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tv   The Civil War Cavalry at Gettysburg  CSPAN  July 31, 2021 9:14pm-10:04pm EDT

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be growing and some of the leaders in places like africa and even typical movement, they look to people like george whitefield and jonathan edwards as-s examples. i think there is a continuity in the evangelical movement from the 1730s and 40s right on through today, for sure that's the reason why the great awakening is significant. that's all i have for today, thank you and let me know if you have any questions. >> c-span american history tv continues you can find the full schedule for the weekend on your program guide or at >> the five series secret talks
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today in our first presenter is doctor bradley gottfried he earned his degree in 1976 and went forward have a successful forty-year career as a higher education professor and administrator. he retired in 2017 as the president of the college of southern maryland he now spends much of his time writing about the civil war as a gettysburg town guide and certified guide. most recently he has released a book the mass of the calvary anl the gettysburg campaign he has written 14 books on the civil war many are map studies of campaign of the eastern theater of the civil war three books will be released including one later this month entitled lincoln comes to gettysburg, the story of the gettysburg national cemetery dedication. he is married and has four
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children and six grandchildren today he will speak to you about the role of the calvary and the gettysburg campaign i will introduce to you bradley gottfried. >> thank you for coming. this could take me three hours to go through. i am going to go very quickly because most people when you pick about gettysburg you think about the battle of gettysburg you don't think about the campaign as much and were gonna talk about the entire campaign not the infantry, i love the infantry but this is goingca toe the role of calvary and i've written a number of books on the civil war, these are some of the map studies and i'm constantly criticized about this one, i love this book and i love them
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all i love them all like my children, there's not a lot of calvary and their it could not fit, and came out with this one that specializes on the calvary and the gettysburg campaign what i'm going to do today the major thing i only have 40 or 45 minutes i'm going to go fast it's going to talk about thek multiple roles that the calvary played during the campaign of gettysburg and i think you will appreciate these guys much more than you currently do these guys are constantly in the saddle in this infantry got to rest occasionally they are constantly in motion, constantly doing aon variety of activities, let's jump right into it you know these two gentlemen to major generals commands the army of the pandemic's calvary core in jeb stuart his counterpart, they both have been in command of
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their army's calvary for over a year so there experienced, they know potentially how to run a calvary arm the organization of the two armies is very, very different you can see on the union side it is much more sophisticated you have a course structure and the visions, sometimes there will be three, sometimes two andve back to thr, nine brigades on the troopers. compare that with jeb stuart who still only has a division and later on they will subdivide and he will have a court in several divisions but at gettysburg and during this campaign six brigades and almost 13000 he is outnumbered but what else is new, lots of issues on both
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sides there is horses, horses are always a problem there is never enough and when you have them often times they are worn from overuse there is not enough food for them often times they are sick and how does the confederates supply their horses, werew they given to th, no they had to supply their own horse and if your horse was killed in battle, you are walking on the union side they provided too you the troopers ae exhausted as we will see, now i'm going to talk about four phases, don't blink we will go fast, one is general joseph commander of the pandemic needs to know where lee is, he needs more information, who's going to provide they information it nes to be him and his calvary so were going to see very quickly the battle of the brandy station in the fight for the guests was
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his fascinating that a lot of people don't know that was really interesting. after the middle part of the month and it becomes getting to the battlefield screening armies arrayed as we will see in the third phase is the battle of gettysburg were gonna talk quickly about five different actions i want you to thinkle wt are the five, don't tell me but see if you can figure out what the five are unless you're only going to come up with for and the retreat, the retreat is fascinating, how does lee get those wagons back to virginia and how does the union army try to prevent those wagons from getting to virginia, those are the things were going to talk about today, here we go, can you all see the map? i'm going to try to use my
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pointer to the armies as you know were talking about after chancellorsville there on either side and were talking about the beginning of june 1863 in pleasanton has been tasked to determine where lee is moving, what is happening. they are worried about stuart, jeff stuart is right here around branding station and there will be a reconnaissance to find out where the heck is stuart because they're afraid that stuart is going to watch another raid that will be embarrassing for the army, let's see if we can break up the potential raid and he finds that stuart is right here at culpepper courthouse, very c interesting he will say this is what i want you to do and here's how you're going to do it,
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usually when it came to stuart we would never tell stuart exactly what you're going to do, he's going to tell him exactly the strategy and the tactics that he's going to use, he did not trust them basically. this is the prelude and what's happening then, i'm going to go through this quickly on june 9 a picture and you can see the three divisions david greg, alfred, they are going to cross a different fords, beverly florida, kelly florida, where is stuart supposedly, culpeper courthouse, he is closer to brandy station and he stretched out all over, he is going to be spreading his troops around but they think that they are going to march this way in this way and they're gonna trap stuart
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between these two wings. it's a surprise in the morning of the night when grimes and davis' brigade splashes is across beverly florida and finds out he's up against the six virginia into pushing back look at backups we have 15 confederate cannons in between a picket line and the rest of his brigade, that is not where you put artillery, he did not expect to be attacked. anyway the fighting is going to be around the st. james church as you can see right over here, there is going to be a counterattack as grumbled jones is going to stabilize his line and it would happen in the second front and it will open up and by the weight it's john dufur involved in all of this early action a second front
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around you ridge as you can see there is to fighting on two fronts eventually but here's the interesting story, this is a missed opportunity, here comes buford he's engaging with stuart, those that are up, here comes kelly florida the other two divisions, every division, pleasanton is going to tell david greg get your division up as quickly as possible, look where hedi is coming he is fast, fortunate, where is he going to be, holy cow it doesn't work out that way. because stuart is going to respond very quickly is not very respected of stuart, there's a
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personality issue but jones is going to save his bacon during this battle because here he is, he's going to pull his men out of line and they're gonna go to fleetwood hill where the fighting is going to occur more and more in troops become to bring his brigade and what would've been another wonderful opportunity was a lost opportunity as david griggs men are defeated on fleetwood hill. what might've been a very good opportunity to not destroy stuart but to hamper him in a future campaign. that showing photographs of the hill and you can see the representation but by the end of the day it is very clear that they are not moving stuart in pleasanton gives permission to retreat and he will retreat back
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across the river here, what am h doing, sorry about that it was a lost opportunity nothing except poto turn dish stewart's reputation heng was able to consolidate his men and pushed back the union attackers but he got a lot of pushback from being unprepared. that's what's happening, i'm running out of time, where is lee going to be using where is he marching north when he leaves the area around fredericksburg he's going to go to the blue ridge mountains and there's increasing reports on the part of hookers that that's what's
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happening but pleasanton needs to go out and provide more information to hooker as to where lee is in the best way to do it is by going through the gaps you can see there is a gap at snickers bill gap which is right here, i'm not doing that that's doing on its own undertrained uses pointer, snickers bill gap which is right here and what's going to happen is for the next several days there's going to be constant combat as pleasanton is going to get through to the gaps to see where is lee's army and what is
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stuart doing he tried to block them from getting them past so it's going to be a very interesting situation here, you can see what hooker says is better we lose mende without knowledge of the army. what we will see is a variety of fights very intense fights they will not lose a lot of guys, but it's pretty intense if you watch a calvary fight is pretty gruesome with slashing and slitting open heads et cetera, that is what is happening stuart tries to stop pleasanton from getting past him to look into the shenandoah valley to see where lee is. in the first fight is going to be -- has anyone been to these battlefield, the really interesting and well preserved algae is one per gate of rebels and one thinks and one against
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patrick and basically a stalemate, a stalemate means what he is not allowed to get the record on. on the 19th, the middleburg and again, you're going to see some intense fighting this is between greg erwin greg this is david griggs division against stewart's men. and so many of these actions there is no coordination you have buford over here tos, the north and you have to the south greg and the entire campaign pleasanton is going to have trouble coordinating his various
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divisions. hooker is so intent on finding where lee is that he's going to send a full core of fifth one over to provide infantry support and they're going to get involved in not only are they providing infantry support liquid lean is doing he takes his in first quarter and he's going to stop it from marching north it's too important and he's going to plug them inpo the gaps so if they get through stuart they will not see what's going onnk there. albertville is the last fight is the most intense and complex a running fight that ultimately is going to lead to a lot of frustration on the part of
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pleasanton because he is not able to get through, this is interesting because you're going to have infantry actually involved in the fight. i don't know if you could see that there is infantry at the branding station fight and in both cases pleasanton misused the infantry he did not use it to the full advantage, that is what is happening at this point. how many of you know about albert jenkins, interesting guy and live outside of chambersburg he liked to visit chambersburg by the way. he has two raids albert jenkins nobody wants to claim albert jenkins and his unit considered to be mounted infantry they have long rivals and they are not very rudely there on discipline so he's going to have a raid as you can see he is going to ride all day to chambersburg and
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imagine around midnight come thundering in the chambersburg with a long line of 2000 rebels. and they're going to stay there collecting supplies until the 17th when they decide they will go south again there is not a whole lot of time to rest 19th can be ordered to move north again but this time it's not a raid, he will march to harrisburg. he's gonna go slower you can see it's much more, much more through carlisle heard and actually to the outskirts of harrisburg where there will be a fight, between the militia, and
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union militia coming from the minions according will do see some of the confederates from his brigade are going, but still it is as close too harrisburg as he's going to be getting. and then they will start pulling back. , we have to talk about stuart in the rain. i'm probably going to get myself in trouble. because some people love stuart i gave a presentation this week on this topic and we have people in the audience and love stuart and others that were not so happy and i made sure they were separate. i did not want to sit side-by-side. but stuart likes the show and he also understands that if he can have a raid especially if he can
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go around the union, it's embarrassing it's embarrassing to the north and it'll be in all the newspapers, it does make sense the problem is the route he takes lee finally gives them permission the battle of gettysburg, it's not bad and he saysar listen you have got to routes you pick the root you can do a northern route this way through sharpsburg into frederick or where you go around the union army. but whatever you do i want you to stay close, where is he going to be, appear or down here. he's going to be appear to the north which route does stuart take, of course the southern route the more difficult, he is going to be marching south, this
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is simply a quote from an author from gettysburg magazine he blamed lee for more explicit with stuart and where exactly you need to go and what you need to do and i want you back in the army he gave him too much gratitude, okay, also remember how many brigades does he have, he's going to have five at this point and you think he would leave hampton behind, no he's going to leave the two brigades that are the least effective in the commanders who he does notmm like and he takes the one that he likes with them and he leaves jones and robertson behind and they're supposed to be helping lee and their guarding and helping lee and lee does not really use them their very
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ineffective and it's like they're not there. the raid will occur on june 25 of the problem is the second quarter is going to move and it's going to block his path, he did not expect that so is going to have to do a detour he never expected to do the why detour, it's interesting because he needs to get back to lee. but what is he doing he spending a lot of time ripping up tracks and burningip bridges and railroads he needs to be moving fast he hears about florida which is south of edwards it's very deep and treacherous but he's going to use it in the problem by the time he gets across it so difficult he has to spend hours losing more time. i would do this if i see all these wagons around rockville, guess what i'm going to do i am
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grabbing the wagons, he is going to rockville to attack this wagon train 400 soldiers he has to drag them along. he will continue north he breaks his units up and they will destroy railroads rather than moving north, he continues north and he's going to go to westminster and what about corbett's charge, are you familiar with corbett's charge, two companies, 95 guys underbo captain corbett from the first attack stewart's column. talk about suicide, it was suicide two thirds of them are going to be killed or wounded
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including captain corbett and basically stop them in their tracks and will delay them they can't afford to be delayed, while thiss is happening pleasanton wants to expand his army he has gone from three divisions, he now has two divisions but he wants us guy julius this is the department of washington and he wants it this is not a soldier he rides around in a wagon he should not be commander in battle and finally he gets the go-ahead to incorporate this division into his core and is now back to three divisions and who g does e elevate the command of division, not a friend of mine kirkpatrick who i consider to be rash as we'll see in it will promote
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three generals who do very well, of these he's going to have a mission each division we know beaufort is going to go on the west and they're basically looking for stuart in their screening the army in their moving but they're separated you can see here comes beaufort along the base of south mountain and you can see greg is moving over toward westminster kilpatrick is right in the middle with finding stuart. where stuart it's june 30 you see the yankee that is moving through, what do you do do let
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him go or do you attack, he decides to attack. and kilpatrick is further north, he's going to return with more of his division and they all say they will be fighting once they put into it stuart will wait the whole day fighting the battle. the problem with kilpatrick when stuart leaves he'll be following him and he doesn't he let stuart get away and kilpatrick will rest his men and what do you think it says in h the morning e says where is stuart i been looking all over for him. july 1 we know what happens with buford from emmitsburg he's going to be at gettysburg on
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june 30 and the fighting will sbstart their reagan is heading toward hanover kilpatrick is looking for stuart in stuart has reached carlisle on july 2 as you can see, on the second here comes greg, hanover to gettysburg, stuart finally learned where lee is so he will move south woodley, just like what we saw with the reverse what's going to happen, kilpatrick is coming south towards gettysburg and is going to run into hampton, how many have you seen what you can see everything he's going to run in
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to the way hampton in the way hampton square deterrent is significant and it's going to occur on the second, did you all figure out what the five were, how many did you come up with most people come up with for they forget about the last one. , here are the four ocean is a one into the afford is on july 1, we all know that. and seminary ridge between beaufort holding, delaying lee as much as he possibly can on the second along pen over pike or hanover road coming into
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gettysburg this does not get enough play because what happened on july the second remember edward johnson and remember george stewart's confederate brigade. , they were the left of stuart, they were supposed to be on the attack on coach hill but because the fighting it's a scrimmage line for the most part it stops the brick brigade from participating in that attack which had a big impact that most do not realize, july 3 i don't have to talk about what happened on the battlefields lots of pages and lots of maps where
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stuart property is going to be engaging with custer primarily david's position very epic no question about it but to the south kill patrick he is first by the present they will be fighting to the south and kilpatrick says we think lee is going to attack so we had tos attack him. it's my wayay of thinking it's a way to seek glory and farnsworth who will be attacking you don't attack first texas any rebels behind the wall of the artillery, you don't do that. and you know the bottom line farnsworth is going to kill this
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brigade in a never should have happened. i lived in fairfield for a little bit is anybody from the fairfield battlefield, isn't that neat, you can see everybody there there's not much there but you can see it. there is a report that there are wagons rebel wagons and so remember he has never commanded our brigade before he was a captain and he will send the fifth u.s. calvary this is a crack unit he will send them to fairfield and they will look for the wagons, if they don't find the wagons, what they find is a full brigade of grumbled jones has come up in the sixth u.s. will be f almost destroyed it is never quite the same after this engagement, okay epic now it gets epic, he keeps attacking me
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during the campaign the maryland campaign they were right next the pandemic river, that was easy to get a across here you have a long passageway to get to the pro tem a river and was really worrying is the wagons filled with goods filled with wounded and they have to first get over the mountain passes and eventually he has to get to williamsport because there's a pontoon bridge, these are long wagon trains were talking 15, 2t matter how much calvary stewarts will be engaged in protecting them but there's never enough when you have a line of wagons at long you are vulnerable. lightning attacks and who is
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most active during this time, kilpatrick he's going to get a lot of glory how many have you been a moderate path that is a nice little battlefield, when you read about it here you have kilpatrick writing up the mountain on a very narrow path pitch start they talk about a fun hearse lost his foot, right over the side ofro them on and s coming up to monterey past and he does there's a group of marylanders, eight marylanders who are going to create commotion and eventually they'll be successful and they will capture hundredsar of wagons thy will burn them in capture the men and the goods and he will continue. john imboden, to me this is the most epic, he has wagons filled
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with wounded these are men, their heartstrings in these wagons their suffering and he feels the way of getting them to safety, what he's going to do, he needs woodley on the evening of the third he will leave cashtown at 4:00 o'clock on jult again you're talking about a 17-mile train, it does not matter how much protection you have there will be problems and there will be several attacks that greencastle at crossroads, eventually he makes it to williamsburg, no bridge they forgot to guard the bridge the prison bridge is gone and imagine you are the sky and yes
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hundreds and hundreds of wagons of hundred men and you cannot cross, guess who's coming buford is coming in is not there to have a poker game, stuart is not happy he's hearing the reports of kilpatrick capturing all these wagons he's on a trail and he's writing with two brigades and he catches up with them at smith berg and this is the first time, here he is this is kilpatrick he has his three brigades, if you've ever been to smith berg you can see the high ground and here comes stuart and he will attack them and what does kilpatrick do wisely there was no reason to engage, this time the wagons have all but reached the pandemic river. now it's more protecting lee's
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flanks. baker's guilt like hanover in the streets and you can have infantry involved, irishman's brigade and a variety of union and confederate calvary. williamsport on july 6 i want you to imagine your imboden you don't have very many men in here comes buford with maybe 2000 guys and you're going to give rivals to the wagon years and you can give rivals to the wounded and you get to do whatever you can to see buford into thinking you have lots of guys are, there is going to be a lot of attacks and finally lee his division will come up and relieve this but it was touch and go for a while. ona fight at booz borough on les flank this is the only time that buford and kilpatrick worked in
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unison, the whole campaign all of these divisions have been operating independently. lee is given command i confederate infantry of infantry, calvary against calvary and infantry on both sides. and again, none of these are really conclusive it's holding back the union calvary from attacking or getting close to lee's flanks and obviously the last site before lee is able to cross, we know about the confusion and we know how james pettigrew was going to be mortally wounded et cetera that's going to end the fighting. i'm doing great and will most were she told me too be. so i know it was fast. but hopefully you have a better
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idea of what the calvary did there in constant motion first finding really is and all of those activities streaming the union army movements as are heading north for stuart is collecting supplies, reading and simply trying to find where is lee the fighting of gettysburg. >> were going to leave this program for live coverage of the senate floor substitute amendment. the staffs are still working and say they will have the final legislative text ready tomorrow. therefore, the senate will reconvene tomorrow at noon. as i've said, when the legislative text is ready, i will offer it as the substitute amendment and after that we can begin voting on amendments. as a reminder, upon completion of the bipartisan infrastructure bill, the senate will turn to the budget resolution with reconciliation instructions.
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i want to thank the capitol police, the clerks, and the senate star for working -- senate staff for working these past two late nights. i yield the floor. no, i don't. i resume the floor. i ask unanimous consent that when the senate completes its business today, it adjourn until 12 noon, sunday, august 1, following the prayer and pledge, the executive journal be approved to date and the time for the two leaders be reserved for their use later in the day. the presiding officer: without objection. mr. schumer: if there's no further business to come before the senate, i ask it stand adjourned under the previous order. the presiding officer: the the presiding officer: the >> the senate is continuing work on the bipartisan infrastructure deal we will have live coverage when senators return on c-span2.
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we now return to american history tv in progress exploring our nation's past every saturday. >> i put away all my books and i never opened any boxes and when i came back i was in montgomery county in the early '90s and i came to gettysburg believe it or not there was no tour guides back then how many of you remember during the centennial there was a tour guide by stackpole and nye, do you remember that i'm showing you raids by the way i called the company and said how would you like someone to revise that textbook and theyca said sure im never written a book before and
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were gonna give you a role in advance and one thing led to another and another, did not start off as historians but i'm the kind of person that i like to read and write in research and is perfect especially when he can't get in the field i'm a field biologist and i could not do as a college president, thank you for the question, great question. >> you understand. exactly. >> at the time stuart decided to go south, at that time hooker was then charged and it's not like his calvary was on top he didn't have a lot of energetic people ahead of the upgrades once when he took over but anywhere did stuart imply because hooker was in charge he thought he could get around, up
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and over with hooker in charge compared mean had everybody moved within a day. >> i've never read or heard about that that he decided on that route because of hooker one thing i can tell you and it's fascinating i did not know this until i was writing the book when mead became commander of the platonic and made the downfall of pleasanton pleasanton would always ride with his divisions in the field lee did not believe in that he wanted pleasanton right next to himm he wanted him right there next to him so they could communicate. and that change the style of pleasanton he no longer could have direct command of his men which is interesting i did not realize that, thank you for the question, any other questions remember hooker was aggressive
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commander he had a problem with chances he never recuperated from it, he was a commander, he is very effective, any others. >> criticized for burden the army with too many wagons i think there is a line from the movie but in reality didn't they need the same wagons to evacuate the wounded. >> one thing i try not to do >> being burdened by the wagon, one thing historians do is look hindsight, stuart should have done this outside washington and you see 200 wagons, brand-new wagons, filled with all kinds of stuff,
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no, i would grab them. he didn't know they were going to become an albatross around his neck and they did. he could have cut them loose. how important those meals were but they did become a real burden. in retrospect he would say no. >> they are going to get rid of a few of the wagons. some of them are damaged. it wasn't just the stop. what happened is they run back to washington and ride after them. many of them get destroyed,
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those wagons were going to be destroyed but those wagons they captured they are going to bring everything with them that is in those wagons. what is going to happen is many of those wagons captured by kilpatrick and all the materials in them. into virginia with lots of them. >> stuart was surprised. how much do you buy the explanation or did stuart think he was going on a raid. >> did you hear the question? we will never really know but if you read the richmond newspaper they trashed him. he had never been other than
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the darling of the southern press and part of it was to get the reputation rehabilitated but also as i mentioned before it wasn't just one reason. there were a plethora of reasons he would say look at all the things i can do? was communicating information from lead to stuart and he thought stuart would take the northern route, he was surprised lead it not tell them to take the northern route because it would have been, the story of gettysburg would have been different. mi out of time? . thank you for coming. i appreciate it. >> follow american history tv on twitter, facebook and youtube to learn what happened
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this day in history, watch videos of their more about the people and events that shaped the american story. find us, c-span history. >> i am michael petrilli and excited to welcome you to what should be a lively debate about american democracy. for those who don't know this is a national education think tank and we work in the great state of ohio, an advocacy group and we oversee a dozen charter schools most of them urban, one world. we get to see how these deviates play out nationally. we are excited to be hosting this event today with the help and work they've done promoting the event.
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we expect 500, many 800 of you sitting in this morning and we are superexcited. i want to thank you, many of you for suggesting questions for today's dba, 200 of those came in. i have tried my best to incorporate the questions you have and to take a look at the q and a. can add more questions. needless to say this topic, how to teach us history is getting a lot of attention with the backlash on critical race theory and on the heels of controversy over the 1619 project, donald trump's 1776 commission and more. no need to be depressed about another culture war at a time when it feels we have too many already.
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it can feel like we are headed towards a version of red history and republican states, blue history and civics and democratic states. many of us, i for one remain hopeful that there is more common ground, the we can figure out a way to teach young americans about the heritage they have in our civic institutions and our history in a way that does not polarize that brings together while allowing plenty of room to have all the conversations we have about debates in american history and civics. findings at common ground was one of the key goals about the educating for american democracy project and roadmap in today's debate is to discuss whether the drafters of the roadmap found that common ground or one way or the other and that is what we are going to get into. with that, the


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