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tv   Leonard Mlodinow Stephen Hawking  CSPAN  November 4, 2020 1:52pm-2:54pm EST

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>> weeknights this month refuting book tv programs as a preview on what's available every week and on c-span2, tonight we focus on biographies and memoirs, first edward looks at white supremacy through the lens of his great-great-grandfather, member of the ku klux klan in louisiana during after the years of the civil war, larry tied recounts the late republican senator joe mccarthy of wisconsin. later sarah broom discusses her national book award winning memoir the yellow house. watch tonight beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern, enjoyed book tv this week and every weekend on c-span2. >> you are watching book tv on c-span2, every weekend with the
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latest nonfiction books and authors. c-span2 created by america's television company as a public service and brought to you today by your television provider. >> as far as i can tell, we probably have -- i know leonard has readers from all over the world, he has readers until the united states, canada, mexico, haiti, jamaica, peru, caribbean, puerto rico, venezuela, guatemala, argentina and brazil, costa rica bermuda, san juan and probably even pasadena. [laughter] >> thank you rob. >> take you everyone for joining us for this evening's event my
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name is kim and i'm the host of tonight's event. before we begin i want to encourage you all to check out our lineup of upcoming virtual events by visiting the website one of our upcoming events is tiffany and conversation with ellie about the new book say it louder, black voters, white narrative and saving our democracy. that is next friday the 18th. as well please remember to follow us on twitter, facebook, and instagram, tonight we are honored to welcome leonard mlodinow and rob polson. leonard received his phd in theoretical physics from the university of california berkeley, was in alexander fellow at the max planck institute. and was on the faculty of california institute of technology. his previous books include the bestsellers, the green divide and a briefer history of time
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both with stephen hawking and subliminal the winner of the science award and war of the worldviews. as well as elastic, siemens rainbow and the appraising thinkers. rob joins us as evening for conversation about his new book stephen hawking a member of friendship and physics, one of the most influential physics about time he touched the lives of millions. recalling his two decades as stephen hawking's collaborator and friend he brings the complex man into focus in a unique and deeply personal portrayal. he puts us in the room as hawking indulges his passion for white and curry ensures his feelings on one, death and disability in the philosophy and physics. it's deeply affecting account of friendship touches -- teaches us not just about the nature and
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practice of physics but about life in the human capacity to overcome daunting obstacles. leonard mlodinow is joining conversation by rob polson, he has been a voice actor for nearly three decades and is the voice of pinky from pinky and the brain, teenage mutant ninja turtles and jimmy neutron. he is one in me award, peabody award and three emmy awards for his voice acting. his memoir voice was released last year ironically a man who uses his voice for work found himself with throat cancer but he has thankfully recovered and is now the spokesperson for the hmc eight oral head and neck cancer awareness program. this evening's event will include a q&a, please use the q&a button at the bottom of your screen if you'd like to ask a question, if someone typed a question you would like to know
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the answer, please upload the question by clicking the button. most important please consider supporting leonard mlodinow by purchasing a copy of his new book. i'll link will be shared in a couple minutes. leonard, rob, it's a pleasure to welcome you both, thank you for joining us. >> a great pleasure. thank you. well said. as an armchair who makes his living doing essentially brought got me trouble in high school, i tell you this is a marvelous book, thank you very much leonard for lowering your standards with respect to speakers, thank you for having me on board. >> they keep doing this rob. >> my pleasure. >> full disclosure, your fabulous really handsome genius
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child helps me with my own social media marketing and the apple didn't fall far from the tree, he's a delightful, smart bright young man and i'm very grateful to have them in my life. thank you. well done. just in case there are folks who are watching who are transfixed by all of the stuffs surrounding may not be aware of stephen hawking as others, can you briefly explain what stephen hawking's places and physics in the history of physics. >> stephen went to school in the 50s he went to oxford and then graduate school at cambridge and he had his undergraduate while users even as graduate school and he had a revelation after that, before that he was a goof
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off and due to his illness he found a purpose in life, meaning in his life and he decided he wanted dedicate the last years two fundamental questions about our existence, basically why are we here, how did we get here how did the universe get here and why is it the way it is. those are not questions that people were asked in the 1960s and the systems, he even asked out of berkeley. >> the areas that he chose to study to adjust the questions, the first one is very obvious the early universe beginning of the universe and the other is a black hole which is much obvious but not many people were interested in those areas either back then because people thought that you cannot observe them,
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physics is an experiment or observational science and people thought you cannot look back to the beginning of the universe and will number from the blackhole. so why study them theoretically. it's turned out as a footnote that technology advances we can study and we know the famous pictures from a few years ago of the blackhole. but back then it seemed like we would never get there. there are some people working on it but the iconic fizzes, he said they were a bunch of dopes. . . .
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later in the 1970s he started to apply quantum with advances and he realized that you can't ignore quantum theory in those areas as people have been doing and he found new results. the sum total of all of this is that he took his field of cosmology in the study of early universe in the black hole related to that and he took it from a back log and made it one of the hottest fields in physics. his combining of the quantum theory he was a pioneer in really the probably looking forward to the holy grail of physics which is uniting the theory so by doing that he was a
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pioneer and make great steps in showing how we could think about that and still have not done it and he lifted the study of black holes and cosmology to not make it only respectful but popular. sorry, that was a long answer. >> in fact you are right we don't know that steven had a terrific movie made about him in which i think eddie redman won an oscar for that performance but my suspicion having grown up the business physicists, the physicists when i grow up was like most albert einstein. do you have a feeling that was stephen essentially thought of as like the next rock physicist rockstar? was he another einstein? >> he was not another einstein. he was and rolled his eyes and smiled when people said that because he knew and who wants to
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have that bar to live up to because that's a hard -- high bar. most of his career was not like einstein but einstein had most of his major discoveries in the first 15 years of his career. stephen was a leader, one of the best of his generation and i don't think we should be trying to quantify that but that is a good solid description of him and one you would agree with. >> right. if i'm not mistaken einstein came up with his energy equals mass times the speed of light squared theory at 25 spirit yet, in 1905. you know, it's interesting because people misunderstand how physics works. don't sit there and get a brilliant idea that he is equal
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to mc squared until other people and they say that makes squared but he developed the theory called special relatively in one of those were based on certain principles that particular the speed of light because that was something implied by maxwell's work in the 1860s and investigating that in building a theory of adjusting newton's laws would take that into account and involves the theory of special relativity in one of the consequences and things he discovered as he was writing out that there he is all my god, equals mc squared. >> and it became a metaphor for all the cool stuff. i still remember we are the same age and the opening of the twilight zone had that he equals mc squared and that became -- >> it was rough in the 1920s spirit while people don't know
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that but i was entertainment at the last supper. [laughter] anyway,. [inaudible conversations] >> you are a busboy. we have to get off the space-time continuum in, ladies and gentlemen. i know this because i read the book but how did you first meet stephen? >> he read my first two books and he was, one was about curve estates and what it means and how over the centuries the ideas developed and how it was used and that was a very important topic to stephen and then he read my second book which was finding his rainbow a search for beauty in physics and in life and that was a memoir of my relationship with the great richard steinman while i was in my cal tech in my 20s. he was looking for someone to write with and i think he wanted
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a sense of humor and someone who is writing he liked and i think most of all he wanted someone who understood physics and i guess he decided i fit that so one day i got a call from my agent and said stephen hawking's office called and this is a bizarre question but would you like to write a book about him? >> again, having read the book i can say i make my living in the funny business and you do have an excellent sense of humor, leonard. it comes across beautifully in the book, it truly does. you mentioned how the sort of dryness of physics but you found a way and clearly mr. hawking had a wicked sense of humor too and you able to translate that for the reader. it really is, in fact, i know you began working with stephen when he was sort of in his full-blown lou gehrig's disease
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but what surprised you witnessing firsthand how stephen worked? was there anything that made you go wow, this is pretty remarkable and in addition to the fact that he was doing what he was doing in his physical state. >> it is fascinating and again it's too long to discuss this answer. >> it's your book, man. [laughter] >> physics can be looked at in two different ways and one is algebraic equations or analysis and the other is geometrically and and most people do is done using equations. stephen obviously can't do that and can't write an he did have
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an amazing memory where he could do some iterations that way just like a grand master plane 20 people blindfolded but he would member each game and what to do and i was all, and all of that. [inaudible] he did have that ability but it was still difficult for him to put him at a disadvantage as opposed to other for physicist who could write and write down their equations. he did which was surprising and i did not learn for a while but he learned a new way of doing physics and he did the geometric approach rather than the equations approach in worked on his own language of geometry to treat the problems that he was treating and so he could solve problems and get ideas and analyze situations of interest to him and if this has liked
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beans and particle beans and black holes in all this and how they interact [inaudible] that was stephen's superpower because he could, by doing that not only was he avoiding his handicap by not writing equations but he had a new angle to look at things that other physicists didn't have that allowed him to make discoveries and have insights that others didn't because they didn't have that approach so. >> that's interesting because in the book you cite how we hear of people who are sightless who find a way to really enhance their sense of hearing or smell or taste or whatever and to feel
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ultimately or even stephen may have suggested but to feel ultimately that his debilitating illness ended up being something that helped him in his discipline? >> he told me it did. first, i mentioned it gave him meaning and purpose which was driving him. it was a hard subject that you had to do put in long hours all alone and it was burning, california is burning right now but as is oregon but on a normal time when it's not you want to go outside and take a walk but instead you stay home and see your family or friends and i know you work 12 hours a day or months every day just to finish your work. the first thing it did was gave him that drive to answer these questions.
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so that was -- by giving them the meaning and the focus and illuminating distractions and allowing the focus to so long and so hard on problems was a big advantage to him. >> you been [inaudible] i've written one book and had a gentleman help me and do physicists go through a lay person would call writers block that is to say when you are working on a theory or working on something and you're postulating and have your own promise that you are working on to find you can go through writers block to and as you mentioned you are alone in other points at which you say i'm
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stuck and i just -- >> that is why i wrote the book really, not just for physics or for stephen's personal life but the idea of him as a person in both the books that exposed how we do physics but also how we do life every day and yes, physicist like in the movies you mentioned looking for a fireplace and the answer comes but [inaudible] >> we would all be physicists but it's very difficult and yes, richard had very long times of non- productivity where he had no ideas and when he would get depressed and he thought teaching satan because in those times he still taught courses
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and could accomplish things in teaching and that would fulfill him and take up his time because he was waiting for some idea to come. it happens both while you're doing it so between problems you're sitting there going okay, i just wrote on paper were ten papers and i've had a lot of ideas but have run out of ideas and i've done all the papers on that topic so what should i work on now? sometimes you have something in the back of your head and if you move on and then sometimes you don't. for physicist sitting there like a writer doesn't know what book to write and while you're doing your problem you also have minor crises like that to because you are going okay, i need to get from here to there to answer the questions i'm trying to answer in this research and you go this is how you figure it out but no annuities keep putting your head against the walls for a day or a
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month and promising direction and then sometimes you get to the point where you get ideas and you get up to a certain point and you know what you want to show or have an idea of where you can go with it but if that is not working out yeah, it's full of very frustrating and difficult times even drove his wives crazy because when he hit that flaw he would turn wagoner up and he liked it loud so it would annoy everyone in the house but it would drown out the rest of the world and he would spend day after day after day just focused on getting past that so. >> good gracious. by the way the thing it sounds like that was part of your mission was to for lack of a better term humanize and make an relatable and absolutely nailed that and there were certainly
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things no one would know having not been close to him but you utterly d hollywood and made him somebody that you became your friend often with the usual frustrations that people have with other people. was there a point in which your work with steven and the fact that he was the fact that he was wheelchair-bound and nonverbal and was not a big deal and basically stephen's had a different turn on today and it really was not and you got used to it. >> good question in there so much in that developing of a book and the answer is yes when i first got there to work with him at the cambridge to his office i was i felt bad for him because you could see the discomfort he was in, not
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necessarily in the discomfort but that he should have been but things happen to him like a bead of sweat going down his forehead that he had to wipe away. >> by the way, let me interrupt, i do and that is one of the seminal moments of the book because it is the sort of thing that we can all relate to immediately and you just take your hand like this and the way in which you describe your empathy and your like oh my god, that would drive me nuts or if my nose was itching it would be doesn't matter if you are mohammed ali, stephen hawking, leonard mlodinow or rob paulson or the guy on the street but the things we all take for granted that all of a sudden was a central focus of this world-class physicist and the way you described that was really remarkable and very on --
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impactful. >> thank you. i could not understand how he could go through his day without being able to do that and maybe his caretakers were noticed or maybe not but at first i felt sorry for him a lot but then as i got to know him later i thought no, don't feel sorry for him. it was quite inspiring to me by the way he handled those things and he change the way he thought so that it's not that he sees or has sweat dripping down or the itch or bedtime or he sleeping and wants to turn but he can't wait to turn and he has to wait for them to turn him and all those other obstacles and tortures the rest of us would experience and he learned not to remedy that but not to mind that. he took his mind and his feelings and he learned not to let them bother him. that's amazing. the greek philosophy called
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stoic philosophy which is that happiness, true happiness and lasting happiness comes only from within you, not from the things you accomplish in our material goods or any other person. all that can be taken away and subject to many things beyond your control. self-satisfaction and how you feel about yourself and what your own mind and stephen did that and once i realized that that was what was going on i did not feel sorry for him anymore. he was of person with a handicap but also a person with reddish hair, blue eyes and it was just another trait of his. we interacted and i interacted with him about without thinking of his handicap. >> you describe his utter humanity and you touch on something quite important with respect to stephen and i've
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experienced this in my own life which my cancer a few years and that is the ability to focus on the moment into really understand that while, this is a pretty tenuous little fragile line at which we walk. it doesn't have to be lou gehrig's disease but often it requires something that jump starts your humanity and you think while, of a sudden i know what's important and he according to you and the description was the embodiment of that and that he literally made lemonade every damn day. it was remarkable. >> it really was. that was one of the great lessons i tried to impart and i admired him very much for that. >> in fact, in that light how would you describe his personality in general? >> because he could do that and because he will not be beaten
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down by all these for most of us what would be physical issues he was able to be an optimist and a great sense of humor and had a great energy and when we went hunting on the camp one afternoon he said leonard, let's do some tourist stuff to those of you who don't [inaudible] >> please describe what that means? >> it's like a recipe for tipping over but it's a flat shallow vote and someone stands on the platform and they stand up on a platform. >> and the boat and first you have to [inaudible] we said sure, come along.
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he's packing them off and it takes him a few minutes but getting him into a van because he had a specially designed divan to walk around and we turned in a certain weight which is difficult and he had to be his wheelchair had to be bolted down so there wasn't any rough ride to not go flying and he had to be carried down 20, 30 uneven stone steps to the vote and then on the vote just getting ahead so he gets detached from his machine and can communicate from his computer or wheelchair because he can't take the wheelchair on the vote and one of them takes his head and one takes the feet and there carry him down these stairs and all like keep thinking of his neck ache and they climb in and it's precarious and i thought he could easily slip and if he goes to the river he obviously can't swim so he won't drown. but then i'm stepping in and i was like almost falling off.
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>> and this was all in one boat? >> and then he was the one laughing and then his eyes would go left or right and with all those, you know, difficulties and he loved it and he did everyday things like that but he didn't let his disability stop him. >> like everybody else they were punting on the camp they want have strawberries and champagne and so you help them have a little bit as if it was can punting. >> that's okay. [laughter] [inaudible] >> i don't know how relative this theory is but i feel like $1,200,000. >> recently i was sitting
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outside on my plank which i named max and i thought to myself leonard, why does niels bohr you? that's kinky non- answering a non- secretarial -- >> i thought you were going to start with that but it's a great big universe and were all tiny specks of mickey rooney but i don't know if that's the road you want to go down but you poked me with a stick and you will be sorry. >> i don't blame you. your book obviously is full of just glorious stories about you being with stephen and as you described [inaudible] are there any particular or i'll give not too much away but is there a particular moment or two that you feel where just sort of encapsulated the whole
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experience if that is even possible? >> there are so many stories they are in different directions but i get that talk about one time where i had a near-death experience and i was -- >> i had internal bleeding that they cannot find the source of and anyway,
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stevens three showed the universe was for nothing and that was a design but we did not say there was no doubt, we just sent this could not happen and we were not arguing against pretending that we saw evidence against god and in fact i think he was a spiritual person and also he went to church. >> who was a religious woman.
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>> both of his wives and his girlfriend at the end were all religious people and religious women and he would go to churc church -- [inaudible] i think religion and science don't have to be like that with each other. >> you cite in the book that you touch briefly about the heat that you took when it was released and i believe you got a phone call from his secretary who said oh my god, you gotta help us the folks are freaking out, you've written a book and you disparage god and you had to do a little bit of housekeeping. >> well yeah, i knew the book
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was coming out that day and it was in england and i took my daughter to school . . . >> the most googled this. it's an explosion. i don't know, it's an emergency and we can't handle that. reporters are calling us and we can't handle the interviews. let's talk. i ended up doing 97 interviews, by the way, based on that but one headline was talking and there is a lot to say but they
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picked the shorter of the two and they said talking: does not create the universe. i said that's not what we said. it doesn't matter what we say but this is what they say we said. a lot of the people were upset i don't think they read it either but we were condemned by the bishop of england, i don't know, reporters from different countries but you know they got people to know about the book because if you read the book you would see you weren't saying that but it was a very compelling book so yeah, that was actually a very stressful time they would call me in good you drive to burbank for this and then go to that studio and i
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was on fox, fox news wanted an interview and some of them are polite and some are attacking you for, you know, and i was saying [inaudible] my mother would say what could be so upsetting in a physics book. >> like i wake up in the morning and find out i angered god. >> yeah, i turned on espn and they talked about the book and someone send me a copy of nextel magazine but i don't know, i don't know what that was about but they were talking about everywhere. >> expanded your readership. why not? >> well, yeah, we did. people heard about the book so it was all based on a misconstrue all.
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>> before we move on to the questions of the folks who were kind enough to watch us what did your work with steven teach you about yourself? that's pretty much the question paid what did you learn about yourself? >> it gave me perspective. so many times look at what you had to go through and use measure car and on a scale from one to i can't even move this is one so whereas i used to go are you kidding, my brand-new car got smashed up and now i can still walk away from it so. [audio difficulties]
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but taking charge of your own thoughts is even more important. >> i think so too. it truly is. it's a marvelous book that you don't have to be dude, i make my living doing cartoon voices and it was utterly relatable, utterly readable and really of total joy and there are aspects in the book that we can all apply to ourselves and you done good, kid. it's a hell of a book. it's already 20 minutes until six in the pacific and i want to make sure we have everybody, can we go ahead and do that now? >> is that okay with you? >> let me go to the q&a so i don't push the wrong button and
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set off an international event. anonymous attendee, one of my favorite people, who says were you ever intimidated by mr. hawking? right off the bat when he got the phone call after your initial settle down and thought holy [bleep] did you then go oh my god. >> well, yeah, even in the early meetings because you walk in and he so brilliant and i thought that's a -- >> we will be the judge on that. >> fair enough. [audio difficulties]
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>> were you concerned that when you started working with him he would say something he would perceive as stupid or silly or called you or were you going don't screw this up, leonard. >> not that i was worried before i asked anything but sometimes i was kidding myself that he might find something stupid. >> well -- >> we were looking at his current work commemorating his papers and i'm asking a question and maybe i should've known but
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so we would work together at the end of our working together came ridges we would sign each other things and write to sections and then we would e-mail before we would next meet and once a year spent a month in calcutta where i was on the faculty so we went back and forth with each other so one time i was writing and i just don't get what this research tonight just didn't get his particular point. he was working with a guy from uc santa barbara so i drove up to santa barbara and spent a whole day and this guy told me to explain and then i go write it all up and then i go back to cambridge to cm and he's reviewing that part i had written and he says no, this is wrong with no, this is wrong.
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it's this way. i was going what, what, what, i'm sure i understood it and i don't know what to say and at one point i was looking at my old notes about what he said and what jim said in i said look,. [audio difficulties] >> no one told me about this and we changed our minds. [audio difficulties] >> but he didn't tell you. >> he e-mailed me and said i know you're working on this explaining this but it's upside down. >> in fact, in the book what i love about your relationship with steven is you are unafraid to discuss in the book your frustration with, you know,
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certainly the most famous physicist of my time as a layperson you talked about your frustration about hey man, if you will do this let's do it. i'm paraphrasing but you are writing together and he essentially dropped the ball and you called him on it. that's pretty boldly. >> well, you know, i was pretty frustrated. i won't give anything away. >> no, no, i'm sorry. >> well no, i won't tell the whole story but i was pretty frustrated at that point and even the little things where there were many frustrations of how people walked into the office and you would be in the middle of something and suddenly the guy was talking to you and this was just going to take a minute but the minute is a euphemism in cambridge for our connect i would imagine. what he meant was this won't take just a minute. at first i was naïve and i was
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like, and for a minute but they would say do you mind and i said if i didn't mind they would just ignore that. steven was fine -- i don't know how i get it done. sometimes he did not want to talk but he would ignore them so you know when we work together he would come in and he was a loner, do you mind if we -- but were kind of busy but they would just keep coming and start asking their questions and he would just not answer and ignore them and keep talking to me. [audio difficulties]
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my friend cecelia who is, i believe a straight a student, i'm not sure but forgive me did you ever collaborate on any physics problems together? did he inspire you to learn about certain areas of physics? >> there was one, there was one that i was interested in why we remembered or okay, let me give you a little preamble. >> go ahead. >> the equations of physics are reversible so you could take data on the current state of a system and how everything is moving in a snapshot and then the laws of physics tell you how that develops and then it can go forward or backward in time,
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there is no difference. you so now obviously if you see a film you can tell the difference. i'm not talking about someone walking backwards and then going out the door but things like snow dissipates but some walking backward and it's nothing terribly backward in time but i thank you see a burning thing and the smoke spreads but you'll never see a cloud of smoke that concentrates into something. that is the statistical, that's the statistical explanation for that. that is where the arrow of time comes from. it comes from a statistical thing or even though the laws are reversible if the state something is in, it's special like say a. [audio difficulties]
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and then someone moves the table and they may fall but this way or that way and there is a million ways to fall but only one way they could stand up just right so you can jiggle the table but they won't pop up in the initial configuration because that was special but moving into a bazillion other configurations so that's the arrow of time but i was thinking psychologically how does that work and why is it that we remember given that laws are reversible why is it that we remember the past but don't remember the future? and somehow you would think that might be connected in smoke spreading but how does that work so i asked steven about that and he told me we had a couple
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interactions but he says he wrote a paper on that in 1985 so i dig up that paper but in typical steven fashion he was confusing having said something with have improved it. [laughter] he indeed says something about that but i was back to square one and eventually friend of mine i do physics with and i wrote a paper and published a paper explaining that called i think the paper was called why we remember the future in any way that was a time i talked to steven about the problem but i didn't workout it directly with him. >> well, remember the future and
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sounds like you know a led zeppelin album cover title. here is an interesting question who says the what you just said the quote, we changed our mind comment is why physics feels so out of reach for so many. how difficult is it to take what may be an evolving theory or developing findings from scientific research "-right-double-quote, translate it into something for interested nonexperts? >> okay, i think, first of all, there are a lot of physics are pretty subtle that people can read about it and you don't always have to be reading about what people look at the time. [audio difficulties] most popular science books are
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about aspects of the theories of evolution of the rents universe that are not necessarily cutting-edge but are agreed upon but now to explain those to the general audience isn't really that much different than explain something that's already settled as long as that theory you are running about isn't changing why you are writing but when that happens you have to do your best to come up with how it's changing in it to make it clear in the book versus the speculation which most books don't do what we do at the end of the book talk about how this might be confirmed, verified and what part of it is stay does stephen's theory versus settled
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theory. >> i must say folks that was one of the things that was hopeful as a layperson eminently readable and human and you very appropriate nicely placed but notes that explain just what you read in a way that is very understandable for someone like myself and very helpful which is actually, i will tell you what, guys asking questions are you sure you do not keep this up in advance? catherine comes up with a lovely follow-up question two the other question, i just finished the book and enjoyed the physics as well as the human story. i rest my case. i graduated in physics and cornell in 1985 and spent my working career and he indicated that not having wrote was completely verified. has there been any major changes since it was published in 2010
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and i appreciate you talking about that. >> some people have been carrying the theory out further but but technology and the difficulty or differentiating ideas is that we need better technology to study the cosmic microwaves on radiation and the afterglow of the big bang and i think the idea is it's just have not gotten there but maybe another ten years and sometimes you have to wait a long time. for example, when steven was doing black holes in the 60s people thought we will never see one but then there was a candidate they were studying but they didn't get to the black holes in the early '90s and so
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sometimes these things take a long time. >> in fact, if i'm not mistaken, i don't know exactly the specifics but einstein's theory of general relativity was essentially proven a few years ago. >> you know that but since we are talking about the specific context i won't say the evidence was correct or observation that confirmed a prediction that was different but was about four years after the theory was completed in 1915 and there was 1919 observation that showed that it was, you know, confirming although there are those who question the statistics of those observations but that's what happened and
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there have been other the gps system that everyone uses but it's very interesting if you think of a general which is a theory that applies generally to very, the theory that you need to use as opposed to the old theory and you need to use general theory for extreme situations with large maps or concentrated maps but actually there is it affects our lives because you actually need to have justice systems being wildly inaccurate if you didn't know general [inaudible] that is just a fact when you type in i want to go to starbucks but if you are driving you know the
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fact that you get there is thanks to einstein. >> i have to tell you that is a sort of stuff i love about what you guys do in your discipline. my grandfather was a physicist and an electrical engineer and i remember i was standing with my first generation ipad a few years ago watching as the mars rover landed because it already gotten the camera to watch the landing and if my genius grandfather came back and saw me standing there with a device this thick that didn't heat up with no cords, no plug and i said and watching the surface of mars this is a really authentically learned man who would say that's witchcraft, dude. so i love being aware of i'm
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holding this device in my hand and i can find a starbucks in mongolia and i love that you pointed that out. by the way, i know we are almost done and i thank you very much for this opportunity but there was something he wrote in the book that he loved so much and obviously i presume it's based on other writings but you said it turns out that isaac newton was in ass and i love that. i thought oh my god, how do we know that? >> we know a lot about newton. [audio difficulties] he was a hoarder. he could have been on a reality show. he kept grocery list and there were boxes and boxes of them of his work and his writing and we know a lot about him.
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>> that was one of the things that made me laugh out loud because you wrote that newton was in ass and i just love that. isaac, shut your mouth. equal and opposite reaction, blah, blah but anyway, i know that we are pretty much -- spirit i thank you should take me out on the song. >> okay, these other countries that have come up since that first time was written. ♪ ♪
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>> thank you so much, robin and leonard. thank you for joining us tonight. please be sure to pick up her country copy of leonard spoke and we hope to see you soon. >> wee nights this month we are featuring booktv programs as a preview of what is available every weekend on c-span two. tonight we focus on biographies and memoirs. first, edward looks at white's privacy through the lens of his great-great-grandfather a member of the ku klux klan in louisiana during the years after the civil war. and biographer larry tied requite life of the republican senator joe mccarthy of wisconsin. later the national book award-winning memoir, a yellow house. watch tonight beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern and enjoy book tv this week and every weekend on c-span2. >> you areat


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