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tv   Patrick O Donnell The Indispensables  CSPAN  August 6, 2021 4:36pm-5:36pm EDT

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>> the u.s. senate is not in session today to allow senators to attend the funeral of former senator of mike enzi in wyoming the senate is back in session at 11 eastern on saturday they will continue to do work on the 1.2 trillion dollars bipartisan infrastructure deal and funds roads, bridges, public transit, railways, water projects, broadband internet and electric vehicle charging stations. when the senate is back in session at 11:00 a.m. eastern saturday you can see live coverage on c-span2. next military historian and author patrick o'donnell on his book the indispensable's, and chronicles of the marblehead regimen of the continental army of the american revolution which he says played a crucial role in both battle and as protectors of george washington. >> good evening i am the executive director of the
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washington library at george washington mount vernon and i'm coming to you from that library from that exciting book talk with patrick o'donnell i think the florida motor company for not just sponsoring this talk but many talks over the years a great series where we have authors talk about their newark and it doesn't get any newer than this because it's a book release with its exciting book the indispensable. i want to mention our upcoming program we have our lecture which rv bernstein in his new book the education of john adams, tickets are available, it's an exciting event please consider joining us, tonight's program film live from the reading room and mount vernon is the official book launch of patrick o'donnell thel' indispensable with the subtitle the marine to shape the country, form the navy and rode washington across the delaware release by the atlantic monthly
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press today. we have a number of autographed copies that aret going out to people who submitted questions we have exciting questions lined up, during tonight's talk let us know what you want to know from patrick and we cannot discussion here tonight, this is a great book i cannot put it down, they called it a novel account that you're about to hear about from patrick, and moves very, very quickly you won't hold on to gunpowder than you think you might come it's an exciting story in a like to hear from this great account of the indispensable. to tell you a little bit more he will tell you these things, a military historian and an expert on elite units, it's a second book on the revolutionary war
4:39 pm the first one washington's and mortal the untold story of the elite regiment the change in course of the revolution got him down this path and then he came to the washington library is a research fellow to work on this book that you're about to hear about he's also received awards for his book that cover the second world war and it's actually 12 book exciting work done across the generation needs done important historical work in combat in iraq and consultin work for projects like brothers for documentaries on different aspect of american military history and most important he worked on his book here at mount vernon as a fellow at the washington library i'm so excited to welcome you and to introduce you to patrick o'donnell. >> thank you so much kevin for the introduction. it's really good to come home, so much of my research for the
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indispensable's was here at this library where i literally rebuilt the marblehead regimen from the ground up using the pension files, diaries, letters et cetera to re-create this regimen which is truly extraordinary, every book that i've ever written has been a journey each one of these books is e found me in one way or another and this is no exception but before i embark upon a book i asked the basic questions who cares, why doess it matter, literally this library, our country would not be here had it not been for these individuals that i wrote about, men and women in the indispensable's, they saved our country multiple times, they shaped our country informrm the navy and they saved washington's army on numerous
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occasions which are going to tonight.t the book is also a window into current events in many ways about a virus that divides americans politically, cancel elculture, misinformation, thers a lot of things in this book that resonates with people, let me take you back right now into one of the most crucial periods in the american revolution, the american dunkirk, the battle of brooklyn had been waged in america lost badly washington's army was defeated, the male lenders i wrote a book called washington's immortal and it's more precious in our history than any other where washington with regard action was able to retreat at brooklyn heights the british army which had surrounded the american army was
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about to come up the east river and c's lines were creeping forward it was a perilous time and time in our history where all could be lost washington had a decision to make was he going to retreat or fight in washington wisely decided to retreat, this is the time when all could be lost the entire army could be surrounded and destroyed, everything really rested upon the shoulders of the men in the book that i written about the marblehead men washington decided to retreat and he had to cross a mile-long river, the east river and let me certify taken back in time to august 29, august 30 there have been a massive nor'easter that helped both armies after the battle brooklyn it'd been atcreeping forward into the american positions are for glenn
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heights and the army was closer and closer to annihilating thecl american army washington decides to escape and john glover in the marblehead men gather all of the boats in manhattan in the man those boats and they fairy the army across the east river, this is not an easy task the east river is swirling the wind is not cooperating and on top of that a loyalist sees what's happening and sends an enslaved individual in her household to try to inform how the americans lare escaping. this individual wonders upon soldiers to speak german and then not able to understand what he's trying to say fortunately. but the americans are evacuating
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he doesn't know it until couple hours that he has to pull off one of the greatest retreats in american history in world history and they man the boat and as they man the boat the wind doesn't cooperate in the ties are horrendous, there's something very special aboute these men, they work together for years at the grand banks, the most treacherous waters in the world what makes them unique is also arguably the first diverse regimen in the unitedta states army, here is african-american, native americans, white americans, hispanic americans all working together and they work together and it's a situation where raised in a matter in life-and-death situations, literally the weather could change and kill people they had to rely upon one another and they were relying upon one another that night to pull off one of the greatest retreats in history as they rode across the
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river, tides were working, the wind wasn't working, the entire evacuation was about to be called off but the person that was delivering the message to washington could not find washington that night, they still wet and glover's men push them across and against all odds they conducted the retreat, at that time the wind changed in the favor of americans and glover's men were able to transport the army across the east river in one case almost a dozen times against all odds and as don was coming a miraculous fog appeared. and continue to screen the movements of the army as it was crossing and john glover in the marblehead men from
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massachusetts delivered the army, nearly 10000 men were delivered to safety, this is one reason which makes them indispensable, they save the army but it's one of many situations and literally two weeks later the british land again at kips bay and it's the marblehead others that make a stand while the rest of the army retreat it's here where washington was catatonic as the british are attacking, he in his horse are frozennd in time somebody has to come and bring him out of the bottle as the british are advancing a hundred yards away, marble headers stand as army melts away, the army melts away in the marble headers make a desperate stand in their able to reform at the battle and
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there's a small victory. , is the marble headers that are involved in really interesting operation during this time. where they conduct raids against the british, the marble headers in many ways are a special operation unit that we know today. , they are doing things that are special in each store near they launched against the british prior to the battle brooklyn but it nearly would take out the british battleship they also perform the guard the commander-in-chief's guard or the lifeguard the lifeguard is an extraordinary unit is a precursor in many ways and the secret service, it's washington's handpicked men that guard him and is not a small group of men and mushrooms up to 200 and these men are involved in operation in battles and they
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also guard papers and they act as his aid to camp in many ways it's a marblehead or that leads this unit and shapes it informs it an extraordinary in itself not only do they protect and save the unit but there's a little bit of mystery prior to battle brooklyn there is several members of the guard that have leanings toward british, they are lured to assassinate washington. in that untold relatively unknown story is told in the indispensable zones will they covered the plot and the guard protects washington and they take outan their own the first
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americans to be executed as a member of the guard but that's quite fascinating story, as the book moves forward is the indispensable's letter washington's elite force in many of the battles in new york and the british land up in the northern part of manhattan at throngs point and it's here where the marblehead others and assortment of other units repel an end for beas aviation from the greatest navy of the world at the time the royal navy which is an extraordinary feat in an self they land a little bit further up the coast at pella's bay or palace point and it's here that glover's the army and
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they fight initially close to the landing point but they fall back and it's a collapsible defense it's an emerging part of the american way of war which is unique and ever-changing and is still ever-changing to this day but we were not using conventional tactics of european army were falling back from afi fixed position in this case behind stone walls and allowing the british to advance by taking down many of the numbers and it's here the indispensable help save washington's army once hiagain and from this point on u enter fort washington where
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many, many americans are captured nearly 3000 americans including marble headers that were captured early on, they were basically wounded but recovering and for washington and captured by the british, so much of this book consists of application files that are in many ways the unknown horse or history of the american revolution if you're lucky enough to survive the american revolution you can apply for pension application in 1820 he would go to the local courthouse and swear under oath what you saw and did and here's the great oral history of counts of what happened, it's in their words woand indispensable's is filled
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with these unknown stories is a boots on the ground very much a cinematic telling of the war not ... what the wall street journal said today in the review but it also has over 1000 endnotes, all the words in the books from the americans are true statements from their accounts not something that i may not know within these accounts and in these stories, and in many cases. as we enter november and december this is some of the darkest days of america things are politically collapsing the military victory of the british army has obtained from brooklyn,
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fort washington, the other victories and caused the swing within theyo united states where the cause abandoning new jersey people are signing oath to allegiance to the crown congressman people that have signed the declaration of independence or jumping sites, things are changing, their enlistments within the regiments are all set to expire washington's army is literally melting away within its eyes and he decides he must do something at the desperate situation and he decides to attack in trenton and it's here that the marble headers have their finest hour,
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it's a situation where everything changes, everything is on the line, everything is about to collapse and it's on the shoulders of the marble headers once again, washington has an elaborate plan he always hasft elaborate plans there was for that was going to attack trenton the marble headers are taking the army across the ardelaware river on the main prg but the other three are also going forward, all of them fail except the marble headers only the marble headers have the skill to cross the delaware river which is fast flowing in a nor'easter nothing is goingng according to plan all of the other prongs to washington fail
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but the marble headers are able to get the army across at least one portion the other three fail that night there behind schedule theree behind trenton left to march through sleet and snow through trenton. much of the army's barefoot their tracks are filled with blood in the snow but they push forward the marble headers are leading the element they push down toward the some important of trenton it's a very important point without orders they attack an absentee bridge they capture the bridge along with regards and then they set up a series of
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cannons and meanwhile the rest of washington's army is attacking and during most 18th century engagement both armies or sites battle it out and when one side is being, is not doing well, they retreat they capture the bridge and seal the retreat and seal the fate which change the course of history. and from there the army fills back acrosscr the delaware and it's unfortunately a little bit worse than the trip over because the men had captured the room supply and it was a drunken cruise back over and several men
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fell over but they captured the regiment in a stand of arms and many cannons and then the second battle of trenton. where washington doesn't know necessarilyy want to fight but his hand is forced by a militia group the philadelphia and washington decides to reinforce them and they hold the key bridge against all on, half the marblehead regimen may be less or a little bit more is hard to tell, stays with washington, the other group is exhausted and they go back to marblehead but the group that stays fight at the battle of princeton and they change the course of history, the ten crucial days they change
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the course of history in the three battles, is the marble headers that are in the fourth that make a difference but the story doesn't end there. what i meanha by that, it's a marblehead or that saves the army and not get to that story in a minute the first i want to get through several of the characters of the book so you get a feel for what this book is about. the first character if you will or individual that i like to highlight is john glover, he's a central character of the indispensable screen and john glover is a self-made man.
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they fished the grand bank and there's some of the most treacherous waters in the world it is icy and thousands of miles away from boston and they gather fish and it's a life-and-death situation many times against the giant waves and storms but they're working together and marblehead is the worst community has native americans,
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african americans, hispanic americans, these individuals are ahead of their time in many ways, it's a progressive town for his time, many of the men in the indispensable's are urban abolitionist they are at the forefront of american civil rights before there were civil rights. they were pushing for the abolitionist slavery including john glover it's these crews that are diverse that are working together but it's also a situation where the crown is interfering with their lives and their interfering with their lives constantly, they are impressed by the british navy, literally come alongside of a ship, board the ship and say you're gonna be a member of the royal navy. . . .
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that individual is taken aboard a royal navy ship and made a member of the royal navy for life. there's no freeing that individual and once they escape, some did. but this is a factor that causes a break from great britain. it's one of the factors. regulation, excessive regulation. lovers enterprises were regulated by the crown3000 miles away . in 1975 something called a fisheries act would be established where the crown would literally not allow effectively putting out of work the entire talent caused a great deal of upset. their judges were taken away from them and installed with royal officials in the government was changed. all of these issues fomented
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apolitical change within the colonies, within marblehead. marblehead would become the spearhead along with boston of the revolution. it would also be an idea of the revolution and the was the marble headers that would play a critical role in it that in 1773 and 74 the ships had brought home with it a virus that changed america and to change the town. the town would be divided clinically. the virus was smallpox and people within the town were being good but the patriots within the town came up with a novel plan to creative and not chelation hospital to try to publicly deal with the virus itself which was causing clinical fishers and causing massive death. if you're familiar with smallpox terror pustules across the face and the back and would scar people and it would kill you.
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they set up houses to contain the virus but did not chelation houses which were the cutting-edge of the time were set up by nathaniel bond and many of the other main characters in this book. the loyalists were not on board and as thedu hospital started to results it also. >> some infections which the loyalists used to their advantage to incite the mob. dozens of men rode on boats to cat island where the inoculation hospital was in place and they burned it to the ground with people inside. remarkably nobody was killed but the loss to the hot little cost the other patriots in the town 20over 2000 pounds in damages so
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they put out a --to get the manhood them that met at macy's those individuals and they were brought to jail and trial. the loyalists in the town use the situation of the virus to incite the mob and they attacked the jail with hundreds of individuals prepare broke into the doors of the deals of axis and crowbars and freed them and at that point the mayor in characters of the book their houses are surrounded by the angry mob which are hell-bent on killing them all and john glover came up with the very novel solution to deal with the problem. his version itself says with the canon inside the foyer of the house and i recall finding the original papers from his family
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i will fix them quote and as the mob circled the house ready to kill him heho ordered the doors thrust open and the canons they are the foyer facing the mob and he had h a torch in his hand and he told them to disperse. and they did. he made a stand and it was emblematic of how john glover would conduct himself through the rest of the war. and it's here that it's john glover and albert. better bringing the main supplies of gunpowder through their contacts which they prior to the revolutionary war and as the war moves forward john glover is involved in lexington and concord and is involved in many of the other battles and he also has the job of guarding glover -- guarding general
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washington prior to the battle and it's here that john glover forges a very special relationship with the commander-in-chief. and he formed a level of trust and his trust, it's general washington thater looks upon jon glover to solve a problem for him. gunpowder is the crucial -- the colonists had plenty of guns and no gunpowder and the british knew it and they tried to disarm them through gunpowder but it would be the contacts that the marble headers had with that cruciall gunpowder and there would also be a novel way that washington would try to capture more gunpowder by attacking the british source in halifax but he needed a ship or ships to do that operation so he encouraged
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john glover to creative navyer d the navy which is really kind of preposterous is to take basically a phishing boat the john glover has, the hanna which was about 74 tons and somehow take him the greatest navy in the world at the time the royal navy but that's exactly what they did and they attacked the british ships. and the story of the navy is extraordinary. it's some of the most colorful captions in american history. captain coy the red dragon that had the giant red cloak and he has an incredible sense of humor. scion martindale who decides to send a lavish amount of money but as soon as the ship gets out of court he's immediately captured by the british. scion martindale cells out there crew to the british at trial. scion martindale is a really
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amazing story. they put many of them in royal navy vessels and he is freed with some of his officers and the makes his way to maine where he is imprisoned as well by the british navy but somehow he escaped on foot and makes his way down the east coast all the way to washington and spinning tales, grand tales of his heroics in the process and he goes on to fight again but is lost at sea. there are so many amazing stories within the navy itself. they attack canada without authorization and there's a mutiny, one of the first in the united states history but they also capture critical partnership at the right time in the right place. another individual that i'd like
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to talk about his doctor nathaniel bond. the harvard trained resurrection must. a resurrection is this a bodysnatcher. dr. bond, there is a critical shortage of cadavers at the time and people -- doctors would. graybeards and snatch bodies to work on them to find out their anatomy that dr. bond is really an extraordinary hero. he's. on cat island working on the inoculation and it's here that he saves many marbleheaders. he's at the forefront of smallpox. this specialty, does x. courtis. dr. bond is also a member of the marblehead regimen and trained with a man drilled with them. he participates in the battle of concord but according to the hippocratic oath which he
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follows very seriously he treats the british soldiers that are wanted at lexingtonto and concod where he is canceled. the patriots in the town believe that he is now a loyalist and his house is surrounded. he writes an extraordinary letter that i have here in my hand written on parchment and its address to his wife saying that there are thousands of people that will kill him at any moment. please send a detail of men to bring the court-martial so i can reveal the truth of what happened. he confides in his true friend joseph warren as well as elbridge gerry and the facts are revealed and dr. bond is exonerated from crimes. he didn't do anything wrong. he does help people which is
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what he supposed to do but instead of melting away and not being happy with the situation he decided to fight and he joined the marblehead regimen as their surgeon. dr. bond then goes on to be a company commander and he fights the role of the major battles of the american revolution. which is reallyti i mean extraordinary and enough itself and that's the battle of trenton when half the regiment goes back to marblehead and they have a reason for going f back. the marblehead's are economically devastated. they are starving and they go back to protect their wives and loved ones and families. along with many of the other men. they continue to stay on at washington himself would ask
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dr. bond to inoculate the army at the time that the virus was killing nearly 20% of the army and people were devastated by it. dr. bond sets up all the inoculations and he supervises and manages the entire process and inoculates thee army. one historian claims washington's greatest strategic decision was to inoculate the army. they were ablele to fight into e battle and it was initially canceled but the man that was initially labeled at loyalist died from basically inoculating inoculating. these are some of the characters in the book along with the forgotten founder. a favorite word for elbridge gerry is rumble terion kind of
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an ornery drop -- ornery guy. he was the intellectual mainspring in many ways of the early revolution. eldridge jerry believed in republicanism. its service to country over self and he had the abstract concept that really makes the reality but he also takes one of the largest fleets in the colonies which he and his family own and converts them. as i mentioned earlier the two of them necessary and was gunpowder. all of the major operations that the british were conducting in the early part of the war would take an disarm disarm americans and take our vital supply of gunpowder. without gunpowder no revolution
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can be foughtbu but it's gehry that comes up with the concept to one of the first in writing to talk about foreign alliances and other mark -- marbleheaders forged their alliance and it's through his contacts that have gone on for o 20 or 30 years tht he forgesla a relationship and they bring in the powder. he's also future vice president in the future congressman. gerrymandering is named after him. all of these things are part of eldridge -- elbridge gerry in the last thing i'm going to talk about is the diverse members. in many cases we only know them byy their first name. in some cases a roman or greek
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name. these are extraordinary individuals pay their unsung and forgotten. important of these marblehead regimen, their strength is their diversity but their greatest strength was their unity and these men working together as a team and their incredible members of this regimen such as caesar glover manuel soto cato prince that i looked up their pension files and these men died penniless but they fought through the entire war in the most epic and great operations of the war. bringing the marblehead regimen and bringing the army to safety multiple times. these are the forgotten members of themb revolution. theyey were all extraordinary ad what they did and a diversity
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and model that we would not see tragically for over 170 years in america's armed forces. but each of the men that were in -- men and women in the book covers incredible women in this book as well but did extraordinary things. they were atat the right place t the right time and in many cases the sacrifice that they made was epic. marblehead alone had over 600 widows by the end of the american revolution. it's that story that sacrifice wris the reason why i wrote it. a debt that i think most americans can appreciate. our founding story is the greatest story.
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and it's marbleheaders that change the course of history. thank you very much and i'm happy to take questions. >> this has been a great introduction to this book and i'm so excited for people at the chance to read it. i also have questions coming in and the questions about the cohesiveness of this unit. she asked how to did the diverse group contact the unit and we tend to think of modern soldiers acting as one ended that happened here and how did they make that happen? >> i think a lot of that has to do with what happened prior to the revolution. in many cases many of these men were on phishing boats where life and death decisions have to be made within seconds and the color of your skin or your race was irrelevant. it was about trust and this
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trust and teamwork was forged over years of time and many of them had forged those blogs of friendship and wants the family to where they literally -- many of the men in his unit were interconnected through the millione w tiles -- ties and wee best friends. i researched this extensively. i found a couple of examples which is unheard-of for the 18th century americans as their desertion was often rife but it was those connections with family and community that tie them together. spent another question comes from elizabeth and i like this as well. after i the campaign did colonel glover and a marbleheaders
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return home and you mentioned eldred -- elbridge gerry but can you tell us about the afterlife? >> it's a complicated story. half the unit, well maybe less than half the unit stayed in washington. this is an extraordinary moment. right before the battle washington uses his great oratory ability to beg and plead them to stay and many stepped forward and served. many of o them were marbleheades and many of them died as result includingg dr. bond. john glover along with other members of the marblehead regimen return home to marblehead and they form a new -- glover is made a general
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and they form -- they form a new brigade in a new regimen and they take to the sea and in many cases many of these captains the great captains the marblehead captains had become part of the continental navy such as john manley and tucker and they are some of the greatest fighting captains of the revolutionary war and the book is filled with an incredible scene of ships that are fighting and also they have to make repairs on the fly or make theirr way to a small cove and there's hardly anybody there and they had to drag moths out it's really quite extraordinary story of american ingenuity. many of them become -- unlike washington's navy who were
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members of the armyy literally t sea. these are individuals that are private better of slow or earning a commission. slightly different but they are working in the employ of the massachusetts government. manyma of them died including hs son and many of them are never seen again. >> another question that is common is the specifically justin cherry from the library asks about the marblehead regimen and what can you tell ur about that and are they young or the old? >> i was able to take the muster rolls that existed and it's fragmentary. the average age was around 24 but it varied. there were obviously older men and younger men.
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the book captures a story of boy soldiers and in many cases it was drummer boys. music was a very important part of being able to communicate in an 18th 18th century battle. he needed drums to fight to relay orders and many of the younger members were musicians from the pipers and they went to war with their fathers. we had some extraordinary stories of father and son teams. >> anotherio question coming in from janet who asked questions about the recognition out of your book is a great example of how centuries later we can still discover and recognize the service. what kind ofe recommendation dd these people receive during their lifetime's? >> most of these men and women
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received zero recognition. in fact most of them are bankrupt after the war and what you see in the pensionth file up occasions they were were lucky enough to even make it that long. this is especially true for the soldier mariners of color. they are extremely accomplished and glover himself was wracked with ptsd and you can did find that through his letters to washington where he's not able to sleep most of the night. and marblehead was a source of great wealth in massachusetts prior to the war. the second-largest city and it's really reduced to a shell after the war and individual families are great land paupers. the book itself in 1777 in late 76 i bring out the women of the
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town out of beverly and marblehead and is also an important part of this book as well. one of the companies led by captain brown they have their base there they literally buy it in the women of the town take up -- and. the food stored in the town because they are starving. this is a gritty war. it's a civil war and they are impoverished. it's different words to mostst people have read. spent another question coming from thee audience and i'd like to hear thoughts on this one from pamela about how does he manage to bring together so many different people in this regimen? are there thoughtful and deliberate thought to what he needs to do to make this
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happened or did it come out of thee community? >> i thing it comes out of the community. there was no overt effort to coerce people deserved and that's an important element of the story. they were willing to serve and it's the poorest members of the community in many cases as well as the elite numbers are all serving together side-by-side and you've got literally glover and elbridge gerry and jeremiah lee for instance. these are -- jeremiah lee was one of the wealthiest men in the colony. he was the visually they are colonel serving with the other members of the community which are not well off at all and they are not doing it under coercion. bayard doing it because they
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feel it's their duty and what i find really extraordinary is the amount of sacrifice as the war progresses and the community itself is bankrupt. there was a tremendous amount of pressure to return home to give the war that most or many of these men continued their service against all odds which i find extraordinary. >> we are in mt. vernon so it's a great opportunity as the washington question. what was the a the connection might between glover in washington? did they share intimacy and did they have a candid and frank relationship with one another? it's someone that mt. vernon insiders know well but tell us about that relationship. >> their relationship was an w important one.
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that relationship was forged in early 1775 in cambridge in a giant mansion that washington takes over as his headquarters and at the marbleheaders better in some ways the first guarded headquarters any requests that as time goest on. he forms a very intimate relationship of trust with john glover and the actions of that unit at the time. gibbsad who later becomes in charge of the commander in chief's daughter and this relationship is incredibly important.t. washington trust these men at the most crucial inflection points of the word.
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he places his entire trust on the shoulders of t the marblehed men. it's later a trend and for john glover says can you bring us across the river? don't worry about that. my boys at got it and they had. they had the confidence -- glover have the confidence in hiss men and washington had confidence in the marblehead there's -- in the marbleheaders said earlier if washington was the indispensable man of the man of the revolution it's the marbleheaders that were the indispensable men.
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>> long before the war broke out if there was more to effectively effectively -- >> the men had undergone training as a militia unit prior to the war where they would train in the ground in and around marblehead and you know it was not necessarily taken very seriously because they go right to the tavern afterwards and drank punch and -- after the training but what forged these men was the greatest fighting unit to take arms for united states is their experience prior to the war fishing in the grand bank and the merchant where they had the battle not only the royal navy but also mother
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nature some of the greatest season of the time. the grand banks were unforgiving and literally i mean every year hundreds of men would die at sea. this bread men that were very tough americans. but they were very tough individuals. spent there's another question from frank who asked about the marbleheaders and we talk about the water crossing and we've seen on the cover of your book. for any marbleheaders involved in other campaigns including the southern campaign? >> not direct way. after the campaign glover would operate in the north primarily. there was a handful of individuals that may have
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effectively serve in the south in other units because they had traveled that way in and one way or another but for the most part they didd not operate in the south. the story of these marblehead men was unique in terms of the special operations like unit and operations they conducted where for instance they conducted raids against the british and they had even launched a fire ship against the british a couple of weeks before the battle of brooklyn where several men had died or perished. as they drove their ship, a flaming ship direct we into what effectivelyy work british battleships. and one of the marbleheaders pairs to in the process but it's a great story of heroism.
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>> another question and this may be my last opportunity because we are running out of time but justin posted a question earlier on about -- and he asked about the quality that washington had and not just washington but also key figuresgl including glover. is there leadership trade trait? >> this book is filled with leadership examples of individuals there were willing to sacrifice their lives and their fortunes for their cause and for their country which it's mind-boggling in many ways to try to describe it. at the end of the war many of these individuals were penniless and they were broken men
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physically as well as emotionally. but one of the leadership traits that they had was they were willing to -- they would never ask somebody else to do something that they would be willing to do. in many cases they led from the very front and were willing to sacrifice their lives. that leadership is really essential and that something that is a lesson so that we can understand and work from today. >> this has been a remarkable opportunity patrick. my camera is gone but let me talk to you. thank you so much let me ask you zany closing words you'd like to say. >> i do want to say thank you to
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everybody that his state this evening and sacrifice their time for my presentation. i really want to thank the ladies about vernon for sponsoring me and allowing me to really conduct research into one of the finest city -- in america and have never found a better place toerr write a book here. it's a special place and i'm extremely grateful for the opportunity to be here and to have conducted the research and to write this book. >> the book everyone is "the indispensables" the diverse soldier-mariners who shaped the country, formed the navy and rowed washington across the delaware. this is thee official look by patrick o'donnell. we have it available at the mt. vernon shop and thank youou so
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much patrick and everyone. >> thank you. it was an honor.
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