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tv   Wilson Center on U.S.- Mexico Migration  CSPAN  November 21, 2018 1:29pm-3:56pm EST

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here on c-span2. mexico's ambassador to the united states now, on migration through his country into the u.s. if, on the start of several panels by the wilson center and migration policy institute. talk about how to handle central americans trying to get into the u.s. this is just over two hours. >> good morning. i like to welcome all of you here. in attendance as well as those participating by c-span. the wilson centers senior vice president. today's event, mexican migration flows from great waves to gentle stream. it could not be more topical. i like to think the migration policy institute for cohosting this event. i want to think, again, everyone for coming out on this day on
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washington d.c. we are holding this event on midterm election day. i think having this event on this day, in some ways, feels appropriate. given that the topic of immigration and migration has been at the forefront of america's midterm elections. the flows of migration from mexico have reflected and reduced from a great wave to a smaller stream. mexican migration to the u.s. is currently at zero. more mexicans weaving than coming to the u.s. many americans have an outdated perception of what a mexican migrant looks like today. there are too few stories in the national conversation about who is coming into the u.s. from mexico. how they bring meaningful contributions and what happens to the relationship with u.s. if they choose or are forced to return.
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this event, which is sponsored by the wilson centers mexico institute, headed by duncan board as well as by the migration policy institute, seems to present information regarding the flow of mexican both to and from the united states. as well as to explore the diversity and contributions of a population that is always been deeply part of the united states. thank you again for coming. i like to present our distinguishing opening speaker, the honorable ambassador. he is a friend of the wilson center. it's a pleasure to welcome him back. he served as mexico's ambassadors since 2017. he previously served as managing director of the north american development bank. he was professional activity was focused on infrastructure, along u.s. mexican border. he previously served and prominent in trade, to policy and national security. he's covered -- an extraordinary
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coverage in his career. we are excited to welcome him back. the floor is yours. [applause] >> thank you for that kind introduction. good morning to all of you. let me first, to think the wilson's mexico institute and migration policy institute. for organizing the summoner and for inviting me to be part of it. these two institutions have consistently made a very valuable contribution to our shared understanding of the migration phenomenon between mexico and the united states and its implications. more importantly, both countries will always spend -- benefit from having a more thoughtful, open and fact-based exchange of ideas. the seminar comes at a very fitting time.
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it provides a good opportunity to get changes in the migration patterns from mexico to the united states and diversity of more recent mexican migrants into this country. also, the dynamics and challenges that take place upon their return to mexico. all of these are very relevant topics to the ongoing cooperation agenda that mexico and the united states have. it must continue to do so with respect to immigration. you said before, mexico and the united states have a clear share interest in working together to make sure that migration is sa safe, orderly and legal. in my view, the present is feeling and simply on acceptable for everybody. until we achieve this objective,
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there will continue to exist a huge gap in the expectations and i daresay the hopes that the government and the people on both sides of the border, have about the overall lateral relationship. the me say this a little more blunt. it clearly affects the tone, the substance and the perspectives of the overall bilateral relationship. during this morning's first panel, will hear about the changes in my crushing patterns. the panelists, i am sure, will give you a far more of this change is that i can. from wherever, let me just highlight what in my view, is a single most important change. the sheer reduction and number of mexicans, that migrate to the united states.
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several surveys and studies, as well as the united states government own estimates, going to this. mexican irregular migration into the united states, quite clearly picked precisely, the turn of the century, and has been pretty much in decline. today, unfortunately, it is often overlooked that the year 2000, registered 1.6 million of mexicans nationals by the border patrol. 1.6 million. last year, 2017, that figure was i 30,000. this number, actually invite the question of what has happened. what explains the change from a great wave to a gentle stream
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with respect to migration, and other complex phenomenon, i have learned throughout the years, one must look for multi factor explanations. without a doubt, increase enforcement by the united states migration authorities, is relevant and will continue to be so. but also, i think more importantly, mexicans have found better opportunities in mexico during the last 20 years. but this number, and at risk of sounding naïve, this reduction, i believe it's also important because it makes more likely the mexico and the united states could eventually find some form of a great framework to manage whatever migration and whatever takes place between them. to put things in percent
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perspective, when the show called into a lot of was being negotiated, or at least discussed, 18 years ago, your regular migration from mexicans into the united states was a problem. i do believe that it's no longer the case. during the second panel, we learn about the face of recent mexican migration into the united states. how mexican migration is becoming more diverse. you see and are term, in his book about the forces driving mexico and the united states together, there is a tsunami of mexican talent coming legally and enriching the united states as well as mexico. from foreign workers to
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engineers, restaurant owners, computer holders, mexican immigrants reflect more and more the diversity and richness of the mexican label force. as this writes about. let's see this as an opportunity. ambassador, recent research suggests, we have a skill staff that negatively affects our competitiveness and our economic performance. understanding our -- of the northern american region. with the economy growing as it is, reports already show, labor shortages in the u.s. such as construction, accommodation, food service and health and care and social assistance among others. bring demographics into this. the united states is precisely
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the point when baby boomers are reaching retirement. the median age of the u.s. is 38 years. around 62 in the world. the mexican median age is 28. rank about 133 in the world. so yes, let's make it legal, by all means. let's make it safe, let's make it orderly and let me ask, let's make it smart by rethinking worker forced development for the future. the last panel will review the challenges and opportunities that return migration percentage. whether voluntarily or involuntarily, significant number of mexican nationals return every year from the united states. it is important to understand what people return.
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what programs can be put together to make immigration better. how to take advantage of the skills and capital that migrants have. as a global migration, return migrants are potential drivers of development for their countries of origin, if successfully integrated into the society and into the labor market. amy computer by saying, as i mentioned this seminar comes at a good time. you are all aware of the lively debate going on about regional migration between mexico central america in the united states. clearly, there are no policy responses to regional migration that we are experiencing. as never before. in my view, we are facing nothing short of a serious
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humanitarian situation. it can only be addressed comprehensively, indefinitely, if a, we continue to talk among the governments of the region and continue to have cooperation in spite the difficulties and differences. the, if we continue to address development, in both countries that are less fortunate presently, and to be clear, from abroad, to this country, would only be as useful as those countries are willing to help themselves. see, there needs to be enforcement of immigration laws. humanely and respectful of human rights. it is only through a combination of those three elements in my view. that we can address the present regional migration patterns that we are facing. i want to thank you again for
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the invitation to join you this morning. early. i again think the migration team in the mexican institute for educating our debate and our exchange of ideas about bilateral relationship overall. it has been a consistent and valuable contribution that i have certainly learned to appreciate. i think you, i wish you that you have a grateful summoner and if it profit, i'll be happy to take a few questions. if not, i'll be happy to be done. [laughter] thank you very much. [applause]
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>> thanks again for everybody for being here. i'll be introducing our first panel moderating our panel at the very end here, is julia. julia is a senior policy analyst at migration policy institute. she works at the u.s. immigration policy program and her work focuses on illegal immigration systems. and the invocation of local state and federal u.s. immigration policy. next, we have mark lopez, mark is a director global might immigration geography research at the center. he is planning the research agenda on demographic trends, international migration, u.s. immigration trends and the community. finally, audio is the associate policy at migration policy institute.
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his research focuses on the impact of u.s. immigration policies on immigrant experiences, socioeconomic integration, geographical and political context. thank you. we will start. >> good morning everybody. good money, thank you for being here in this, a good start to the day. we appreciate that this is a topic that this is something we will hopefully continue to engage in. this panel is meant to try to provide a background about what is the trends and what's changing so we can have an informed discussion. let's begin by i will be focusing on the united states. let's start by looking into the numbers first. we know that the united states is by far the largest destination for mexican
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immigrants but the migration to the united states is significant change. after four decades of strong growth, mexican into the united states is at a turning point. 2010. overall, numbers of immigrants increase every year. the number of mexicans first and start into the decline in 2014. between 2016 in 2017, the mexican population shrunk by about 300,000, from 11.6 million to 11.3 million. when you can see here in this chart, not only the recent that i mentioned, you can go back to 1980 when the mexican population was at its lowest point at 2.2 million. 9.2 in 2000, 11-point in 2010. as a mentioned, flat until it became too full to 11.3.
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which is where we currently stand. i'll come back to the conclusion where we will mention but it's important here to know, a longtime immigration, has largely been driven by low skilled, unauthorized workers. in recent years, it has changed doing some -- due to factors that impact just mentioned. it includes improving the mexican economy, stepped up enforcement. the long-term drop in mexico's birthrate. more mexican immigrants have returned to mexico and migrated to the united states. apprehensions are now at a 40 year low. the second, you can see the numbers of decreased, mexican continues to be the largest immigrant group in the united states. mexicans now comprise 25% of the immigrant population.
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2017 compared to 29% in 2010. you can also see that the countries of, it the shared state relatively stable. the key here is that the change has occurred for mainly for other countries including countries like china and india who have now increasingly taken shares of the immigration population. again, 25% of the 44.5 million immigrants as of 2007. >> where are mexicans residing in the u.s.? large, we know it mexican immigrants have here in the united states a very long time. it means they are predominantly located in traditional receiving states. we can think of california, texas and illinois. intelligence six. , most immigrants lived in
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california. 37%. 22% in texas and 6% in illinois. the top five large areas are los angeles, which is 1.7 of the total, representing 13% of los angeles population. chicago, 650,000 representing 7%. houston, 622,000, dallas and 613,000, the riverside metropolitan area 562,000. combined, this areas make up about 37% of the total population of mexicans in the united states. five locations. more than one third of all mexicans. you can see as well, also other reasons that are maybe not traditionally immigrants for example, washington state, oregon, also in florida and number recently, in the south,
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with georgia and alabama and other places including louisiana. they have seen increase in mexican population. let's talk about, but the total demographic profile, similar what is different among the immigrants compared to other immigrants in the united states. the first thing is, mexicans are more likely to be male than others. 40% of mexican immigrants are female compared to 52% of all immigrants in the united states. mexicans tend to be younger than all members, 43%, median age for mexicans 43. forty-five for all immigrants. then there is also in terms of what we limited wish proficiency which is the ability for immigrants to speak english better than well, mexicans are about 63%, they are identified as limited english.
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we can see that mexicans are 86% within the working age range. we hear call that 18 to 64. compared to 79%. participation for mexicans is 69% that is compared to 66% of all immigrants. mexicans are more likely to be in the labor force. 62% of the nativeborn population. both mexicans and all immigrants have higher rates of labor force participation. households mexican immigrants are about four people. compared to three in total, mexicans, 45000 dollars compared to 56000 and the% of mexicans families living in poverty is 21% compared to 14% for all immigrants. the rate in terms of healthcare, 37% of mexican immigrants lack
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insurance compared to 20% of all immigrants. >> i think we've known for a long time, the mexicans are an integral part of the labor force in the united states. one thing that we don't always suggest or talk about is what type of video. as you can see from this graph, about 29% of mexicans work in service, 26% in protection and other service occupations, and about 21% working transportati transportation. another thing i want to highlight, the difference between 32% of all immigrants and 12% of all mexicans were working what we call professional occupations. this number shows the mexicans are not necessarily in this occupation but with they are showing, there is substantial number of mexicans working in this populate this sector.
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mexicans population, the second largest group after india working in professional service occupations. this is something that ambassador referred to earlier in his remarks. the reason why this matters is because mexicans are now, even though their education has been lower in the past, now beginning to catch up with the other countries. what this slide shows is on the left, the bubble burst that talk about all immigrants, on the right, mexican proposition. with each group, i make a specific destination about looking to migrants who have been here in the united states in total, but specifically looking at those who have come, who have entered in the last five years. it's important because you can see a trend on both, all immigrants and mexican immigrants special more of their recent migrants are having more
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college education than before. you can see that in 2005, mexican population in total was 5%. a college degree or more. so now, looking 2010, you can see the number of mexican education has stayed the same and to send. it increased by the newer close with 10%, to then 16, 14% of those people who have come in the last five years, which would be 2012, forward. they had a college degree or more. it is compared to 47% by all immigrants in the united states. but these numbers don't show is the increased between ten to 14% is higher% increase than from 38% to 47%. again, these are key to note because one of -- it's not only
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decreasing but is also becoming more educated. it is something that i'm sure will bring up the upper conversations. quickly, something we already know for a while, the mexican population is -- 89% of mexican immigrants have been in the united states at least since 2009. again, that's 89% of mexican immigrants in the united states have been in the u.s. since 2009. the population of mexicans that have come since it is only 11% compared to 21% for the other groups. >> i'm sure we have received more attention in the media, the idea of how many immigrants are undocumented in the united states. this is important to note in 2007, 6.9 million mexicans were here illegally.
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this is now a different of 5.9 million in 2016. 6.92007, compared to 5.916. the make -- it's important to note that not all, the majority of mexicans in the united states are legally present. 22% of them are naturalized, 32% of them are lawfully, permanent residence in the united states. or have another legal background. this is the idea that not all mexican immigrants are unlawfully here illegally here. 45% of them are here and that data. another thing that may not be surprising but most mexicans who obtain green cards do so through channels. 87% of the roughly 170 -- 171,000 have become residents
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through relatives or other family members and the nice -- mexican immigrants were much less likely to gain green cards which is only 2% as you can see. compared to overall, the population of 12%. the last thing i'll mention, another big component of the current that's affecting the mexican population is doctor. daca we can see from this graph, over two thirds of mexican immigrants, eligible for this and have applied and received it. 67% of mexicans eligible have received it. this is different compared to 64% of salvadorans, 59% of hondurans, and so forth and so on. the key thing to highlight, the daca problem is predominantly or
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used by mexicans. they represent 87% of the 700,000 cardholders. 80% of the 1700.holders. for mexico. no other country makes up more than 4%. 80% mexican. it increasing their well-being, providing access to employment, access to the bench -- better and more skilled jobs. increase in income, college access, specifically for a woman my goods who are, many of them mexican. i will leave that there. i think we would be able to go back to other questions. that's it for now. [applause]
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>> thank you. some new and surprising in some ways, the mexican population. he is going to give us context for these trends by showing us interesting survey data. perceptions of life in the united states opportunities there and how it shapes their thinking about migration. >> thank you. would you like me to do it from up there? is okay if i got there? >> if you want to. >> okay. good money, everybody. good money everybody. we've been doing a lot of surveys, both in mexico and in the united states. but also of u.s. latinos in the united states.
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mexicans and mexican immigrants make up a large share. our to share with you findings from some of the recent work that we have done. much of this comes from 2018, so this is a pretty recent data. our to give you a sense of, what do mexicans think of the united states and particularly about life in the united states? i also want to show you, what do mexican immigrants in the u.s. think about life in the united states? with a do it again if they could? ... from about two-thirds and the last year of obama two in 201730% and we're still at around the same number for 2018. this is a pattern that we've
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seen happen around the world. mexico is not unique in this perspective. you can also see mexicans have little confidence in you as president. and that taken with regard to donald trump just 6% 6% of mexn adults in 22 unchanged from 2017. they have confidence that president trump. obama's user interest because you can see a variability in both measures during the obama years and president trump isn't the only president who has a low level of confidence among mexicans. in the last few years of bush that was a relatively low level of confidence in president bush at the time. these numbers do change in the breadth and oftentimes reflect various events happening in the u.s. the decline around 2010 is right around the time arizona had introduced s.b. 1070. there was, if you look at the data from 2010 you will notice
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before arizona did this was a much more positive view of the united states and then we were in the field when this happened after the view of the u.s. was substantially lower as a result. some interesting findings about just what mexicans think about the u.s. we've also been asking mexicans about whether or not light is that of those who moved to the u.s. there or whether there's really not all that different from mexico of whether life is worse for those who moved there. you can see people, people from our country moved to the u.s. have a better life. that share has risen in the last year or so. this is only through 17. you don't have 28 numbers available but even so there's a growing share of mexicans see life is better for those of left mexico for the u.s. this is a contrast to the decline we saw for a few years and the last few years of the
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obama administration. this number has moved around some but you should note those who say things are worse are down to 10% in 2017. stay tuned we plan to have one became so stay tuned. that's coming. i want to give you a sense of how many mexicans would like to come to the u.s. if they could. this is the number we been following for some time. there's been a decline in this share who say they would like to and work in the united states. that share is down to about 32%. it was at a high of almost 35, 36% in 2011. they share the say they would do so without authorization has dropped sharply. there is still many mexicans who save you would like to move if they could come if they had the means and opportunity to do so they would leave mexico for the united states. but that share who say they would do so without authorization is lower today than it was just a few years ago. this speaks to the changing nature of mexican migration.
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who is deciding to clinch eventually lead and how might they choose to leave? there's a number of different trends going on that are reflected in this particular finding. from mexico is very interesting. we also want to know that mexican immigrants in the united states. a couple of additional facts about mexican immigrants, as arielle pointed out the number of new arrivals to the united states for years, for four decades, was dominated by new arrivals from mexico. about 2010, 2011 mexican migration have been dropping for some time in india and china were then the largest single cent centers a new bikers to the united states. it's important to note i want to stress as well it's not in the and china have surged. they have slowly been rising for a number of years gets that mexicans new arrivals dropped sharply, dropped precipitously all the way since the great
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recession until today. to give you some sense of this, china and india might be sending that when a 50,000 new arrivals in a given year, mexico is not far behind, about 110, 120,000. there's two new mexican immigrants coming to the united states. when you take a look at the sort of attitudes of mexican immigrants and we did a survey recently of the u.s. hispanic population, here is an important finding that a want to show you that mexican immigrants particularly have become more pessimistic but thinks in the united states, about life in use, about the own lives and it worried about a number of things. more than half said the situation of latinos and the united states is worsened in the last year. by comparison among all hispanics only 49% say that. mexican immigrants are more likely to say things up gotten worse for the group. 61% say that serious concerns about their place in america after trump's election. this is a number that is much i
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that it is for the general hispanic public, only 52% of% of all hispanics say the same thing. mexicans, mexican immigrants who are in the country without authorization or maybe don't have citizenship, they are the ones who are most concerned about the place in america. 71% say they worry they themselves or family member or a friend could potentially be deported. this number for all hispanics is about 55%. mexican immigrants are more concerned about deportation that other groups of hispanics. 64% said they are dissatisfied with the way things are going in the u.s. for all hispanics it's about the same, 65%. hispanics have turned sour on the direction of the u.s. over all. 75% of mexican immigrants say that the trump administration's policies have been harmful to the hispanics. that is higher than it is for
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all hispanics, 67% say the same. as you can see a somewhat of a sense of pessimism, a growing sense of pessimism, concern about the direction of the united states, concerned about a place in america. there's a lot of pessimism in this particular survey. we also didn't ask mexican immigrants at all immigrants by the way in this survey if you could do it again would you come to u.s. all over again? 82% in 2011 mexican immigrants and about 80% of all hispanics said yes, i would do it again. that number is down 70% in 2018. you see the decline in the share of mexicans who say they would do it again. largely more recent arrivals are the ones who are most likely to say i wouldn't do it again if i had a choice. i want to stress the mexican immigrant population is largely settled. many of these folks are not recent arrivals to change their mind. these are oftentimes people who have been here for ten or 20
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years. this is not just a new arrivals story. what about in terms of how they see the united states? this is also from our 2010 survey. 85% 85% of immigrants, mexican immigrants, say the opportunity is better in the united states and it is in mexico. this is little change from 2011. the u.s. this place of opportunity just about where it was back in 2011. what about conditions for raising children? three-quarters of mexican immigrants in the u.s. is the better place than mexico and this is little change from the past. one intent to migrate might be changing, the view of the united states as a place to live for opportunity and for raising children is little change. this is true by the way of all hispanic immigrants. this is not just a mexican immigrant story. finally i want to talk about some of the patterns of migration because we've been talking about net zero. while i would say mexican
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migration is close to net zero, there's been an outflow of mexican immigrants from the u.s. to mexico. if you look at data sources from the u.s. from mexico, this chart shows you over a certain time a number of mexicans coming to the u.s. and the number of mexicans leaving. you can see the orange bar the u.s. to mexico flu and you can see between 2009-2014 more mexicans left and came to the u.s. as many have pointed out the number of mexican immigrants living in the u.s. has been in decline for some time. this story of mexican migration is really sort of people deciding to return home. when you look at mexican survey data as to why people have returned home, the biggest reason is to be with family. about two-thirds of mexican immigrants return to be with family. maybe 15% say they were deported but the biggest reason is to return home. many of returning home late in
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life. they have decided to go home after being in the u.s. for many years and perhaps decided to quote-unquote retire by moving back home and also to be with family. this is an interesting part of the story with regards to mexicans because when we talk about mexicans and your citizenship, mexicans have the lowest naturalization rates in the united states any immigrant group. by our estimates through 2015 about 42% 42% of mexican immigrants who were eligible to naturalize had done so. but for all of the groups of immigrants that number was more like 74%. the other interesting story about mexican immigrants is that meaning they can become u.s. citizens actually haven't done so, and being in the united states for 20 or so years, maybe even more, and still have it quite become a u.s. citizen. it's interesting because as ariel pointed out with his pie chart showing you the legal status of a mexican immigrant
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population, you saw there was a large chunk of people who were lb ours, and while many to become a u.s. citizen, frankly there are millions and millions who haven't done so yet. we have asked in some of our surveys why hasn't that happened. here's the finest mexican immigrants and why haven't they decided to become a u.s. citizen get? about 90% of them say they want to but even that is interesting because it's also true that not everybody who comes u.s. as an immigrant necessarily wants to be a u.s. citizen, people coming for various reasons and some people choose to go home after a few years and never achieve your citizenship whenever apply for it. why did mexican immigrants tell us they have applied yet for citizenship? first, language barriers is one of the big barriers to care what about the test in english. some of them say they haven't tried yet or have told us they are just not interested, which i think is quite interesting. financial barriers, it is expensive to apply.
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about 8% of the time we did the survey said they were currently applying for citizenship. you can see there's a multitude of reasons why people might not have done this just yet, and if you follow the world of the latino vote you know in 2016 there were lots of efforts to get people to naturalize so they could vote. it's no surprise there's a focus on the group because it's such a large population of people who are eligible to do it right now and many of them just have done so. there's a lot more to talk about with regards to mexican immigration, mexican immigrants in the u.s. and i look forward to a conversation in terms of questions but i'm going to stop there and look forward to having this conversation. thank you. [applause] >> thank you so much, mark your company to start the conversation with a few questions have been we will turn to the audience and give you chance to ask yours as well. i wanted to ask you first, you
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both showed the declining immigration from mexico and that the stock of the population has actually declined and you mention some of the reasons people may be returning from the united states back to mexico. could you say both a bit more about why the inflows of down. the abbasid mention immigration enforcement from the united states but what are some of the factors that might be shaping distraint? >> one of the big factors that the ambassador, the ambassador mention to the banquet which is u.s. enforcement at the border. mexico has changed its a different country today in terms of opportunity but as ariel pointed out it's also country whose demographics have changed. when we talk about the potential for migration from a place, how many young people are there? how many young people either don't have a job might be looking for opportunities? as maximus changed its kind has improved, young people have opportunities within the country. you talk to some young people and they will say they want to become an engineer and decide to
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stay in mexico rather than going to the united states. to me it's interesting that the demographics of the country are changing. mexico by the weight is aging just like the rest of the world, and at some point in the coming decades and will actually have -- we will see what happens but that's an important part of the story. >> and if i could add just one thing. in terms of influence, it's one of the things that doesn't often get mentioned is that this also different changes that have the mexican migrants had decide to come to the clinic at the question you have that legally the united states or not coming is very important. the way to come to u.s. has become more expensive, more dangers that all because of the consensus you but also in mexico, violence is of high in certain border states in border towns which has made more difficult for migrants to make the decision on their own. also more that's one thing to be for sure to include your entrants of the other factors as mark pointed out, i think
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education has been key. mexico has focused on primary level education, has been doing better now in secondary level education which is given more opportunities to younger people to see how they can see in the country of origin. this by no means is perfect. we must understand if that there's an increase in economic opportunities for mexico there's also a lot of opportunity in the labor market which often did not provide a full filled wage and, therefore, in the longer term it's still not a complete, compared to the united states still not a better option. you have a mix of factors at least in one hand you want to stress the economic factors in mexico that have made things better, as well as economic factors have been more difficult to come to the u.s. because of the different things that happened in mexico of course. >> mark, your data show kind of a conundrum in a way that people are puzzled that people see that the united states is a less, they may have less opportunities.
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there are more wood enforcement. they see the situation for latinas are immigrants has worsened over time. at the same time your people in the service it just has a lot of opportunity, it's a better place, or economic opportunity. we know our economy is booming come we really strong job growth of their country as if you have thoughts about how is this is g to put out if people perceive a harsh climate and tough policy but also see the opportunity for jobs. what does that apply to what we could expect for future migration trends? >> in the survey we did, we did get this interesting pattern of responses. on the one hand, immediately many the tennessee things have gotten worse and this epitope administrations policies are hurting latinas. they are tying it in many ways to the current administration but when looking to the future, on many different pieces udc latino saying that they believe in the united states or face the opportunity here in the u.s. still. but i would caution that the
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optimism that were used to see among latinos has somewhat diminished in her most recent survey. mexicans are no different in ts particular survey. for example, we asked do you think your children would be better off than you or any future? in the past about three-quarters of latinas used to say yesterday and discovered said it only half do. that's true of republican hispanics, two other hispanic democrats, true of mexicans,, it's true of cubans, it's true of every group has had this decline of about 25 percentage points in the shared expect the kids be better off. i want to follow up and see whether not these healing continues. one other additional piece when it comes to their own finances, many latinas tells things have gotten worse in the last year and i don't expect it to improve. that is counter to the local unemployment rate we are seeing for latino workers, record low, and when it comes to a household income, household incomes for hispanic households have risen faster than any other group in the last year or so according to
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the census bureau. this sense of the environment of what's happening and the connection to the trump administration is something that's reflected in some of these responses in our survey and the pessimism reflects a general pessimism about the u.s. >> i had tons of questions but i like to open it up to all of you and see if anyone in the audience has a question. >> i was really interested in your results from the mexican survey, or surveys over years, and i was just wondering if you have done additional analysis on the responses from traditional regions of mexico to know whether those regions in particular have any trends that would be of interest to us? >> that's a great question. these surveys about a sample size of about 1000 per year. it's it's hard to do a more detailed regional analysis so we don't have that in this
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particular set of service. however we do have a lot of surveys now. we do have this large sample size. it would be interesting to take a look at this and it's something that i hope we can do soon. i would say there are differences in attitudes about the u.s. did not have closer to the u.s. border. if you within about 400 miles of u.s. border in mexico you have more favorable view of the united states than it are far farther way which is interesting because on the u.s. side, the americans who live closest to the border have less capable few of mexico but farther way they have a more favorable view of mexico. there are some interesting differences regionally. >> other questions? >> great talk. the 31% were not interested or just haven't apply for citizenship yet, could you illuminate a little more about some of the major reasons within
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that category? may maybe related to changing v, or seed value of the citizenship? >> that something, that's a great question. in our 2015 2015 survey we askd immigrants who in the country legally, in other words, they have a green card that they haven't achieved citizenship yet, we asked embassies of questions and use of open ended question. so many responses is hard for me to remember all the particular specifics and i can put you to the top line for that, but these categorizations generally reflect this one category. many people said they just were not interested. that was an important part. the other component was also a lot of the responses but i don't know all the details specific of it i have to get back to you about that. i'd be happy to send you the top line. >> other questions? >> my name is mary gardiner who
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come with the u.s. hispanic chamber of commerce and had asked this question may be because it is voting day but i was wondering if anyone on the panel had information about the political affiliation of mexican immigrants in the united states that have been naturalized or which policy issues are most motivating to that community of immigrants? >> in some of the work we've done with look at the political affiliations of mexicans and mexican immigrants. very strongly they identify with or lean towards the democratic party. one of the big drivers of that general statistic for the hispanic population overall, and they are one of the more strongly leaning democratic party groups. when it comes to policy issues, the issues that they tend to point to our economics, healthcare, education, immigration is an issue more so than is for the general u.s. public but again because
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mexicans and mexican immigrants are such a large part of the population there driving the results generally for the hispanic population. this year i will say that the one change we did see is that immigration is now seen as one of the top issues facing the country, just equal to the economy. that's something that is reflective of the general u.s. public as well so it's not unique to hispanics but it's something we saw in the survey. thank you. >> in the others? -- any others? [speaking spanish] [speaking spanish]
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>> i don't know if i have the numbers either and i'm not sure if i understood everything. [speaking spanish] [speaking spanish] [speaking spanish] [speaking spanish] [speaking spanish]
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[speaking spanish] [speaking spanish] [speaking spanish]
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[speaking spanish] [speaking spanish] [speaking spanish] [speaking spanish]
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[speaking spanish] [speaking spanish] [speaking spanish] >> we have an answer in -- let's stick to english just in case everyone -- >> my name is alexandra and i'm going to speak to the panel that if i want to ask because i think it's really important to contextualize it in relation to the conditions of the whole family.
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the children who are citizens here or work project at a young age that a drink that educationally, don't have necessary support system they need at home because their parents may have undocumented status or a a different kind of project status of forces them to be working three jobs and live in purchase conditions and, therefore, they can't support the children in the way that of the emigrant support them. i think that affect significantly aspirations as well as the financial support and other resources they need in order to be able to complete high school and college. the also end up working as well while they're studying that puts it in a very difficult conditions in terms of completing their studies the sink and a support of the groups might have. >> quickly. [speaking spanish]
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[speaking spanish] >> we have two more great panels coming it's unfortunate that in the conversation but please join me in thanking mark and ariel for a great presentation. [applause] >> like to invite our second panel to please come up. [inaudible conversations]
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[inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations]
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>> while we're waiting, alkylated start making introductions. he will be back soon hopefully. so first on the panel we have ramiro cavazos, the president and ceo of the use hispanic chamber of commerce. ..
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represented. elite, the cultural, economic, artistic elite and also the very core one. new york, it's very dramatic. the population is very poor.
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also, have the superstar that arrived to this country, they want to have universal project. it turns out, this is now in the universe for the time being. i started writing about this in what i call next america. it talks about animated, identity. that i believe destroyed the stereotypes that are made about mexican. in the book, the contributions of mexicans, immigrants and sometimes although, a small part
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of my book, the following generations of mexican origin in the art, in science, and technology, in business, in diplomacy. that's one of the things i've seen in the book. i also talk about language and i realize with the book, a great percentage of mexican origin population doesn't speak spanish any longer. my amazement. i have come up with -- the main idea was that we are much more popular. we are very appreciated for our cinco de mayo, but there is so much more. before i share contributions of this remarkable people that i
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put in the book, example of who we are. i want to underline that the american culture is the very, very invisible. it doesn't exist in the united states. why? one thing is that although the contribution of remarkable mixed americans are recognized. we don't even average -- representative of our community. number two, the attention is on it. the narrative has the army documented, how many are undocumented ?
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i'm not talking about immigrants, that would be like six. that's a small part but not the most important. when you in the u.s. or mexico, the border, the undocumented and about 30 -- 36 and a half million people who are contribute to our society. another thing is, mexicans or mexican origin americans, are mexicans. it doesn't happen to them on the journey, by immigrating, nothing happens to them buying by being age, they're identical to their
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-- there is no merging of the mexican american culture. i see the population of a mexican origin, isolated from asian american, african-american, american jew. those are the main ones. let me go to people, i think a few people because i live in the new york, an example is i think probably very small compared to reality. i started with the arts because i think the arts in the u.s. has been enormous. people like talking about self power, i don't think self power.
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i think it's one of the most powerful forces of who we are. the mexican culture is very strong. it's a very important factor, i don't know anything about it when i came to this country. he was, he came during, he immigrated to the united states. it was a well respected artist. one of the main things he did is that he brought the work of picasso to the united states. this man, the beginning of modern art in this country, how the modern art change from paris
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to new york. before he was very important, and all the parts of mexico, before he was an important anthropologist, before researching, about 12 years to new york, a very important connection. made illustrations that portrayed the elite in a particular way. then what's fascinating, the african american, a diverse of jazz, the blues, what happening is the white population had no clue about it. he was the first in illustrations and in fact,
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copied throughout the world and became what it was supposed to look like. that's important he was organized with the most important exhibits at the moment. it was called 20 centuries of a mexican art. another important thing is, he brought kinds of artists that together, created what we now call modern art. martha, eugene, nicholas, who else? etc. so he was an important element in the birth of modern art in
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this country. and of course mexico, too. all over this country. but not only that, some of the most important of the united states. for example, george -- went to mexico to study. people that made the first mural in this country, no? [speaking in spanish] then we have the museum that was dedicated, one of the most important people was dedicated to the promotion of latin american. hispanic manic american art,
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also underlined the importance of what i've talked so far, i've learned from him. the importance of this art that came from latin america, on the birth of modern art in the united states. a lot of people don't know about this, art. one of the five final years of modern art, with the revolution, he really, the role of him, really owes a lot to it. he was also quite important in portraying using the body as an expressive force. his is a natural thing but it's
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not. what's interesting is the universal things, but also and often, with mexicans came chapters in mexican history or traditions. for example, another mexico and the united states especially new york, one that comes to mind, happier. his real name is -- it means moon, serpent. he was originally from the town, he was able to transform into an animal physically or spiritually.
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but basically, he put on stage the story of marta. the transformation of being an migrant into new york. it's quite fascinating as an immigrant, as an artist, for anybody to see. then we have our musicians. he made his most original and mexican work in new york. he was a very good friend. he spoke about classical music of the america. transferred it into ran romanticism into a modern music. something that contains something that was in the new world. we have tons of composers today.
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juilliard, i have to look at my notes, the head of the music. then we have latin american, four brothers, one of them is -- contemporary latina and american music. you would have to read the book to find out why this happened. the three amigos, and journalism we have jorge, mariana, but we also have people in other areas. for example, a bunch of authors, stories the one of doctor duell.
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a movie about his life. he started -- >> we could continue. the opportunity, now for a meal. >> [speaking in spanish] [speaking in spanish] and very honored that our ambassador, who spent many -- san antonio, has served both nations. i myself, work in washington. my home is in san antonio and i sleep on planes. i just wanted to say that i will do my best to give you a sense
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of the mexican experience in two parts. the first is, my own personal story, my family in texas, then the second part will be more historical perspective of what mexicans have experienced in the u.s. even though they were here before they came to the u.s. when we use the word immigrant or migrant, although it's usually treated to mexicans, it's really not accurate. the japanese have a saying that you drink the water, you need to remember who dug the well. for me, perspective is so important. the first part, i'll do this quick, i promise. i'll open up to questions, my story. i can trace my personal story, but my family to 6020. this is not the grapes or the
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rest -- my father is a six generation texan. he was born in the small town. those of you that don't texas, 10 miles from mexican border. the small ranching community, dad was a descendent. he came from spain and settled in what is now south texas, northern mexico. he came to serve castille and spain as a young adult. in 1628. those became the state. he married in 1630. we love ancestry in my family. we wanted to figure out where he came from. for more than a century, they didn't go north.
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in those days, there were many native americans and the spanish did not move. with mexicans of the river, because of the pure of warriors at the time. they didn't want to give up the land. also later why that's important. at the time, these were invaders from the south. the 1700s, spain decided to divide the land in texas into large land grids. there was no risk to this but it was certainly a hazardous for the people living there. 1781, my ancestor, my father's grandfather, received hundred thousand acres. is a spanish with 9900 cattle. it's what today is king bill. was a fast, at the time -- during those time, as most
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families in those days, they were pretty prolific. they had ten, 12, 14 kids. over the years, they lived under the town of this same mexico. the republic of texas, u.s., the confederacy, the united states. they received the largest land in the area and account known as lewis -- counties. over the years, it was invited by the family and we still have a little bit of -- over years, they sold it or it was lost. traded off into other parts were given up. my grandfather was born in 1890. he helped cofound a small town. his first cousin was the first appointee by ronald reagan in
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1988. the first latino in the history of the rest and he was president at the tech university. richard, his brother, my dads -- a retired general latino. mexican heritage to achieve that range rank. the me give you the story of why we are here today. he drafted a piece that he called mexicans and immigrant america. we've always been here. i mentioned, i can trace might ancestry to 1820. down the street and summary asked me, i would imagine that person resides in the house, my heritage. we've lived in the u.s. before it was the u.s. we are not going away. the chatter of building a wall, very disappointing. more than anything it's insulting.
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these accusations that mexicans are criminals and rapists, is unfair. this record, the sentiment, it's really affected the questions that he is asking, achievement especially of people over time, pushing them down. but we will persevere. i'm an optimist. i know that we are going, this is a very proud people. in the early 1800s, this country, it was field by a the manner best destiny. i love history. the u.s. wanted to go to the pacific ocean and hit asia. guess who is in the way? mexico. inconveniently, in the way. the treaty and did a two-year mexican american in 1848. texas, new mexico, arizona,
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nevada, colorado, wyoming to the u.s. they inherited native americans and millions of mexicans. the long lived on the land. u.s. army responded by dealing with native americans by walking them 150 miles to eastern new mexico and many of them died back to what were internment camps or reservations. dealing with the much larger group of mexicans, many of our ancestors, landowners, officeholders, lawyers, bankers and members of the clergy was more complex. it relates to my story earlier of achievement. the government mexicans to reservations. our customers our language, our values, our food, our communities, part of america is today. we are nation that is already very mexican.
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with the u.s. government has over the years or not. the u.s. government has done its best to make these citizens foreigners in their own land, and made them feel unwelcome to. over the years. congress passed in 1862, the homestead act allowing americans what they had passage to the west, the manifest destiny, apply for land in exchange for farming. this was where they took the land from. they took it from the mexicans. they had already lived there. even the way those laws were interpreted, were in spanish, the control said only contracts can be in english, then that contract is no longer legal. during the great depression, many of you know that the u.s. deported to bennion to mexicans. more than half of those were
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u.s. citizens. they were deported to a country that did not know. the history of bigotry, exclusion, doesn't mean anything. we are still here. we are seeking to close the stable doors a century and half later after the first. as we say in texas. we are a part of americans society, latinos today, should be 1.5 trillion dollars in purchasing the tenth largest economy in the world. latinos as it relates to the u.s., the chamber of commerce my day-to-day work. i'm an optimist because we controlled the future workforce. we controlled the future of vendors, we do business in this country and we also are the largest and fastest grossing growing consumer basis. for this country. latino businesses, 86% of small
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business between 2007 and 2012, attributable by latinos. there are a lot of jobs for latinos, and non- latinos. there is no wall as you all know, long enough to exclude us from this country. but 2061, we are not confined to our ancestral geography in the great southwest. the fastest growing latino communities today, north dakota, alabama, georgia, pennsylvania, louisiana, south dakota and utah. there is a reason why montana mexicans live there, too. it's really went on you. mexicans are here to say 33 million latinos have been born in the u.s. it will only keep us in. not keep us out.
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i just want to conclude, by sharing with you, that as we look to the future, and open it up to questions, 80% of the doctor that are mexican, they are mexican. of the three richest people in the world, two of them are latino. last thing i want to point out, economic component relates to our future and mexicans live abroad within the u.s. also are been more than $30 billion. it is about economic development and immigration from mexico. it has gone in reverse. more people, americans are moving. then are moving from mexico to hear. want to think everyone for your faith and your optimism. today is election day. we need to go out to vote. thank you very much. [applause]
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>> i've got a question for you. we're short on time. auto straight to the question from the audience. are there any questions? please raise your hand. here's the microphone. >> also the question. i was just curious to hear the panel's impressions. i'm also from texas. i think there's few non- mexican latinos who haven't been insulted by this. not because being held by -- i think it's not pleasant to be called something that you're not in be treated by individual. i think because the other way. mexicans me -- they made the impressions of other latino groups. those countries, do affect how people are perceiving that he
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knows in the united states. the book of them. i wonder if you have any thoughts to share as the part first panel went into how mexican immigrants in the united states, becoming more diversified and accomplishments of mexican immigrants and mexican americans. you have any thoughts to share on how the community can sort of distance itself from these other groups if it's beneficial to anyone? >> i think in places like new york, especially new york where the minority. not for long -- it's very convenient label of latino. i think the use it when it's convenient and whenever it's not convenient, no. sometimes it's humble.
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for example, speaking about latino voice, why is it not the main concern, immigration. for some people, it's not. when they have other concerns, they have other concerns. when you are in texas, also i think, if i went 3 kilometers out, it would be a different world. everybody has their t-shirt. if you didn't have one, it's because you had a shirt on. it's very mexican american. it's very close to the border. the presence has been there for a long time. you go to ime or new york and the reality is, latinos is
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different. also, for example, the label chicano, the mexican origin in new york, immigrant. i don't recognize that myself. i don't belong to that history, that time period. in texas, sometimes it's not mexican american. but my answer. >> i would add to that, rememb remember, judgment by the name of walking. he said something that stayed with me forever. being hispanic is a state of mind. when you think about it, latinos are hispanic, it's not a race. we could be cam ideas and be part cumin and blonde haired,
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light, brazilian and speak portuguese and be dark skinned and beautiful and you could be asian and latino if you're filipino and speak -- and all of us that formed this, hispanic or latino, or mexicana -- or whatever we call ourselves, i meet a lot of latinos today who don't care. they have been given a level label, they could be somebody named morgan and they may have lost their spanish and part of that diversity in being american now and i think, as we move forward, we will have any labels as we have today. i think labels counterproductive. anybody who wants to be latino,
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they can. [laughter] >> as a non- mexican latina, i think the good thing is that, we have to become very careful in how we divide ourselves, we are all immigrants and the others to put it somehow. i think there's a lot more incumbent in the experience. then even where you come from sometimes. so i think you have to be careful about dividing more instead of coming together. there's a lot of fight. there's a lot of fights that we have together. >> have a question for you. do you know, seven generation, texan. your personal history is really fascinating. i see that precisely, providing
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all this information -- >> refugees. >> very, very interesting. we need to know more. especially this environment that is for continuing. who have the recognition. how we can do to promote for example, you say in your book, this mexican american, are understood even in mexico. how can we increase the understanding of mexican american communities? how can we have america education -- seven generation and recent arrivals. the only -- >> you only thing i would say is that as whether you are first or seventh, thinking like an -- the
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mindset that my family has maintained. even after having been here so long, they still are very passionate about latino. they feel like they said earlier, we are all together in this. whether keep incorporated puerto rican, or seventh generation or first generation, if it doesn't matter. i think that we should not allow anyone to divide us. we need to be united. that's why i'm very excited because the worst kind of determination is financial. or economic determination. is the color green. it's companies that i represent that don't have a contract with the u.s. the permit of defense. that's the largest in the world. for me, if we are going to be
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successful, to education, the financial strength and it through nafta and its through agreements that give us as a north american continent, the ability to compete in an economy using mexican the u.s. as a fantastic economic bridge for our jobs. in our companies. that's why i mention them. the 4.7 million small businesses. that's really our focus. whether we are cuban or mexican or texan or colorado, and my creating jobs or wealth for my family? we are ready to put -- my dad had a thing -- [speaking in spanish] through want to be where the action is out. we don't want any limitation. we are going to compete and win. >> i have a story to tell.
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i hope that being immigrated happens. however, mexicans have always been second in this country. the mexicans themselves, don't help. i was speaking a month ago with an important leader. one of the reasons why things did not and, was that everybody was advancing human rights causes. he doesn't want to speak with him. that's the problem. another thing is, owning who you are. the panel with writers last week, both of them were dreamers. i'm blown. i look very different than them. we come from completely different social, educational
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background. their parents never went to school. one of them said, he really suffered, was not considered a mexican writer. i said, precisely for the you are not. she was not happy. but she's not. she's a max american. she has nothing to do with the experience of mexico. she has expense of being a child of this country. it is being discriminated. especially in texas. so i think, it's not like dividing herself. i think to underline the great successes, which i see many groups doing. especially now. it's very important because i think there's a lot of
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stereotypes in this country. we are undocumented workers, we are all excreted education. we have this image stuck i really think you have to fight that that's not the case. it's not meeting one person who decides the stereotype. there are so many more. i think because of the movement. there are many groups. a new group that i really trying to enter,. >> thank you. there are initiatives and many conversations that are trying to understand. one of them is the american mexican association. that is the initiative that is
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american. we are hearing more from part of this community. i want to precisely have mexican american community here. i think there are probably more questions. however, we reached our time limit. i would like to think the center in institute. around of applause. [applause] >> thank you again. we'll start now with our third period.
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>> i'm rachel. on the program associate at the mexico institute. our to everyone for being here today. i think that this panel is quite important given that the data that we saw in the first panel of more mexicans returning to mexico now that are coming. with that, i want to introduce our panelist here. we have alonso. she's the associate professor.
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the current holder of the eugene and thing professor for excellence in teaching and mentoring. second, we have maggie. maggie was born and mexico. she migrated undocumented thing with her family at the age of two. maggie is living in mexico for the last they could. 2014, she interviewed her experience to a book called dreamers. this formed into an organizati organization. she is a cofounder. with that, we will start. >> thank you. thank you for the interpretation to participate. i want to start talking about what happens in the aftermath of deportation. i appreciated everything that i heard the previous panel. i think it's important to now focus our direction to what
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happened. i want to share a little bit. i work with an organization by and for the community that, i group in the united states and lived in the u.s. i have been back to mexico. the deportation of our family members, forced to return at the end of the day, it's also a systemic place of having to leave the country. i wanted to talk a little bit about the city. and of the increasing numbers of what happened, according to any countries. in mexico, people that get deported or people that have voluntary parts. the same thing as being deported. it's important to think about other people that are returning. we don't have numbers, a lot
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about that. all the people that deported with their families, the policy that we are living now. separating families. the diversity, i think it's important to talk about the diversity and the people that are returning and being deported. it's important to not categorize only one. i think it's very important and having breaks in the experiences, the places where people are within mexico. i think that's important. it's not the same thing, returning to mexico. returning were people are having to fight. because of the violence in situation. it's important to think into consideration, the gender, and also the age. many people are returning who are now 35, 40 and mexico is discriminating a lot in terms of the age. it makes it hard for people to
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get started in the labor market again. the language is also very important. health conditions. as well, what does it mean to return to mexico? i will come back to mexico by the government. it's funny but many of us are undocumented. once we arrive to mexico. it's very difficult to get access and identities documented. we've been seeing and talking a lot about mexico, it's complicated to have access. that's very, it's terrible because they are the rest of the rights get violated if you don't have identity. which is more complicated to get access to health, and access to a job and even renting a room. or a house or anything. it's hard. there are no shelters for peop people. people, when they get deported after living 20 to 30 years in
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the u.s., they have to go to the shelters that are for homeless people. that's not the same profile. it makes it worse for people. the low wages and poor working conditions is also something that is affecting families that are returning. in terms of revalidation, it's also been very hard in the last years. were part of the change is to the norms. now, it makes it easier to be able to revalidate u.s. studies in mexico. but now, the biggest challenge is implementing. there are a lot of nice laws, challenges to implementing the laws. the programs in mexico, are not many programs that are specifically for the need to the community. it's very challenging because they try to insert deportees returnees that are already, it's
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very different. it makes a challenging to get into the program. it's a program where a strategy that was implement and by the mexican government. we have seen day by day, it is not very efficient. there is no follow-up on cases. they give you pamphlets, fires, but there is not a real follow-up. and also, there needs to be evaluations if the progress programs are effective or not. there needs to be communication. there is not. that makes it also very challenging. i think there needs to be political will overall. it has to be seen as expansive deportation.
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not as something immediate or something that is urgent. need to -- in these to be seen as a process. it's not seeing that weight by now. we need to start thinking that narrative. we do a compliment, we have been able to trade different routes for poor people to get access to the different identities and document that there are. and have access to healthcare, and even if they need a place to stay, we are working in collaboration with other organizations. it's important the accompaniment that we go about it. family reunification is important as well. it's something that is not really talked about and many of the families coming in getting deported, they don't talk a lot about it.
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the most important thing, but it's something that is harder to achieve. to be able to go back and be with your family. that is the most difficult thing. mexico is not talking about it either. cannot talking about what happens what happened with their families that get operated. it's very important. they do crowd funding to support people but there can be policies to talk about this topic. in terms of mobility, the community as it was mentioned, a lot of people don't want to come back undocumented. most of us are fighting and will continue to fight for mobility. after applying for it, in the same way, we want to support more and more people who have established in mexico but separated from their families they also want to have the
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ability to go back to their countries and communities, the space. is more and more important because everyone that i've talked to and met in the last four or five years, they'll say it want to have their mobility. not everyone says they want to come to the u.s. again, others do. others may not. it's very important to have this mobility. the reality of being exiled. we recently -- a community cultural for our community and mexico city. the heart, the downtown of mexico city. it's a place of, if you think about things replaced, this would be one. a safe place where people can speak english, english, use any language they speak. it's a space for that. it's a space to be able to tal talk -- the existence of the place is an action of
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resistance. that we have been living in mexico for many years. i deportation, return. and also transnational organization. it's very important more and more. after i was able to do my visa, the amazing how when i talked to group organizations, anybody, they get surprised about deportees in mexico? there has been deportees and mexico. i think we need to start talk more about it here. i can understand getting deported and we don't want to talk about it but i think it's very crucial. start working together and not be divided or less to support of undivided. work together on them. people on the side, as well, we could to support and see all the people that get deported or recent to mexico. that they don't go through the same experience as we did. i think it's important to start
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organizing transnational and collaborate the favor of the family reunification. thank you very much. [applause] >> figure, making. >> thank you very much. i agree with the ambassador this morning who pointed out the importance and of this conversation and how timely it is. i want to emphasize that it's not just because of the political context in the u.s. and how much it's mattered right now. the elections holding today in the general. the debate around this since the election. but also because there has been a change in government in mexico. the elections. that has also opened up new conversations around the need
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for change in mexico's migration policies as well. so i want to start by addressing the topic of the panel which is the idea of a change in mexico migration flows. it doesn't just mean that we are talking about a decrease in immigration. for all the reasons that we are expanding the morning. also, more and more in the last few years, not just as a country of immigration but also as a country of transit, a country of asylum and innovation of return and deportation and also of internal displacement. addressing the idea of the title, many of these movements are not gentle at all. that has to do with the context of violence in mexico that coincided with the changes on the problem in the morning. the movements that are much more
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precarious conditions. immigration or asylum or even referring. that creates difficult conditions that needs to be addressed from a holistic perspective. that means looking on all these movements as a whole rather than directional movement where program that is supporting migrant and the u.s. consulate has to have match with program in mexico in order to continue these processes. for asylum seekers in mexico. i think that is one of the main things. that's what mexico has been pushing for. we have had a development in mexico of a vision and policies of law and reflect reality in the discourse. we talk very much about a comprehensive corporal holistic policy. the programs have developed from this perspective. the implementation of that
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taxation is where there has been a huge gap. part of that has to do with issues that -- for example, the lack of collaboration and political will. different from the u.s., the deal with mexican in mexico, very much separated between foreign ministry and secretary of labor's, and it's very difficult to really have an intersection of a holistic. approach in practice. so the development and implementation of them. there's also a significant lack of structure and resources to devote the program that has a very progressive vision. they are founded on ideas around the right rather than security. they are becoming security focused programs. the resources available are mostly focused on the area with support from the u.s. rather than on the vision that they
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represent. there's a huge need for infrastructure and resources on issues like return, asylum and immigration. and also support for populations in transit. >> another aspect of this is the fact that there are limited to fully participate in the process of implementation. there are an opening in mexico in the last 20 years. they have become much stronger in addressing this issue and having a voice. that has led to the changes in policies and a different discourse around migrations. focusing more toward human rights. the reality, to participate in the implementation of these programs. very limited and very few panels for that. there's a significant to open up in this regard. >> finally, they face
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discrimination. so many of the exclusions that migrants face in this country and that we've talked about earlier in terms of their lives here in the kinds of challenges they face, and the u.s. are very much present in mexico. maggie talked about the return and have returning are very much excluded, not just institutionally, but from the society itself. and who see them as mexican enough or discriminate them because of the accident or the way they dress or they look different. it's a very similar discourse that it is used against central american migrants and migrants from the caribbean and other places that are criminals and not deserving opportunities. they take our jobs and the discourse that takes place in the united states. fundamental need for society to change in mexico.
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and how the migrants coming to the country but also those that are abroad and returning. >> want to just support that and look at opportunity for change. , to talk about some of the examples that have been developed in the context of immigration here in the u.s. using example of these types of holistic and collaborative approaches. when i starting from -- we have created programs that have demonstrate the ability to share collaboration across the countries and civil society, public and private institutions in the u.s. and mexico. these are programs that are social rights within the consulate. they are mostly addressing propagation with precarious, but it also talk about the other groups.
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the migrants and are arriving and need to understand how institutions work in the united states and how to access educational programs, health programs, how to get insurance, if you're undocumented, what options are available. how to fight for labor rights and organize and join a union. how to be able to join a bank and have credit and be able to save in order to send your child to college. more naturally, programs where the consulate supports you in filing the application. or even gaining access to court. running english are learning how to take the citizenship test. all of these programs that i can discuss further, proven, through
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the consulate that is on initiatives developed in the organization. the result of partnerships between various institutions that share resources. the consulate here becomes an important bridge and a state that provides this cultural with migrants feeling more accountable and at ease. reaching out different organizations that are present there. in participating programs that are governments sponsored by the u.s. from osha or the department of labor or the u.s. -- were normally there is concerned that they don't speak english well enough. it might compromise a family member. it provides space where the interactions are possible. it addresses not that's the immediate programs problems but a broader sense of the need for access to social economic and political rights.
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i just want to give a quick example of a quote from a former accident. he's basically talking about this idea of becoming integration centers. there focusing more on this opportunity within the u.s. for migrants regardless of their status. also, joining mexicans and latinos in his purpose, building on what's a mexican issue but a shared issue among all their populations. gaining access to all these different rights and not just protections and immediate urgent concerns. some of the opportunities and of course, this great and can be an example of something positive and a move in a different direction and how we normally talk about these issues and how they play out in the bilateral, they also pre-present challenge in contradictions. on the one hand, the more tangible example of what their
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responsibility looks like. beyond the macrolevel of creating an agreement is the investor said. a collaboration that can help support the actual needs of migrants in this country. and also prepare them, if the end up returning, or the opposite of returning, but they will already have education that they bring back to the countries. also, a collaboration that is mexico, u.s., but it is regional. it includes central american migrants and the countries participate in the health fairs and resources for these purposes. or the mexican consulate provide active for any nationality. to participate in vaccines or hiv or other issues. original collaboration rather than it's clear that that's where the it is today.
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thinking very immediately about the caravan. at the same time, they had left behind other issues. there's been a focus on the migrants that are abroad. how they can be a concentration to the u.s. when they -- that sick person who has been lauded as a hero and deserving of all this report. that person crosses the border, back to mexico, whether voluntarily or not, there is no that. not about discourse, none of the support. a historical issue, even though there's a discourse, land, the reality is there is no, it's a history that is spelled. it has had an underlying angle,
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rather than coming back. it's a liability. because of the strength of the conflict on the economic political system. as part of the lack of response and circularity of these flows. there is lack of institutional conditions of poverty and violence in other issues. the whole of the population that are very clearly exposed when they came back. the same conditions as they left are there. or worse. they create these many other exclusions. to think that this service and programs that i talked about are not well known. either in the u.s. or mexico. the public is around what are the possible ways, very much
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still limited within a framework of security, control and collaboration at a high level. rather than more local examples of day-to-day collaborations that are more about the daily realities. another aspect is, in the work that maggie and other organizations of migrants use, have developed in recent years. very much informed by activism strength the u.s. back-and-forth is not just economic but also political and social skills. the fact that they have been mobilized of the high level in the u.s. in developed new vocabulary and strategies. they have also informed their work in mexico and their ability to organize and informing new kinds of coalitions and work to address realities they are facing in mexico. also with the vision of
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addressing the national perspective. we're not just fighting for our rights here. and for our communities here. tesla, from here and there, addressing these product challenges, not just reality of the migrants that is arriving in this particular moment the whole process of what return means. that includes mental health, a lot of term additions. not just about the migrant but also the communities that they are embedded in their also facing challenges and barriers to access to education and political participation. but of course, one of the challenges, we are just expressing this reality, agile process of political participation and influence in mexican political discourse. i think there is a water
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learning because it's not just adopting the skills from the dreamer's movement here in the u.s. mexico mexico, a whole new institutional structure and political system and how to society institutional practices how to participate. whether it's effective or not is a strategy for change. that's is happening now. it has a potential to transfer between the two countries. orange went on this note of hope. thank you very much. [applause] >> to thank you both. i'll ask this one question. you both spoke about the challenges that when coming back to mexico and some of the strategies on the way, i'm wondering if all these are correct, what opportunities and contributions this population could to mexico given their unique perspective? >> i'm trying to imagine what
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would be all implemented. i think, as i said, acknowledging it as a process and not only maybe integration but more as acknowledging the process that we have, it could definitely create not only implement in mexico, everything without but also the communities already in mexico who have been struggling but also have been part of the movement and a lot of mexico. we will be able to see better in a job and be able to more businesses and maybe the education. there's a lot that we can contribute. i think it's not just us. they need to seek everyone. as part of something greater than just us. maybe switching the narrative of
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what you contribute to mexico or maybe all this talent, the economy of mexico, we need to look at it as part of something more. >> see a lot of potential. i agree with maggie. economic contributions part. is out of creates the deserving migrant and the undeserving. but more into a broader perspective. the contributions in terms of the social fabric, the company met and realities, a different way of thinking about communities. and breaking up lies between us and them in saying the work that we are doing. not just about getting assistance or protection, it's about of us working together to a different form of society.
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i think that there is a lot of potential and thinking about it. i just locally, but trans locally. between the two countries, that's power. bilingual, bicultural, members of two societies. i think it's very really important strength that we can build on. the invasion of our societies and even beyond mexico. think regionally. they're all enough connections. i think that has a potential of really reshaping our society in the region. >> l open up for questions. i work at the public charter school. that's a great idea.
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in my experience, with the majority of immigrants, is that the consulate are overwhelmed. it's an effort with maggie wants, so whether i am document it or not, have to start by registering the kids. first inform us, because that way if i ever get deported, or i have to get the kids, they will also be asking and hormone. the other thing, i want to stress upon, mental health component. there is a mental health component here in there. the problem is that what happe happens, you don't belong here
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because you were not born here and you don't belong there either. there is a mental health component, the bridge that, i don't know what you think but it is a bridge in your experience into the groups experience, that is the bridge that feels your ability to accept whatever is the one you're in. >> i agree. i think the community building is really part of this. mental health, a huge barrier. a sense of belonging in the sense of community. just to give an example, the program that listed there, he tries to what we're talking earlier, education for kids,
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immigrant parents, a young age, has to do with the fact that their parents have low budget level education. the lack of opportunities for jobs and give them more time with her children. it gives them access to literacy programs and the opportunity to complete their spanish and gives them a sense of identity. it's the most important part they respond to. what did you gain for it is fitting? our community. i feel like i learned about my own and we are all building something together. that's something we don't have in mexico. it's a place that is built around government. then you have the schools and between the organizations participating.
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it's not just down but. those are the spaces where you can build something. it's also for mental support and it's doing for example, the opportunity to teach english. people in the community, another example of these beautiful processes where education needs community building. the sense of belonging. skills and growth and improving lives. >> i would just, that's a great example. also, we are working on where we are addressing the issue of mental health. it's important because it's hard in mexico, experiences that we've had, get over it, you're in mexico already, i think there needs to be more acknowledging the experience that we've had. not only excepting.
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we are not going to accept that we are only in mexico enough to think when we are from here or there, that's what we're fighting for. also to acknowledge, meeting the case of masco, it's a way of feeling. just the fact that you meet summary else, that you can relate to, can be also a way whether your situation is, it's something that we have in common. for people on the site as well were also does not have this ability. we are supporting each other. >> former question. >> my question is.
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for example, in this country, the legal documents. how do you support mexico because they have the same situation? we fight a lot with the united states. they have the same problems, when they came to this country, this country for more opportunity, more jobs, we have a lot of. i support the mexican people, do support such an american people? >> i think that the important. we talked a lot about that.
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especially because you have a lot of things in common. one of the things is that we were undocumented and other countries. our parents we countries, in this case, mexico. i think that's something that we are thinking about everyday. now that we have this other person in mexico as being citizens, with documents in mexico, what does that mean? i think that we are there to keep an eye on what is having. we are there to tell him government we are paying attention and we are not going to let or allow the rights be violated of the people. they are fleeing and fling because of poverty. because of violence, because of things that are happening in their countries of origin. being in that position, that is something we are doing.
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you're participating in mexico city right now. we're the human rights commission. the response of going everyday to support in our communities right now. just working with the caravan and the citizens migrate. in collaboration with all the other organizations. i think we have -- we don't have an option. we need to be there in support and every way possible. there are many people that they support him central america and they joined the campaign. a lot of people are in this because of the family separation. i think there is no difference between us and them. we don't want to -- we want to have labels. we want to be together. >> i think it's clear that most of us on the day-to-day challenges have come from me to
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the organization. and from a strong network of developing since the late 1990s across the whole migration route. they are the ones providing the immediate assistance. also doing a lot of the advocacy work. it can change and resources can be provided. we do have a strong legal framework. it supports this. was reformed or created in 2011. but the problem like is that earlier, is implementation. there are limited resources for refugees. there's a huge backlog of asylum applications. therefore, a lot of people give up. or return to the countries or leave the shelters and places where they are at. that's what resources need to be put in in order to make this
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available. the mechanisms that have been created like temperature every program so they can say in the country temporarily and work temporarily. then make a decision about whether to continue their journey or return to the country. all of this already exist. but in a context where there is opportunity in a large presence of criminal organizations. that include the police and immigration authorities. therefore, it creates a lot of violence in response. the new government has proposed an alternative which focuses on development. focusing on economic development but also in the region and promising that migrants come from mexico will have access to jobs but there will be created for both mexicans and central americans. the challenges, when we see effects of policies and will be,
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still going to the immediate responses. the framework while we wait for the development of the economic programs. >> with that, we will conclude. on to think you all for coming out today. for those of you voting, thank you again. [applause] [inaudible] [inaudible conversations] booktv
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is an prime time this week. tonight's focus is readers and publishers. beginning with john interview of author james mcbride. marion, reader from home, booktv is an prime time beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern. here on c-span2. coming up, thanksgiving weekend, c-span network. on c-span, thursday at 8:00 p.m. eastern, supreme court justice followed by chief justice john roberts, friday at 8:00 p.m. eastern new jersey, the opioid
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