadams, exactly. everyone knows that. if i would ask you what it is like come from, what would you say? speak up. or everyone gets an f. [laughter] the sun. i hear that all the time. there's no set into but i see a lot of light. where does light come from? let me give you the simplest answer. it comes from one place. matter makes it. right?
matter makes it every example you think of, matter is making the like. here's the amazing thing. when matter makes light, the signature of the identity of that matter is encoded in the light, and what that matter is doing when it made that light is encoded in light, and as that travel through space, the dynamics of space, whether space is expanding or contracting isn't coded in that light. so when i had this problem of trying to figure out what was going on inside of these chambers, i thought well look, many of these processes that deposit material and remove material, they use plasma, and plasmas emit light. all we have to do is monitored this light and we can figure out everything that's going on in real-time. we can make corrections in real-time and problem solved. do you know what happened? guess what my bosses said.
that wouldn't work. so what i did is i went on it and develop this technology anyway, and i ended up having, we had a performance review at the end of the year. my manager gave me a less than favorable review. because i didn't do as i was told. instead i went and develop this new technology. that new technology resulted in a completely new division of the company. it was very profitable for the company. i got several patents out of that particular technology and i had an argument with my manager in the parking lot about this. i said to him, look, you are comparing results with activities and results matter more than activities. it changed my great aunt he changed it to a very high rating. the second point in innovation is at this. you're going to come across naysayers. you're going to come across haters.
hate can be a crucible for creating and innovating, or it can stifle it in its tracks. we are all humans, all part of this human tapestry and we play different roles. sometimes you're the person in the lab that is doing the work. you intimate with the work and it is because of that intimacy you can make the connection between astrophysics and semiconductor manufacturing. i have a graduate student. he was working on this problem is how the sun creates the solar wind. how does the sun accelerate particles away from itself given the suns first on gravity? up to 800 kilometers per second, the highest solar wind, sometimes even 3000 kilometers per second. what if we could do that? that would give assent in space propulsion technology that is almost 100 times faster than anything we have received that schmick perceived up today. i told him, listen, always pay attention to what's going on in areas of science data related to what you are doing but not what you're doing.
so he paid attention to plasma experiments in the lab, which are very different from an astrophysicist plasma laboratory which happens on the sun or in stores. look, there's this one configuration that the sun uses street these high-speed plasmas, and now the plasma physicists who do the stuff in the lab have created the technology that will allow us to build what the sun does in a little tiny chamber. we can make it really small. we can make a really big. so now that it's become a new patented technique for in space propulsion. that is from seeing the relationships and having this intimacy. but here's the thing. one day he came to me and he said, hey, i have this idea. i noticed that the plasma physicists have done this. do you think that may be we could combine these two ideas and greet and in space propulsion technology?
at that point i was in a position of my manager in silicon valley, right? i could've said go for it, or you are out of your mind. now, being open-minded guy i am, i said go for it. what if i had not said that? what if i had told him not go? you don't know if the person you're talking to is going to be someone who is going to say, i'll show you, as i did, or if they will be someone who is going to say i guess i really am dumb like i thought i was. ..
did you know you're onto something but the people above you don't report it. what do you do then? my answer is you believe in yourself come you do it anyway. whether it there is you have to also believe in others and cnn. and that brings me back to another point. this is a warning. a joke is coming out that it's not really a joke is a true story. a couple weeks ago i was talking to my mother and she was telling me, she was like there's something weird happening now. whenever i talk to some of my old friends that knew you when you're young and and i tell them what you're doing now, not the tv stuff, but the scientists have come a day go him?
really? i say why do they think that? because you are always joking. you were joking all the time. you were never serious. people don't think a person who jokes around a lot can actually be serious. what that reminds me of her makes me think of is how we judge each other as human beings. and as i go around this country and around this world, one thing stands out to me and that is how we are to lay not taking it then edge of what we have is human and. our human capital. there's so many people that could be contributing to this enterprise that are just not. i've narrowed it down to a couple of things that i think are key. the first one is identity. select an example, when i was a young man, at that time i was a young black man. that was a joke.
i thought, you know, the world told me, here is who you are and what you are. so for me, i had to be intimidating. i had to be great of basketball. i had to be a ladies man. and i was all those things. you can't bat without a warning. but i didn't see myself as the master of mathematics, for example. and i wasn't. and now as i see people, even as a professor, i have a student who came to me. this guy was a big guy, scars across his face, just sort of like intimidating demeanor. he's like professor oluseyi, i want a word with you. i say something like i don't have any openings. but in my mind, i am thinking man, you look scary. he was about a c. student.
finally, he just pursued me, pursued me, pursued me. i allowed him to join my research group. that undergraduate turned out to be one of the greatest leaders i ever had in my research group. he taught me a lesson about judging people and what they're capable of. now it's in huntsville, alabama building rockets and as a graduate student companies recognize the leader as if he or he has a phd. so i've gone all across the continent of africa have gone into the phones. nac everywhere that there are people who are like me who thought to themselves, i'm a female. i'm from the slums. i'm color in south africa. because of that, they don't beat themselves in the role of the scientist or a person who can even do that science. that is one of the most amazing
things about going on television . i go around the country and everyday i get recognized by people in there so many people from backgrounds like my own will, to me as to me and say man cometh the new on television, when i hear you talk, i get it. i realize i can do it too. so many people told me because of you i'm going back to school now. and so that is a type in my mind of social innovation because you see all these people at one time a banana paradigm of who is supposed to do this and you can't do this. what i'm supposed to do and what i can't do. the students used to joke and these are the students. we have everything. florida tech is good when it comes to space, sea and sky. and so, when it comes to the ocean stuff, we wondered, why do so many young women go into his
daddy and often. what is it about that? what is it that makes us think that here is my place and here is another person's place. i was talking to my mother again on the silicon valley. when i was at silicon valley, he worked in these groups. one time i was the only non-korean member of my crew. there was one time i was only non-indian member of my group. so i was telling my mother this. she said something about yeah, you're working with smart people and it was the serial type of asian been scientist and mathematically smarter. do you have those stereotypes? do you think it's true? trust me, if i was asian, i would be yesterday would be yesterdays. and we are better at everything else. the truth of the matter is of
wordpress so many people i forgot the stereotype even existed because it's definitely not true. everybody has the same capabilities. the other element is hierarchy of humanity. that is something that our generation needs to get rid of. we all know the hierarchy. do you people think i'm a nice guy? i'm the nicest guy in the world. do you think i'm dangerous? on the basketball court, but otherwise, you know, i'm brilliant. i can't tell you how many times and in an elevator company elevator door opens and there's a single lady and her kids start getting on the elevator. forget the next one. these sort of things happen to me all the time. why is that? because i'm under suspicion because there's a hierarchy of humanity and we know who is who and who is who. but it's completely bogus.
it's completely incorrect. because of that, the chances of me not standing here today were so high it's ridiculous. you know why i'm standing here today? because i couldn't be a bellhop. does that surprise you? i want to be a bellhop. i was at tougaloo college and i thought i wasn't smart enough for college and i drop out of college. i was working as a janitor at the ramada renaissance hotel and i was making $4 an hour and barely making $100 a week. the bellhop got fired. now i bellhop can make $100 in midday and tapes. so i applied for the bellhop position. the managers looked at me and they said hakeem the janitor, you are not well hot material. and i thought to myself, i can't move up from janitor to bellhop? i better go back to college and
i did. i didn't really understand the power of that story until a few years ago one of my graduate student friends remind me of the story. when you told me that story, the part i didn't be is whoever the manager wes, they didn't rely standing in front of dad was a stanford phd physicist. but the way they looked at you and the way they judge to you, you weren't even good enough to be a bellhop in their eyes. and yet, look at who you are and what you are today. so i say this because we are all part of this human tapestry. there are people that come into our offices. there are students that you might think this person doesn't have that, but that's not our job. we are all in this thing together. when you become an astronomer and astrophysicist, you'd look at the species as one whole. you begin to realize how
perilous the universe we live in and how we need to get ourselves off of this planet. we need to develop to allergies and the only way we are going to be successful is if we bring everybody on board. right now there's whole continent of people being left behind and that's completely unacceptable. we have to do better. so i've gotten around working was even and one thing i've just done is i've been looking at different ways of educating people. so science has been wonderful because in my classrooms i've always used whom where -- you were. my students actually get my jokes on my people in this room. and humor has been wonderful. humor has been really wonderful. it also i've learned about experiential learning. learning by doing. take any old and looking at it as new.
for centuries upon centuries, humans learned by doing. and now, we've come to the point where you sit in the room and it lectured to. all because of a piece of technology. i go off with the technology and do that. through games, i am learning that you can really educate students just like with outrageous acts of science, i can stealthily teach you. you're having fun, laughing that you are learning at the same time. i have a young son teaching and stuff. excellent in math and science but one thing i'd thought was difficult to teach them that this chemical reactions. chemical reactions are kind of weird. if you take general chemistry right now or organic chemistry, even worse, you know what i'm talking about. but i work with this company to create this game where we create a really fun scenario, where
you're going to go to a plan in order to save humanity. we have to get humanity offers. all along the way, the kids have to solve these games. so by the way, in case you're wondering, 599. but the game allows the student to learn through experience. i want to say this one last thing that has to do with hierarchy thing. there's a controversial book by howard bloom. has anyone heard of that? it has to do with human evolution. he starts to the question why do humans do this really crazy awful thing called war. why do we do that? and he says well, it goes down to a couple of characteristics that humans share with many other species. kinship selection and the other is pecking order, hierarchy. everybody wants to be the top of
whatever it is in classes, groups between groups. there's a hierarchical fight and to be the top, we will kill each other. also in the social sciences, when we look at the hierarchies and society, they talk about what is called last-place emergence. you come into a society and as a hierarchy that preexisting newer view into the society. what do you do? you hate on the bottom of the people, the people at the bottom of the hierarchy so that you yourself are not at the bottom of the hierarchy. that's a very dangerous thing. hierarchies are different everywhere. i remember when i first left after being mayor for middle-school, high school and college and i said )-right-paren arizona university. as the sugar ray leonard tommy
has faith. and i was sitting in his room. i was looking around the room and i was going wow, look at this. the reason i felt that way is because it was the united nations. there were people of all races in that room just hanging out. something that never happened in mississippi. i didn't even know that was possible. and yet here was right before me. and so i remember there was an interracial couple and not just blew my mind. i was like well. so i asked this girl, i said you guys would date a black eye? she's like yeah. but then she goes, but i, but i wouldn't get an indian, talking about the local navajo indian tribe. as i've gone around the world, i see in different societies there are different hierarchies. different groups of people at
the top of the bottom. sometimes based on religion, sometimes ethnicity, and these ones social innovation that we do to figure out i don't have an answer how to get rid of the human hierarchies. it is not until we are able to do that at all these problems we see in our country that people aren't a part of the enterprise. they don't fit into the enterprise. we are not going to solve those problems until we solve that problem. as i said before, there's no shortage of innovation. but the real problem that identify the right problems. once you identify the right problems and inhuman set their minds to solving problems, we typically find in it there. so that is it. thank you very much. [applause]
>> thank you very much. plenty of time for questions, so please step to the microphone. all at once. >> remember, you can ask me anything about the universe. >> hi, my name is the tee shot. i am mentoring science. the last week we discussed in the class and we also read about the articles and i saw your name there. i am pretty clear about the project in africa and the first time when i got back, the question that came to my mind was why you wanted to like distribute in every country in
africa. >> you know, it addresses many things. there is a scientific need. so the science of astronomy has recently undergone a revolution. so what we used to do is take a telescope, pointed as an object and you take snapshot and now we've opened the time domain. instead of looking at individual objects come you have a telescope that looks at the sky and then it takes an image they an image they are in an image therein goes and takes an image of another region and every night it does that over every region over and over and over again and over years, you can a movie of that region of the sky. in that movie, you can identify objects that move and in each case, you get a different type of incredibly valuable data. but because this is a new science, the top of the d. match projects that did this, like a
planet discovery way of telescopes, they are tiny. anybody now can do the science. you don't have to have a giant tellis go. now that is the technical feasibility. so i decided to ask myself. i was working for a decade and i partnered with various institutions committee united states state department, government of kenya and south africa and the observatory, universities and ngos to help develop science, education and science research and developing nations. and so, when you have people engaging in science that did not previously engage in science, it changes their identity. and identity. it now becomes something they own.
for example, when you go into a classroom in your professor teaches you newton's laws, do you think that professor is newton himself. that person owns the knowledge. they didn't invent the knowledge, that they now own the knowledge. when anybody owns the knowledge, they become that knowledge and there's so much that death in a society. why is it in kenya and you buying a cell phone from someone in norway. why does it go the other way around? we talk about scientific opportunities. most of our resources are in the northern hemisphere sky compared to the southern hemisphere sky is like tearing a lightning bug to lightning. in a northern hemisphere, the center of the galaxy is never very high above the horizon. in the southern hemisphere come in the is directly overhead.
not only that, our two large satellite galaxies are high in the sky and they are a treasure trove of scientific data. so as a species, as a planet, as a planetary family, we need many, many more in that region where there are darker skies and greater scientific opportunities and at the same time, we can transform society. in fact, my colleague at florida institute technology, he just wrote a book and he titled it, he's a british scientist and he scientist and a title that astronomy save the world and it addresses this phenomenon of how astronomy actually transforms people in society when they participate. >> thank you for your answer. >> thank you for your wonderful question. >> hi, i'm chris, majoring in computer science.
what do you think about -- i'm sorry -- >> i always make people shy. i'm really pretty. >> do you think we will ever be able to come up with a device that is capable of doing something as ridiculous as sending messages back in time? >> that's a good one. sending messages backward in time. the idea that quantum entanglement involves this sad space really opens possibilities. if we talk about a wormhole, you can go win and come out anywhere, but you can also go when and come out in.
there is the possibility that these things that were completely ridiculous, the possibility has now been opened that maybe it's not the ridiculous. one of the greatest lessons i learned in my education was the difference between when you know something and when you don't know it. i can say that to you. i've never talked to a person to whom i'd say that. but clearly, it is a very difficult thing to really grasp. even though we write these things down and there's nothing in the boston fix that present prevented. there's a principle of totalitarianism that any physical process not equate forbidden to occur in nature must occur. there is evidence that says perhaps this could occur. we don't know if that will occur. what i've seen is people who say something is impossible and it hasn't been proven to be
impossible end up looking like in the future. i am skeptical of sending messages into the past, but i don't know. and i know that i don't know. which makes me know. but i don't know. if you know what i'm saying. thank you. >> hi, i'm a psychology major and i'm wondering on the paradox you mention which one of the twins would stay here the second one would be sending tenure saw the first one will be a thousand years. is this process reversible and when the second one comes back, what you can do is that they change positions, they will still be in the same frame.
they could be the same age. i've never heard anyone come up with that. that's really good. catching up with the twins. a part of the story is left out. what is it the one make the traveling that doesn't age very much. which determines which is which. great question. thank you. psychology. you twisted my mind. hello, my name is isaac newberry. my major is environmental studies and i am from st. louis. >> hi, i've been, i may newberry. >> i actually get that one a lot. >> i'm sure. i was under what exactly what are your thoughts on the validity of the nemesis theory. interesting thing.
i know the guy well who came up with the theory, rich muller. nemesis is kind of dead now, but something that replace it. so rich muller was testamentary was louis alvarez who is a nobel prize winner and louis alvarez and was a person who discovered the boundary layer, the meridian mallard and that was a strong piece of evidence that the dinosaurs were wiped out by asteroids. sulu alvarez's said i'd show them what, if look at the extinction on earth, it appears to be a periodic cycle of extinction that occur every 26 million years. the last one was 13 million years ago and 26 million before that was dinosaurs.
but that with more data seems to disappear. at the nemesis idea but how could something wipe out life on the periodically that way. what is a part of a binary star system. a very small daughter this cloud of comet dust around our solar system and it would disturb the orbit of the comments and some look at expelled from the solar system and some of it into the inner solar system and some of those was striker than wipe out all life. nemesis is now dead because it tasted. and about before that cloud and objects are being discovered kind of large.
it was pluto until he went to pluto and it turns out it was bit bigger. but also in sadness our bid is not named after her vice president. why are these two objects in the same orbit. other objects discovered there is a large object which is more massive than the earth that is now called planet nine. planet nine has not been confirmed but is evidence that suggests it may be there. just as we recently discovered a new particle with more data, the signal may disappear and we don't know. that the idea of having large
objects to the outer solar system there and discovered is a valid idea. >> thank you. >> great question. this is the final question for dr. oluseyi. >> seriously? 's pinnacle of, a wholesaler and i plan on studying physics and philosophy. have a question about quantum entanglement. i was wondering for a while now since the theory of relativity states that it cannot go faster than the speed of light and since he answered -- okay, i misunderstanding there. something along those lines. >> something subtle, but just go ahead. >> your answer was a wormhole. do not write. do not count as a particle go about that? >> the idea -- the speed of light limitation -- here is what
we have in our universe. if you possess math, you can never move at the speed of light. if you have no mass, then you must move at the speed of light. nothing can move through space that has mass at the speed of light appeared theoretical particles called tachyons and new super luminal a faster than the speed of light. now there are some tricks to get around the speed of light. so you don't actually move through space. what you do to move through the space. so a scientist named huckabee aired came up with it is known as the match at where can have a spaceship. you can contact space in front of you, expand space behind you and move 10 times the speed of light for space. and then it was modified by
someone named white so it doesn't take as much energy now become white as a lab in in what they're actually testing the concept. when we talk about these quantum entanglement and wormholes command you're not moving through space. so when cosmologist incas space, we think of it not as these 3-d volumes, but as a 3-d hyper surface. so you surface can be banned. the classic example of if the surface of space and a fivefold space, instead of having to travel this great distance to go from here to there, i can just go from here to there so it's almost like moving through a different dimension of sorts. so like what "star trek" does, imagine you're, imagine you're in a room and you want to get to the other side of the room and to bring the carpet toward doing you crumble it and then you just
step over the crumpled carpet that allows you to expand behind you. i took one step at amazon the other side of the room. but only because i compress space in that way. when i was doing my story, there was another guy who was a philosophy and physics major. he was from a wealthy family and he never intended to work as a physicist, but he just wanted to thank as a physicist and combining it with philosophy was a wonderful excellent idea. i look forward to hear what you're going to be thinking about. >> thank you. [applause]