tv Discussion on Immigration CSPAN September 17, 2018 5:42am-6:30am EDT
books in addition to buying them and getting them signed. thank you all, thank you to our wonderful panelists for a great discussion. [applause. >> good afternoon. welcome to our panel called from the border: people in politics. i'm mary ellen fullerton, interim dean at brooklyn law school and for many years i have been a scholar of international refugee law and immigration law so you can imagine how much i looking forward to this panel on how much i enjoyed reading all three of the books that we're going to have a chance to talk about today. the authors come at the issues of people, borders, politics from multiple
perspectives. we have photojournalists on our panel, we have a sociologist on our panel, a creative nonfiction writer and of course there are also many other things. i think the overwhelming experience i had while i was reading all of these books is how each of them uses arts in a profound way to send messages to us as individuals about the borders within us. to us as members of communities about the borders in politics within our communities and to us as a country which i think is very much defining its soul right now. so the border. what do we mean by the border? immediately, for many people the us mexico border pops to mind . and of course we're going to talk about it. all three of our authors have
studied and visited and are extremely knowledgeable about it but one of the wonderful things about these three books is that they look at other borders. stephanie alexander rice pointed to the us canada border. john moore recognizes the mexico guatemala border in very vivid photographs. manuel pastore acknowledges the bordersbetween california and other states in the united states .they all talk about borders among us and the borders within us. so is that the context of this program i'd like to speak just a couple minutes more about some facts. that's what i do, as an immigration lawyer, try to get some concrete facts before us and try to explore them and their significance . am of these facts you probably know. othersmay surprise you . first fact. the us-mexico border is 1954
miles long. in contrast, our border with canada, the land border with canada is 3980 miles long so significantly more border of north. i think much more importantly, a fact that everybody should know and doesn't seem to get much press although all our authors do touch on it in their books, the number of unauthorized injuries over the borders of the united states as plummeted in recent years, despite all the talk about the migration crisis andpeople , towards coming across the border and social dislocation, that may or may not cause it, the facts are that in 2000, there were 1.6 million unauthorized entries into the united states from
mexico. by 2011, kind of in the middle of the obama administration, those numbers were down to325,000 . numbers that hadn't been that low since the early 1970s. through the rest of the obama administration and indeed the beginning of the trump administration, the numbers have been around hundred 50,000, below 300,000. the most recent data says 2017 there were 310,000 unauthorized entries so what that means is the crisis we are talking about today is much smaller than what was normal 15 years ago, 20 years ago. another fact that may surprise you, the net outmigration from the united states to mexico house steadily increased since 2012
. what that means is there are more people every year leaving the united states to go to mexico and there are leaving mexico to come to the united states and the demographers this trend is going to continue. so the movements and the patterns are changing enormously , but the headlines in the news don't seem to reflect that. last little bit of data. immigrants arriving in the united states since 2010, 41 percent come from asia compared to 39 percent coming from latin america. that's extremely different, again from what you see in the news. so with these major shifts in patterns, the stereotypes in the public consciousness needing to be changed, i want to turn to three authors who can begin to convey some of
the reality as well as much of the complexity of people, migration and borders. were going to start farthest away from me, john moore. photojournalists from many years, he's worked on many continents and not understand he spent 10 years creating this beautiful book, undocumented, immigration and the militarization of the us-mexico border . by the way, i was delighted to see that john is both in spanish and english. and i've asked john moore to introduce his book 1st cause he's going to show us vivid images which will help us set the context both geographically and otherwise about the discussions we're going to have. and as he gets ready to show the images, i'm going to ask him a couple questions to think about and in his 10 minutes i'm allotting each of
the authors if he could address one, what was the origin ofthis book, what gave you the idea of writing this book . two, where their unexpected challenges in creating the book and three, how did you ever secure permission from the border patrol and from the smugglers and from the gang members to take their photograph? >> that's a lot of territory. i'll start with the idea for the book. i had been covering border issues, not just border issues, immigration issues can including within the us and central america for really since 2008 when i moved back to the us. after living abroad in other parts of the world including latin america and i was immediately struck by the human drama along the border and over the years i've seen
things change. back when i started it was primarily a men and women coming to look for work and we've seen since 2014 the numbers of families coming across and specifically as well unaccompanied minors which are the main group of youth which have been imprisoned. some of you may have seen this photo from the summer and i was from one of my trips where i had proposed to the border patrol to go along for a ride along with them and family separations had been happening since april and i knew that i would never be able to see family separations because that always happened in the border patrol processing centers so what i did was go out with them while they took people into custody and as it turned out, there was a group that came in late one night and this image here and it up going viral. the way it's captioned is that a group, a girl cries after her mother set her down
as she was being taken into custody and then taken to a border patrol center for possible separation which was the case as we know for thousands of kids. as pictures take a life of their own, after their release, the picture ended up being on the cover of time as a cutout and not as the original picture, the original image and there was a lot of discussion about that as well. photojournalists always want to have a photograph used exactly how it is and authors want to as well so it was quite a big debate over whether pictures are honest or not. i think what we can do as photojournalists is photograph honestly, caption correctly and send them out into the world and the world we live in right now is one of imagery, imagery which can be used and misused. and what i'll do now is show you. this picture is not in the
book, by the way. i took it three months after the book came out. and you'll see as i show you these pictureshere , i start , this is the beginning of the book. i edited it into six different chapters and the idea for putting together this in a book form came out on the eighth of november 2016. like many people, i suspected that ellery clinton would be our next president and that immigration would probably be less in the news and of course, that was not the case. so my editors and i started to think about and edit in book form that would give a narrative to undocumented immigration. not just from latin america, primarily from latin america however . and as we know, a lot of people come from different parts of theworld and
actually overstay their visa . they come from places other than the southern border. this particular work focuses on the reasons why people leave and what happens to them after they come here. and getting access was yes, a major issue. and in the case of these photographs from central america, these were from honduras. and also the photographs of homicides. this picture is from a couple go which is now one of the homicide capitals of the world or cities and countries that aren't actively at work. the execution rates are absolutely incredible. the number of people who are leaving because of violence and as we've seen under the zero-tolerance policy currently, still in place, domestic violence and gang violence is no longer accepted by the us government as legitimate reasons to ask for asylum so that has
changed the landscape dramatically. this boy here is at a memorial service for twoof his schoolmates . and so from central america and mexico as you can see, people are climbing aboard the beast. it's a network of freight trains that moves through mexico from the southern state of chiapas through mexico city and to different parts of theus-mexico border . and i was able to work and had been living in mexico, based in mexico city for 5 and a half years early in my career so i know my way around but most of the time when i'm working in this environment i'm working with journalists. many of us know this already at the danger that mexican journalists face is far, far greater in any danger i would face going in to work on a
story for a couple weeks, a couple months at a time. there's between 10 and 20 mexican journalists, both reporters, writers and photographers killed every year. and by and large with impunity. we've seen that all through different governments, different administrations and in mexico that has been consistent, that by and large, the narcotraffickers have had in killing journalists. and so i follow people along their journeys. so the rio grande, and what we will do is we will move a little bit further along. the border of many of us know is very and it's treacherous and people have been pushed further and further out.
as the border patrol and the homeland security in general has seen its budget swell in the next few yearsand after 2001, our budget started to climb . back in 2007, 2008, the border patrol reached to 20,000 members and many of them were hired in a very short time span so a lot of the background checks were not as complete as they should have been. border patrol specifically had to face lots of issues with agents who were felons and were actually taken out of the academy and taken to jail. so there was a news story in the last two days of an agent who was accused of killing four women in the laredo area . and it continues, people ask me if agents, if they genuinely support the trump policies, they are law enforcement.
they will typically support the policies they aretold to enforce and under the obama administration, the enforcement regime was in many ways the same but in some key areas different . so many of the pictures that appear in this book were taken during the obama administration. getting access to photographs, border patrol agents in the academy was especially difficult for me. i was turned down to photograph in the economy numerous times and i went often times , this door stepping is how i've gotten access. i went to a speech by the border patrol chief and he gave a speech and i went up to him afterwards and i said nice speech, nice listening to you and he said who are you? i said i'm john warren with getty images and i'd like to get into youracademy . he said sure. i had to go directly to the source. this is a vigilante in arizona, arizona border
recon. they come together two or three times a year for a week long operations targeting smugglers along the border and they carry weapons and although they look the part, rarely actually catch people along the border. they will call border patrol agents if they find someone coming across but they feel strongly about their desire to help protect the border and you know, any law enforcement or military force that doesn't stand together will not do anything in the field that's worthwhile. >> many of the pictures you're seeing were taken from customs and border protection helicopters. i was able toget access with them over the years . i've been trying to photograph this story in as
many angles as possible. and the captions arealways very straightforward .so when law enforcement asks, when i asked permission for them to go in, i will show them pictures i shot before and they're usually pretty straightforward. they believe in the work that they're doing and i don't have to tell whether i'm working with law enforcement, to photograph law enforcement or i'm going with nonprofits like no more deaths or others that i've worked with, humanitarians over the years that helped immigrants, i don't have totell anyone that what they're doing is good or that i'm in favor of what they're doing. all i have to say is what you're doing is important and i'd like to show it . that's been my key for getting access with many different groups along the way. i can, if i run short of time i can stop. >> 2 more minutes.
>> i've also spent a lot of time in immigrant communities within the us. the woman on the left, this immigrant mother, undocumented mother, she's an activist in colorado and has done work over the years for immigrants rights . the object is to humanize all sides of this issue because when people are demonized, it's very hard for any side to reach solutions. as we know, health insurance is difficult for many people in this country, especially so for the immigrant community. the next series is relevant today. because as we read in the last few days, it was over 12,000 undocumented unaccompanied minors and children, some of the children who'd been separated from their parents in
detention centers and in foster care around the us right now. that number as swollen probably because of people continuing to arrive but also because of many parents who would have collected their children earlier had detention facilities are undocumented themselves in the us. and there frankly just afraid to pick them up. they're afraid they will be detained when they go to pick up their child and deported. because ice continues to hang out outside of court buildings and detain people are doing things that they lawfully need to do. and so it's a very tricky situation for many immigrants to collect their children when they come across as undocumented. this is the one and only sharon arpaio, america's
self-proclaimed toughest sheriff. he lost his bid for reelection and to be the candidate for the republican party in arizona. this is tent city jail in arizona which has been closed . and these images here are from an ice federal prison. they call it a detention center in adelanto california near san bernardino. several pictures from there, i was not able to show people's faces, that's one of the rules. when i'm given ground rules i follow them so i can come back again and hopefully it doesn't impact my story but the way i have to approach it visually in order to maintain myaccess . i've flown on deportation flights as well. in this case back to guatemala. i went back on a plane with them. this is another deportation here to ponderous and they go daily from mesa arizona and a few other states in the us where ice as of where they
gather people from around the country and there will be for instance a flight on monday to guatemala, one to honduras and one on wednesday to el salvador. but also, it's worth mentioning that combining all of everyone who comes across or over stays their visa as undocumented immigrants, there are far more numbers wise of people who manage to reach their american dream and become citizens. we've seen that there's a great effort right now by the trump administration to lower the number not just of undocumented immigrants and illegal entries but alsolegal immigration as well and the idea is to cut back by half . we will see if that happens. >> john, i hate to cut you
off because your images are so powerful and beautiful, but i do want to cut you off because i want to have the opportunity for the audience to hear from our other authors. his bookis fabulous. you've got to buy it outside. he's going to be signing as they all are afterwards . thank you, and if we have time later we will come back to those images. second panelist today has written many books and the one she's going to talk about today and we're in for a real treat, she's going to read a little bit from this book. it's called all the agents are insane, dispatches from the us borderland. stephanie is a daughter of self texas. she is like john, has lived all over the world, been a foreigncorrespondent . she is if i've got this correct, a faculty member at the university of north carolina.she is a woman of multiple identities and great creativity and i have a lot
of questions for her but i just want to stop right now and let her read something from her book which is a very powerful book that you all want to buy also . >> iq so much. thank you so very much for being here and for these incredible images. it's so moving to see. so my friends, i'm from corpus christi texas. fabulous. it's very great to find someone in the audience from corpus christi texas but you understand what i will say when i say all my life i wanted to get out of corpus christi texas. so i embarked on this journey about 15 years long. i lived in moscow, beijing, mexico, i traveled all around, wrote books about those journeys and happened to return home in 2007.
no longer viewing my hometown with my childhood lens or my teenage lens that this is a boring place where nothing happened. when i arrived i was shocked to discover that south texas had become a major news story and i began to realize we were surrounded by 15 miles of petrochemical industries poisoning people in close proximity. i began to realize that corpus christi had been named the fattest city in america with this profound obesity epidemic and began to realize that a border wall was about to split as much of this land into and i began to think about what it meant. so we are the citizens who do not cross the border, the border crosses over us . and so i began to document this. our reality. i spent about seven years and i'm going to read a brief excerpt from south texas and then i'll transition to what happened next after spending seven years in south texas.
this is a very difficult excerpt i will read . it takes place in 2012 which is when i became aware of the fact that south texas was essentially becoming a graveyard for those who were attempting to cross. and i've been spending a lot of time in south texas 90 miles north of the border and there's a checkpoint there. and basically if youcross over in the texas region, you have to go through south 40 in order to go on to houston and from houston , everyone branches off from houston in different directions. but many people don't make it because when you arrive to south florida undocumented, they generally pull over and people get out and walk and they have to walk about three miles to avoid the checkpoint which is where the border patrol agents are and they are doing this androutinely in 110 degrees temperatures .
that one year in that one county, burke county, they found 129 bodies. that's just the bodies that are found and i happened to be with the sheriffs of berks county texas when they got in the call, they call this call code 500 and that meant go and retrieve the body and the sheriff looked over at me and said you've got a weak stomach? and i paused and i said no. i boldly lied and he invited me to come with him on the recovery. so this is after we, i'll just start when they announce she's small. probably a hunter and she'd been outfor three days . base waddled her in the sheet, half stew. they stuffed herinto a black body bag with golden zippers
. the sheriff and border patrol agent fan out 30 feet. they scanned the brush for approximately half a minute. before heading back to their respective trucks. there is no obvious evidence in sight. we leave behind only an empty water bottle and a host of beetles. no words are spoken. no rights are given.he wife's issues. we've got to make sure there's no bodily fluid on me . it will stink, he says. we don't see undertakers struggling with the gurney. together they lay the body back on top and roll it into the back of the van. davila introduces me to the undertaker, his name is angel. i want to say, how fitting and applaud his professional graces and before i can speak, davila tell him i am a writer. a lot of people write stories
, he says softly. nothing ever gets done. i hear this a lot. it never fails to shatter me. but i usually brush it off with a self-deprecating remark and the smile but there's something about standing in the woods with this three-day dead woman that gives me the audacity to hope maybe something will change this time. policy will change and a humane immigration law will finally be enacted and although that hope vaporizes into mist before i can even articulate it, the remains a spark of optimism that by virtue of being written about, this code 500 might be remembered but even if we never learned her name, whether she's guatemalan or honduran or chinese, this one member of the 30 for her to die before her in the 94 who will die after in this county and in this one state , can be memorialized in spite of
the story and at the very least, i will remember her, this woman who hiked illegally and got annihilated for it, i willremember her, what remains of her face and feet when i tried to fall asleep atnight. to pray if this counts as getting something done . i wish to say this . i wish to say all of this and a great deal more but there is time only to feebly smile before he retreats to the drivers seat where he removes a pair of badly soiled gloves . he already knows. he will be back tomorrow and i will not. so that is what i came to bear witness for seven years insouth texas, taking notes . and then quite a shock. i was a freelancer during all this and got offered something i hadn't been offered in 10 yearswhich was a job . and i took the job and it was a job that st. lawrence
university which is a university located just about 18 minutes south of the canadian border of new york so about nine miles, nine hour drive straight up north for all of you. and i arrived there and at that point to meet upstate new york was like the bronx. but this is, the only thing stopping his canada. it's way up there. so i'll write a little bit about this. before arriving here, i didn't think the northern borderlands could differ more starkly from the one where i grew up.temperatures were approaching 60 degreesapart. south texas feels like a large wet dog sitting on your face . the heat and humidity are that oppressive. the north country smelled like a cat hissing and scratching you and it's that visceral, that extreme. yet the hot oil, the sun and
snow affected me the same way. both returned me inward and when i step into the car and in 20 minutes reach a bridge that descends into a different economic strata, i recognize i've been here once before and when i learned a nearby community is rallying in the very same people are also battling poverty, obesity and industrial waste, i realized i will once again be caught in suspension of disbelief and when i read about people getting arrested forsmuggling aliens by speedboat and drugs by snowmobile, i realize i am yet again living on an edge. other words as i stare around this remote new world i realize i am home . i wonder if anyone understands what community i'm referring to when i say these things? who lives across from cornwall canada? what nation has been there since time immemorial? the mohawk nation.
so i was lucky to make ties to that community and i began spending every moment there for a year. i realized that essentiallyit was dcjcvu. every time i would turn to the community .our elders had it beaten out of us, many mohawks have lost the native language mohawk because of being forced to endure indian residential school 450 years where kids were taken from their families, their hair was cut, they were shaved and forced to define which school they wear, just as my, all my cowboy uncles watched our livelihood in south texas, all the mohawks lost their traditional mode of being which was fishing because just as south texas is surrounded by petrochemical industries, they are
surrounded by superfund sites who for 30 years dumped all their pcb waste into the river stream that decimated all the fish, killed all the fish, the toxic waste about that polluted the air deeply. that destroyed a lot of the cattle industry they had at the time and it's also not possible to eat things that grow in that community is the land is so tainted so they also now have the major obesity epidemic as we do in south texas. so many of our youth are imprisoned for smuggling. we contend with the trafficking of firearms right through our neighborhood. i just begin to realize, all along i thought this was just our private tragedy in south texas and i began to realize this is endemic towhat it means to be a citizen of the borderlands . i read a lot of signs that for many years hung at the beginning of the mohawk nation. i encourage you all if you have a weekend, it's nine hours away but it's an exceptional place to visit and a tear in your state.
although they don't consider themselves part of your state, they are very much their own nation. you will be under the jurisdiction of the following, canada, united states, the mohawk tribal council and the confederacy, new york, ontario, qucbec, st. lawrence county, the mohawk police, the qucbec police force, the royal canadian mounted police, federal bureau of investigation, us border control and coming soon, the national guard. drive gently, have a nice day. so this community hasbeen living in a state of resistance 500 years and counting . >> thank you stephanie. and let me just say as we've seen vivid, visual images. the writing and the power of stephanie and her words are
incredibly strong and i encourage you to also acquire this book. our third panelist, manwell pastore sitting right next to me is going to talk about his book state of resistance. what california's dizzying dissent and remarkable resurgence means for america's future. well-knownfact, manuel is a native new yorker . but he has been a californian is the age of six months . so they claim him and he has been incredibly busy and prolific and important in california. he is a professor of sociology and american studies and ethnicity at the university of southern california and he directs the center for the study of immigration integration and connecting with points stephanie just made, he's been a scholar and an analyst and i think an activist on environmental and economic challenges that low income
urban communities face. he is going to talk to us about his memorable phrase, california is america fast-forward . >> good to be with you and i'm going to start by pointing out a few things about undocumented folks, particularly in california. we have about 2.7 undocumented residents in california. interestingly, more than two thirds of themhave been there for longer than 10 years . they are matched by about an equal number of us-born citizens who live in the same household as family members and a smaller number of lawful permanent residents live in the same household. so the phrase we often use is undocumented californians. because there are so deeply
rooted in the community and you're right, the dynamics of how traumatically shifted and will continue, partly because the demographic forces have been so dramatically,the fertility rates have gone way down , about five or six children over the course of herlifetime, 35 years ago, 20 fertility rate of 2.3 now . which in the united states is 1.7 so as those to come together we've seen this negative migration that you're talking about. more mexicans returning to mexico then coming to the united states which basically means if we build a wall, we are penning mexicans in which i'msure is not the president's intention . but what the book tries to talk about is the art of change in california. because if you think about the united states right now, and the anxiety that it has around demographic change, interestingly, most of the
people who are the most nervous about immigrants don't have them. in the places like la who have a lot of immigrants are like, this is great. but in that anxiety is what california went through in the 1990s with the passage of prop 187 and the passage of prop 187 which was about member that sought to deny undocumented immigrants all sorts of social services including educational services, that's one direct parallel but what people forget is in the early 1990s, 45 percent of the job losses and the recession of the early 1990s occurred in california and rush limbaugh began his talk radio career in the late 1980s in california so that's sort of a perfect stew of demographic anxiety, economic uncertainty and profiteering from political polarization.
we did it first. and we've come out on the other side in terms of a state which is one of the first two states to raise the minimum wage to $15 per hour. a state which is finally incarcerating after the final insanity, a state which finally declared itself to be a sanctuary state in terms of lack of cooperation with ice and immigration enforcement and the state which isleading on climate change and what the book tries to do is to talk about that arc of change . what these sort of structural, economic, demographic and political forces were but also really what was the community organizing andsocial movement mobilization that took place . it's a great book, you should buy it. if you're not a big reader, it's about to be made into a major motion picture in which i'll be portrayed by antonio banderas. i'm very excited about this. but i want to just pick up on
immigrant part of this for this particular panel because it's important to realize that one thing that happened was that there was a backlash to proposition 187. it caused a lot of people who were lawful, permanent residents had not yet become citizens to become citizens and in the late 1990s, newly naturalized latinos were voting at higher rates than us whites so an immediate motivation in political punishment. there was a big shift in terms of undocumented immigrants realizing they could engage elect orally. they couldn't vote but they could mobilize people to vote by being part of get out the vote efforts. there was also something that went on, there was a big shift that happened in california and now nationwide with labor which was seen its numbers declined recognized that immigrants were open to
unionization. they brought with them repertoires from their own countries being engaged in social movements. they were facing the challenges of working poverty and los angeles was the only place in the metro area of the country that saw an increase inprivate-sector unionization as janitors , homecare workers and others sort of unionized. so there was a lot of other forces that were going on at the same time and that's what the book is about. but i want to say just something about the intentionality of it and then something that i'm going to go with stephanie and read from the book because that seems like something you should do at a book festival. in terms of organizing, there's three things to remember about the organizing that took place , taking off from the 90s in california. number one, it was intersectional. there was a recognition that you couldn't just organize
immigrants or african-americans, that you somehow needed to organize in an intersectional way and it also meant realizing you had to show up for other people's struggles so in 2008 when president barack obama got the majority vote in california but prop eight which outlawed marriage equality also passed, the lgbt community looking at the election results in which latinos and african-americans had voted at a higher rate to pass proposition eight than whites, one reaction could have been to say my god, we really have to marginalize those communities but the reaction of many in the community was gosh, we're not showing up for immigrant rights so we cannot expect immigrants to show up around the marriage equality. there was the evolution of courage, kerry karen who was
one of the organizers of courage who at the end of it said one of them said, we tricked you into coming here. he thought it was about marriage equality what it's about immigrant rights, it's about over incarceration, about over working-class people being left behind. similarly on immigrant movement, a lot of immigrant rights organizations began to challenge catholic charities that had funded them and said we can no longer be quiet about these issues which are affecting a large sector of our population being intersectional. being intentional about building power and being integrated and integrated means not just bringing together labor and immigrants as i was talking about but also wedding together community organizing and elections and understanding that you needed to bring people together. so let me just do that thing of reading from the book if i can let myself scroll to the
right part. this is in themiddle of the end of the book . so starts with the california dream emerge from an opportunity to create platforms of opportunity for those already in the golden state and those still to come and led to a commitment to create housing to accommodate growth, to work to the economy that coulddeliver jobs and income for those in the middle and support a first-class education that trained workers and leaders for thefuture . creating the california dream version 2.0 will recognize , require recognizing that the achilles heel that has plagued california and the nation is racism, the racism of california's own residence got the better of themselves in the 1990s. so if you think about it, that's the challenge facing america. with an economy still stumbling its way out of the
great recession, uncertainty about job prospects affecting older and younger workers alike, with both red states like florida and blue states like new york threatened by climate change, 2016 seemed like an appropriate time to come together. instead of like california in the 1990s, voters chose to tear themselves apart in a last gasp of collapsing racial order. as incalifornia, racist pandering will cost us in terms of our moral values and social cohesion and also in dollars and cents of productivity and income , incarceration and unequal education. the wayout of this does not hinge on rejecting bad leaders . it does hinge on rejectingbad leaders, you know what i'm talking about but this is not enough . too many progressives hoped that electing barack obama would turn the american corner, offering a way to racism and the social
disconnect into a sense of common destiny. instead we got political paralysis and as in the golden state, a revitalized right wing determined to hold progress in bay. jazz poet gil scott heron once sang that the only way to take this world, make it what it want to be, what want to be will be someday you will see. realizing there's no such thing as a superman. the real need is not for a great leader but many leaders, not for winning at the top of the ticket but for winning across the board. not for pitting our hopes on one candidate or even one big march but rather on counting on the grassroots organizing that brings people together face-to-face, race to race and the place to place to see their common future and that is the blue wave that is now beginning to and in the 2018 midterms with andrew gillum, stacy abrams and ayana
presley. who's going to make the change? not a bunch of leaders, it's you and us, it's all of us. [applause] >> and you can see what that call to action and the prescription, why we needed to have our third speaker b manny well. i want to saybefore it becomes a major motion picture you should buy this book . it really lays out in both detail and with inspiration how to look at and react to the fractured place our society is right now. and it's a wonderful read, as are the other two books so if you will join me, we are out of time but i wish we had twice as much