tv Stephen Browne The First Inauguration CSPAN August 18, 2021 6:43am-7:45am EDT
>> good evening, everyone my name is kevin butterfield of the executive director of the national library for the city of george washington mount vernon welcome to our evening book talk for the month of april 2021. will throw to javi here and excited about our conversation on the first inauguration george washington in the republic of stephen browne. one note coming up on may will be our third and final we have had two wonderful conversations with cheney, thomas ricks and thus far separate tickets are available for the final conversation remember that if you select the ticket that i am thinking of will prove an autographed copy of the book, richard bernstein of harvey bernstein and noted author has a new book called the education of john adams am excited to talk to him about it please join us for
the third and final segment of the 2021 michelle smith flex series. to introduce about our speaker tonight, we will learn more as we join the conversation stephen browne and arts professor of can make communication at penn state a rhetorical critic and public memory early america and the most recent book before the book will be talking about tonight was the eyes of war george washington and the new crisis he's written many books but what were mostly excited about as we near the anniversary of the first inaugural address ever given by the first president of the united states were gonna talk with him about the first inauguration gorge washington in the invention of the republic he is an award-winning scholar by penn state as a marvelous teacher but also the association please join me in welcoming stephen howard brown, welcome.
>> great to be here for anyone who's interested in washington this is the gold standard i feel very faithful to you and the staff of the library and the ladies, thank you. >> thank you its own behalf that we welcome you here tonight and the company that confronting these talks for years, thank you how they support this work and everything that we do and i'm thrilled to have a conversation with you. i want to remind everyone in please submit your questions, i want to give you an opportunity to ask questions and learn about the first inaugural address but also the first inauguration more broadly, let me start there tell us about the election of the president it was not like any other how did george washington become elected in 1788, 89. >> thank you.
one way of getting out is to ask how would it be possible for him to not be elected and i'm familiar to her listeners and viewers it almost appeared composite of those values not only that people embrace but needed to embrace at that moment and people knew it from vermont to georgia it was very clear of course that this is precisely the person not only embody the values but right here right now when things were unclear even especially in 89 it is interesting that a day after the inaugural address the state
general convened in paris in a couple months, i said it's very uncertain and is very rural in washington is balanced to the sale. >> maybe you could talk about the environment in which washington is waiting for the news i think he knew he was going to be elected president. >> there is something of a ritualistic character given what you just said the people knew it and here comes and it's a certainty and indeed charles thompson secretary of congress is sent on his way to make a rather long ride down to mount vernon. all of that is clear and indeed
thompson shows up on the 16th and round his way to the door in washington is ready, something of the two step dance where thompson reads him an official statement from congress of congratulations and washington turns around and reads a statement back to him. at the same time, i'll put it this way the greatest story with a set of beautiful observations about washington is an art of the exit and knew how to take his lead. it reminds us the sage grouse
that washington was so good at. but he is also good at making entrance. that is into itself, something of the theater that i see going on not to trivialize or to empty it, quite the opposite, i think washington with the rough ready camp eating cheese and nuts and wine over the campfire in the developed sense of the theater of politics and he understood under the circumstances he needed to do this right every step along the way, when thompson knocks on the door act i, scene one, is there a fear
with presumptuous, is that part of what's going on what her concerns about making the wrong stuff. >> very suggestive question. as evidence for what i'm about to say and i encourage everyone to listen or watch and who has access to the washington papers in one of the most amazing works of scholarship on earth. famously he writes the general knocks beforehand and very
quickly says i feel that my feelings are not unlike those as a culprit that is going to the place of his own execution. diminishing of expectations and i'm not worried in that kind of thing. i don't think contribute license or empties it, it is important for his soon to be a chief executive of a republic to play that down into play up the appeal of home of mount vernon. so part of the choreography of power that i think he was so good at.
>> once he makes his decision and offers to charles thompson the journey to become the first president, with some attention and of course he is leaving from mount vernon and going to what turns out to be a short-lived capital, let's talk about the journey and go into some details your book has great details on the travel to george washington but more importantly what happened along the way in terms of how people are receiving how can mount vernon set the stage for us, what will it entail. >> thank you, i will remind myself to restrain myself, this is really what compelled me into the project generally, everybody
loves a road trip, how does this work, he is a military man and he's going to travel light, they will keep that pretty lean, off they go. they don't get far for your listeners and viewers who are familiar with alexandria you'll know what is 12 miles or something like that give or take and that's as far as they get before the first of many occasions in which washington along his way and i promise not to do this every step but if you do not mind i would like to convey something of what goes
down in alexandria at the tavern as a representative is to transpire from the next week or so. alexandria isn't just along the way it's as close to his heart and this is just a paragraph, if you do not mind some speeches by local worthies and as you might guess and then washington, here's how he concludes his comments. all that remains for me too commit myself and you to the protection of the minister sent being on a former occasion has happily brought us together after a long distressing
separation, perhaps the same providence will indulge us with the same heartfelt, but words, my fellow citizens fail me a notable sensation must be left to more expressive silence but from an aching heart i bid you all my affectionate friends and kind neighbors, farewell. >> that's pretty good and i wish i could tell from the evidence on one occasion they actually stood up and delivered, it is unclear sometimes more careful searchers amongst us this evening might straighten me out on this but it's unclear whether he is delivering these as one might speech or a written form
and that kind of thing but either way that is exquisite, off they go, it is quite a journey it's not actually all that long, it's easy for me too say but as you know and as you exhibit at mount vernon had these trails along the way first alexandria and was stopped along the way it will hit baltimore where there is also a celebration in the rituals of power that i had mentioned into delaware, wilmington into philly, that is crazy as far as that goes i look at the commentary from the day in
scholarly coverage of that, sometimes estimates are around 10000 people turning out. give or take 30000 which would mean a third of the entire city, it seems like a lot but there we have on the visual there is several of these, what would you call them sort of the architecture of celebration where you have the arch and then the bridge in the music and sometimes a detachment from the local militia or something like that. this is the depiction of washington and philadelphia for
those familiar with that area. this would be characteristic. that is theater and we can talk about that later but what is going on in this location as we dig through the whole trip itself it seems to me this is interpret on my part but is not altogether clear because nothing is, what exactly all this should look like, we fast-forward 12 years or so to jefferson's first inaugural and he's living in a boardinghouse, he gets up and has a cup of tea and ties his hair in a ponytail and brushes himself off, okay, that is that but here in april 89 before there is a president after all
it is unclear of what power auto look like should be a royal perception like the brits might do or the french in just over the top, you cannot really do that, another thing you don't want to downplay too much this is a this is a rapidly rising-- very soon to become a nationstate, so you don't want to downplay yourself. this seems to be sort of a modulation between european access and poor mouthing it. somewhere in between. they stay in philly-- philadelphia for a stretch. everyone wants a piece of the action, so you will have
trustees at the university of pennsylvania and the society of cincinnati and all the men in the various parties want in on the deal and they want to hear and listen to them, so we get a rehearsal of what we saw in alexandria, more complicated and less instant-- intimate, perhaps , but still the same sort of offering above language befitting a republican city, philadelphia, after all. you have to play this right. this is philadelphia. afterwards than the second part of the dance is then washington will deliver a statement of his own. philadelphia's big. it's just a big party and if
you've ever been to philadelphia , they do a party, but you have to get going. at the state needs a military man and it's getting a little rested here. of course, the catch is whether philadelphians-- they have to send militia and everyone off piled around them and washington -- after a few miles he says you guys just go home and take care of the household. i'm okay. it's all good. we got it. so, off he goes. now he's into new jersey and what's coming up across the river, trenton and maybe if we could see that-- this is perhaps the most well-known widely circulated 19th century prints washington's entry into trenton.
this is good. for a variety of reasons. you will notice if you squint at that thing, it's primarily almost entirely women and girls. these are the women of trenton and their daughters who have been ready for this moment for weeks and weeks. they have been getting together. they are-- their outfits and songs. they are rehearsing the songs and the flowers, garland and so on. there's also the equivalent the sort of a placards of what to expect. his excellency saved us the first time, battle of trenton and saved the women and daughters of trenton and now they are returning to--
washington crosses that bridge, it's just a little bridge there in a trenton, but it's a big bridge in the national imagination. i don't know if national is the right word just yet, but almost, that's a big bridge because a lot depends on that thing. in any case, washington and then raises his hat, crosses the bridge, rides from the horse and delivers a few words to the mothers and daughters of trenton needless to say, surrounding all of this is music and firecrackers and hullabaloo us and as someone. now he's on his way up to what was then called elizabethtown, and then eventually onto the water where, of course, now in new york city particularly really wants a piece of that
action because for obvious reasons. they have the votes of every kind outed to escort him along. arnie goes onto the barge and now in some contemporary writers -- i don't know if i believe a word of it, dolphins jumping, but there are fireworks and boats with people singing like courses and as someone where they then ushered him into the other harbor. now, we are heading towards the battery and then eventually into new york city itself. and here you see something like that. now, image, i think, is entitled washington's entry into new york
was that him coming home, i mean, back from newburgh on his way to mount vernon? hard to tell, but it suggests something of what i would call something of the sort of urban culture. i don't know if it's street culture k necessarily, but there they are. in new york city would have been-- well, the 1790 cents puts the population of new york city around 30,000, so it's just about ready to move past or has moved past philadelphia. hard to tell because new york is a port city and the numbers get pretty flexible, but this much is clearly the case if you dip into the census records and kind of texture of city life into
which washington is now arriving and asserting himself, so the city would have been right around 30,000. brooklyn, of course, when it open didn't really count in that sense, but that manhattan area roughly about 15% of that would have been a combination of the slave and freed black. it would also be, as you know, being new york it would've had just an extraordinary diversity of languages ranging-- of course because of the dutch and african influence there's going to be indigenous people. you have sort of dock culture going on there which is always a rich and crazy kind of taboo or going on all the way to the high-end, but that's the kind of
culture and then it's party time for that day that he arrives into the next time and then they put him up in a house on cherry street, which is on the manhattan side by the brooklyn bridge to put you in that area kind of the upper east side. >> let me ask a preliminary question. you mentioned it a couple times that washington said-- what do we know about washington as an order-- order. washington before the inaugural address. >> okay, before? >> yet, up until this moment. >> that is a spot on question for real because it identifies one of the more-- that is if you
will forgive the self referencing, my first book was on admin work-- admin burke and then jefferson and so on, so okay, so there is that kind of orator or oratory of sort of the full you know daniel webster sort of thing. clearly washington is not and he would never pretend to be. tnow, the same time and i will try not to go on about this, but it occurred to me for all of the mythology around washington as the strong silent type and truly a man of action and that sort of thing, fair enough for sure, but the man, i mean, get to the
library and look at the washington papers in the correspondence and so on. it's incredible, thousands-- this man lived his life awash in a language so he was highly attuned. now, did he compose all of his addresses himself alone? no, no and we can talk about that later if you wish. no, he was not an orator in the ordinary sense of the word, but when he followed up recently-- secondly remember not that you need me too remind you, but washington is a virginia gentleman is not clear that an edgy-- virginia gentleman might to be anht orator.
maybe he is the exception that proves the rule. ie don't want to overplay this necessarily, but with politics what we know of it did not operate through full throated or tour. you kind of got things done differently. all of that is to say maybe we need to expand our sense of what constitutes or defines eloquence or orator. i can tell you this, when at newburgh for instance in march 15, of 83, when things were getting really weird and he's got virtually the entire officer court in that room on the ground set at newburgh, with arguably conspiracy on their minds-- i don't know about that, but maybe he walks in front of
that room in front of the most powerful military figures in the nation, but if that's not oratory, i don't know what is. indeed, firsthand reports of officers-- these are hard guys in tears at the end of the newburgh address, so i would suggest that we ought to perhaps expand-- not because i'm trying to cheerlead washington, but to recognize that there is eloquence of character. there's eloquence of the person that speaks, sometimes speaks with massive power. host: let me ask one question and i wasn't expecting a question but as you are describing the journey it kept coming to mind and it may be
unanswerable, but people welcoming washington in philadelphia or trenton or even new york, where they welcoming the new president or were they welcomingg washington and by that, i mean, why they have welcomed it george washington in the same way in 1786? i'm just curious. guest: thank you for the question. you know, i can be speculative in a sense because-- i hope i'm not far been thehe question by suggesting that one, sure he would've been-- he's the man, i mean, no question. there is no more famous american more than franklin, i mean, at this point, yes.
wherever he went it would have been on occasion, yes. but, they they-- and this has a very deep for me that they were not welcoming a military figure in that sense. or his contributions to put it mildly acknowledged? of course, but you look at the letters and speeches, the totes even, that was fun to look at the various toasts, it's very, very much oriented towards what we would now call the presidency appeared. he plays that pretty smart mean there-- these anxieties you know there's a cromwell problem at work here. there's the man on
horseback, so to speak and to get the back record on these things, it's b not real good, i mean, you can win the war, but it's winning the peace that is tough and if you're not careful youou are going to have a napoleon come riding over the horizon if you don't play this properly. that insistence on the civil authority seems to be embodied in the person as well as the reception of that person. host: extraordinarily helpful and i like that answer.ha let me remind everyone you can ask questions, type them in. i want to come to as many as we can a so i'll be asking them. it's april, in new york. once he arrives is every bit of a waiting period before he's inaugurated and what is that look like? take us up to the demand
inauguration. guest: see if he can transplant yourself in the imagination back at some point you got to settle down and have a cup of tea sort of thing now he has a line on the way to the battery of people that want to talk to him. so, there's that kind of housekeeping business that's going to go on, but i want to mention this, he writes to-- and again this is in the letters of the correspondence. madison and hamilton and several othersil asking them about certain protocols like, should i invite people here to my
place or should i like weight, should i go to someone else's place for dinner and you know like kind of nuts and bolts because again, at the risk of our rehearsing us, what's at stake here is what a republican government ought to look r like i mean what are the protocols. it's not as if he has much to go with here as he looks across the landscape. it's pretty likeos wow as he said famously like everything i do is impressive. here's one of them. so, hey, mr. madison, what you think about which fork he used for the salad other than that kind ofol thing, so there's that housekeeping and figuring out rules of engagement, so to speak. and he went to mention, though, seems to me very
very important dimension to all this and it's peace with this matter up what after all should a republic look like and as we get to the speech itself, what should a republic sound like, you know. for the woman, of course, this goes on i'm sure assuming someone is in the chair was going to be, the first thing you want to do is sit them up for a job so-- apparently, turns out hundreds of people who are saying hey, i thought in trenton or brandywine or something and the kids need food, can you see yourself a job for me, for a position. these come in by the bag falls as soon as i can
tell and washington has what turns into not really boilerplate, i mean, he seems to sort of adapt or secretary does, but in any case i promise not to read or anything, but the upshot of these responses, they are very polite, but very pointed in which he specifies why he can't help. he says, first of all to put it casually, it's not going to happen, sorry find out this is never going to happen for you. sorry. i appreciate your service, but it can't happen and he explains why. in my situation, he says this is tough. i have to turn away friends sometimes, but it is absolutely crucial that the fortunes of the republican government that this administration beheaded by those who
are competent to the task and for that reason alone and that underlines it time and time again. days are crowded. he himself is not a big partier, but he will have some people over for a glass of madeira. ticket the days themselves are, i'm sure, in terms of interviews. remember, there is no cabinet or to recognize as such. he's trying to figure this out as he goes along. host: let's spend a little bit of time you and me and then we will go to audience questions on the speech itself. that inaugural address just this year, it's now a fixture in american-- i won't even say ivpolitical calendar, the american civic calendar, the inaugural address tell me about the speech. tell me how washington puts it together and most importantly i'm interested to hear your take on this speech is the first inaugural
address was a transformative? guest: absolutely, so when we talk about here after all, president biden i think was the 59th such speech delivered. we might ask and i promise to be responsive to the question, but we might ask if the first order of business of why why do newly installed presidents hold office? they don'tth have to appear there's nothing in the constitution. there's nothing i could find in the constitutional debate or the ratification debate. i couldn't find a word about any of that. did washington invent the inaugural address? he certainly did not. there are variations of the thing that go back and anglo experience well into centuries in
the colonnades and providences themselves we would see governors, forr instance, deliver sort of assumption of office addresses, that kind of thing. the question, why presidents after, i know why because washington. the speech itself, as you might imagine, was a seven paragraphs long, about 1400 words a give or take and which version you are using the was not particularly long. it is written in that sort of characteristic 18th century english sort of latin tactical structures. of course, not particularly reader
friendly text for most people these days, i mean, i love it, d of course. i'm used to it. more specifically, where is this address come from, well it is not a pill kill your, but it had a bump or two. washington seems to had asked david, and eight ofor his for a long time who's pretty good with a pen to help in on a little bit. humphrey is handsome 70 plus page beast of the manuscript, what about test. well, washington says i will get back to you. can you imagine, a 70 stage-- 70 pages speech? in any case, around christmas time, prior to the inauguration itself in april, of 89, jeff madison stopped by the house and they spend
some time together and it's pretty clear that washington mr. madison, what you think of this and madison seems to have taken one look and said that's not going to happen. the two of them lend themselves to the task, so for those of you familiar with madison or madison pro craft, you can see it at work there in several ways. it's the manuscript then gets tucked into washington breast pocket as he assumes the office itself. he takes the oath of office on the second floor out on the balcony there. look at all the people them below and
long-lived george washington, president of the united states of america.to and then walks into-- we might now college joint session and then delivers the address. several people in attendance a wrote they are sort. some notice that there may have been a bead of sweat or two on the brow and maybe a quivering voice, shaking of the hands. that's the orator question. i don't think ever felt particularly comfortable but, he did it. one of the legacies of the why is because i think he thought it was absolutely essential to the ethos of republican
government, that power shows itself, that it speaks itself, that it lets itself be known that this isn't a european deal much less a french kind ofs thing or some sort of a ritual in the house of commons. know, power shows itself. in any case he stands up with manuscript in hand, maybe she's a little bit , but thisit is pretty intense moment and delivers the address. exposes him to seven paragraphs, so not particularly long, but it is very, very pointed when in the reasons i entered into the project as i was struck by the relative absence, frankly of any serious scholarly work on the inauguration, much less the inaugural address.
went to offer my modest contribution to that. no cents dwelling on that, but even if it was a dreadful speech, it was still the first. in any case-- there is no policy initiative. although, there is one thing and i think we can talk about it. he's not advocating for a freeze of bills to rectify this roar that wrong. semi macy and some later inaugural adjust, he has a plan of action, so what is in this address? what's the nuts andre bolts? guest: very good. again, it's a-- no presidents setting, but i think in the main we could without gettingt- into the weeds, but allow me i do want to quote one sentence. host: of course.
guest: by my accounts 1400-- 1419 words along in a seven paragraphs. characteristically, yet the first paragraph, that's what rhetoricians say you sort of ingratiate yourself. here is the presidentnt setting where washington is careful to act as it were subsume himself or become sort of a commonplace and inaugural addresses to greater or lesser degrees convincing i'm sure, but kind of a standard go to. this is beyond my abilities, but i will do my best kind of thing. i wish i was back at mount vernon drinking flip and bouncing kids on my knee, but here i am. that's what you got to do.
there has been an appeal to divine a sanction. it's conspicuously not a christian language that he mobilizes, but for better or worse we tend to call it an appeal and so on and then thirdly you are right, it's not much hardly at all to talk about policies because it's kind of unclear why that would evenen mean under the circumstances, butut there is very much a statement uof vision, so we know that. the word inauguration, artery is latin term for seeing and predicting. seeing what the land looks like when you're just starting something sort of thing. we then get to talk about article five of
the united states constitution and this is perhaps always a madison's hand being played which washington reminds his audience hey, if things are aren't going exactly the way you want it, well, we can deal with this in that way. through the amendment process.he he then says listen, towards the end i don't want any salary for this and concludes again with anes appeal to divine a section. host: you are right, the berries short speech. ig today.be short if it were an inaugural address in 2020 or 2024 and he heard the speech at this point we would think that was a short. guest: i think so. there were shorter, not as short as you well know, washington second inaugural address which
be rather telling which was all of what, three sentences. host: one hunky paragraph was all it was. i have an audience question then we will talk more about the speech. it's a great question and i actually don'tes know the answer. martha washington, any part of this inaugural ceremony. guest: thank you, meghan. okay. here's how that turns out. martha and the gang did not in fact the company george washington on that journey. they will come later picked up to take care of the situation at the house, figure things out washington himself has to get people-- you know no doubt staff and so on
so to answer your question there's no immediate presence there. i think it may be impressionistic, but it would really unclear given the gender dynamics at play when it meant for a female to be publicly sentenced to like the kind of unclear is that appropriate cracks or is it not? in any case, after the inauguration ceremonies and so on everyone was have a big party and there's no inaugural ball as such that we would recognize or parade like you would think of now. but, the spanish ambassador, everyone wants some of this so they will have that, but
washington is consistent that they wait until martha comes up. she does and then the rest due including slaves and staff and kids and so on. that would be-- [inaudible] host: i have another question. keep it up, everyone. i'm enjoying these questions. another question is about his military uniform. did he wear his military uniform during the trip as indicated by some images and as you said some are 19th century, but did he travel by carriage or mount a big white horse before arriving? i think this is something we knew he did on occasion. i don't know if he did in this trip. guest: sure. again, for all of the kind of stern
washington, all of that, the man like a nice jacket and i know this in part because he actually there is letters and an exchange when he knows the inauguration is coming up on the horizon. he says hey, can you helpx me find-- there's this taylor out there i think it was inhi connecticut, which doesn't really good work. can you get him my proportions because he's a big guy, obviously. nice brown kind of wall thing going on here and he's always attentive to that. now, as to-- so because what we were talking about in terms of theater and power and the choreography of the republican government, one has to pay attention to one's code as jefferson where to find
out at a later date.no it's not altogether appropriate for the president of the united states of america tote open the door in his slippers like what the heck. t washington was much more formal along those lines. specifically, did he once in a while don his military uniform? i don't know. i haven't come across commentary or observations to that effect.er frankly, this imagery aside, i would be surprised. i think one sensesrp that he would have thought it inappropriate to civil government for the president-elect of the united states of america to go to the ball that-- dressed in military
uniform. host: very good. this is helpful. i love this question because it's something i think we have a lot of answers to one of them i know right off. waited washington learn his theatrical sense?is i will throughout part of it. i know he loved going to the theater. he actually enjoyed watching place. talk more about that. guest: indeed, if-- no reason not to believe it, but sort of the staging of place at-- place -- place at valley forge, addison's cato and so on. okay, you virginians out there, southerners perhaps in general will understand that to have come of age under these
circumstances was to have come of age in a exquisite-- we know from the book civility and so on, one can kind of overplayed that a little bit, but one did have to know really early on sort of the arts of how to navigate and powerful company. sometimes that might include taking-- you have to know how to move your body especially if you are a big guy like washington was. it was important to develop sort of an athleticism in terms of even how you sat down, how you danced, that kind of thing. that mattered. there was a sense of comport, okay. well, also of the military experience especially his early
formative military experience before thepe american revolution or the war of independence. meaning what? well, i think he was taught early on that this management of yourself before others, that really matters. one can lament or celebrate it, but he amunderstood the technicality, it's the art of appearance in washington understood the power of appearances some abstract theoretical terms, but in part because it's how you get things done properly. this is what famously sort of mortified him when he showed up in boston to takewe over what can charitably be called the army, the american are being boston. he was mortified looking
at like superior officers giving inferior men in the ranks haircuts. he sort of stopped at in a hurry. i don't think because he had some sort of obsessive authoritarian thing going on. it's just that, that just looks bad. time will come when the guy giving you a haircut might be sending you into the front line so we better get this straight. is the art of appearances. host: there's one more question coming in from the audience and one that i was hoping to touch on briefly with your skill and evaluatingr rhetoric and performance side of things. is the relationship between-- is relating this inaugural aggress-- address even to the more
famous farewell address and i know for a fact of school children learning experts of chunks of the farewell address for centuries afterward. did they have themes? are the big differences? guest: this question deserves a pause, if you don't mind. host: that's great. guest: in my view, aside from the obvious differences of content and context, what impresses me is the distinction between the fundamental optimism that i see embedded in every word in the first inaugural address and i see the farewell address, not made perhaps as
pessimistic, but an address by someone who-- who's had a very rough stretch of it, maybe not so much in terms of a failure or anything like that. that is arguable, but i will put it this way you notice the first inaugural address, there's not onel singular word about what we would call foreign policy. he opened that door to his office and it just never stopped. ifpe he looked east he had that whole thing going on. if he looked west, he had indigenous intentions at work. north and south, everywhere. secondly, there is kind of a hard-- i wish i had
a better word than pessimism, because heet wasn't pessimistic mind, but there's almost a time of-- a kind of knowing where everything that he's hopeful, that business about party infections at all, but the reason i'm stumbling is because i don't know personally, but washington some sense he's older, his wiser, he has a few scars on him now and i think he might've been feeling very 18th century. what he saw was a world that was rapidly if it had not already been coming on that was deeply inscribed by considerations of
affection, power, personal interests-that kind of thing. it was a rough couple of administrations. host: this has been a great conversation, stephen. at the book everyone out there is "the first inauguration, george washington and the mention of the publicin". it came out just last year. we needed to learn more about this address. i agree with you. too little has been written about the subject and of course it sets the stage for so much of what comes later. thankes you for writing a book. thanks for sitting down with us.s. more than welcome you to mount vernon someday soon. guest: thank you so much and to you again and everyone who logged on. really appreciate it. host: thank you, stephen, thank you and everyone out there for joining us tonight for our book talk. hope to see you in the
month of mayay as we have exciting programming coming up and we will see you again soon. have a wonderful evening. thank you so much. >> weakens on c-span2 arming intellectual peace. every saturday will find events and people that explore nations passed on american history tv. on sunday, book tv and sheila latest in nonfiction books and authors, television for serious readers. discover, explore, weekends on c-span2. ♪♪ >> i come to you from national archive ability in washington d.c., the federal facility built on the site chosen by our first president george washington. the location for burning capital was hotly contested in 1790, and washington actively advocated for side along the potomac river. when the commissioners of the federal