tv Creating Capitol Hill CSPAN August 21, 2021 10:16am-11:02am EDT
part of the fears we've been talking about that that coincides with? [inaudible] some communist infiltration? >> brainwashing. >> brainwashing, good. this is very much playing on two simultaneous fears in the 1950, not just communist but the communists are infiltrating through this mind control from a parent that with fear of extraterrestrial. >> you can watch the rest and our entire library of lectures on history online on our website c-span.org/history. click on present history tab on the homepage. >> without further ado, i'd like to turn it over to discuss the capitol creating capitol, a
wonderful book. >> wherefore to caps off the intersections first street northeast at eight street and east capitol street. a lot of things happen on this location is true on most going to spend a little time, one of the previous participants is asked to have more masks, he likes them and wants to spend more time with them. i will come back to the some more. this is the first one, what he proposed it to look like and you can see the two arrows in this particular square that's what we are to.to talk about. this is from the book in which
he shows that we can figure out what's going on in 1801 when congress got here and you can see the arrows pointing to the same block but the streets are not and that's because, it's little by little and we are spending a little time so the area is not ready cap but it's interesting to see the way it's developed. this is the 1815 map this was what the situation was after and the darkness worked. that this is the map today, you can see the capitol grounds are a block writer, the arrows are in the same position but they are between there and the capitol are wiped out, you can
see the general parts of the ground" fits on the blocker between those two arrows. this is the supreme court across the street from the capitol and what we are going to talk about is what was there before, it's an interesting story, as always. i was looking, this is capitol street as it exists today we are going to talk about that a little bit as well. i went to the don hawkins not here going on in 1801 and you can see the yellow arrow up there where a street used to be delaware avenue was extended to talk about that a few weeks ago but on the other side could see the green arrow showing you where a street was to be in the
black exes are stone markers to mark where the street was but the streets obviously hadn't been cut yet, there is no indication there are trees there but the land was not evened out from up the street was not established it but the interesting thing to me was east capitol and be street -- or a street on the south both ended their at third street infects an intriguing story. what that does is marked the land that belongs to daniel carol, his property stopped before third street so this shows he's the one developing around here in the people at
home, the property past that are not in this is an unusual map. i used this a couple of weeks ago it was pointed out to me by a listener i misstated its source and explain that this map which is in the section of the book that don hoxie did it's not done by don hawkins but who actually drew it so in honor, women in history, we want to honor those women today for having laid out an interesting map we can tell in the original state of washington. this refers to the property that belongs to daniel and the one left and locates the cap
boundary between daniel in the next is tops and that's where the streets tops paid for getting this race done in the next owner had not. he purchased the property into 1764 he had at the 30 years and sold it to his son-in-law, he sold it in 1791 for the sale was not completed yet. he died by 1789 in the sale of his lot, his property was not completed until 1799 by his
heirs, his sons who signed over there property to the crowd. he was a shipmaster and in 1792 he was engaged bringing irish immigrants to america and we think he probably had something to do with recruiting the irish workers in washington to work on the capitol in the city. his land went south toward the navy yard, you can see the bottom of, where it ends at the bottom of the screen here and that's where he contemplated his development, probably servicing, providing for structure needed for the irish immigrants and fats where the population got held up from at the earliest population in the city of washington was down there for
the industrial workers were, he opened the tavern, the first hotel on capitol hill and opened a market, efficiently, a dry goods store, a brick dealer and a hate dealer. he donated the land for christchurch episcopal search in the capitol hill area, the oldest one -- i'm sorry, g street on sixth and seventh and may have even contribute to land for another on the hill but he did not develop his land on capitol hill, only the park down by the navy's yard. one of the few proprietors who remained throughout the whole. the third owner's car and in this case, the map is marked
walker, overton owned the property before, called the help yard and he lived there and he was one of the proprietors george washington asked to buy out the small landowner that he had done so but he immediately sold his land to george walker. his land was purchased by walker walker is the one who donated the land, the city of washington. walker was a very enthusiastic promoter, he had come to georgetown in the 1780s from scotland and he was a tobacco merchant but obviously interested in a lot of things because he's the one apparently commissioned the first map to be given to george washington showing what was possible between georgetown and
harrisburg across the river and show a large city was possible so he may be the one who introduced the idea, george washington having a larger city. he was friends with them and there were gases that he may have recruited him and invest here are plantation nipsco but he wasn't scrapped 728, he did not buy them directly from the public sale. later he was an original investor in the first branch bridge done at the avenue early on. now we go back to this 1801 map and i marked this particular location, that's where the
george walker bought his. he wanted to build a hotel near the capitol so he bought three lots there you can see by 1801 street was in his lot but he built the building and was known originally as walker's hotel. he opened in 1796, much earlier than the other things we talked about generally the comment was made when i opened in the newspaper that at least walker's hotel had a roof on it which many of the other buildings didn't in the past. capitol hill tavern was particularly noted the quiet sansone declaration on the front of it there was a little more declaration than a lot of the
links being put up at the time the same sandstone used at the capitol and the white house. later on this location was advertised as the capitol hill tavern at first it had dining and meeting rooms, stables so it was for travelers, kind of like a boardinghouse and even had recreation advertised shuffleboard in an l.a. for bowling. the hotel was run at first by a woman named elizabeth but george walker sold the building to william in october, 1800, probably by the time the map was done, apparently he had trouble keeping the hotel there, there wasn't a lot of business and he had to get a new hotel about every year.
he sells the hotel to william already had a hotel down by the navy yard if he runs as the washington city hotel, so it has several names, walker himself went to london try to sell shares in london but he was unsuccessful moved back to scotland in 1800 and never returned so there are three stories here capitol health department, the first one is daniel who wants to attract cabinet offers officers in his own relatives place but these people stayed only a few months out of the year and never supported the neighborhood much. there was daniel in constant financial trouble the whole time through this and finally gave up and 1819.
thomas law he talked about also, had financial trouble through this but he decided to lower the prices of his land and buildings to try to get people to buy them and there are some letters for thomas suggested daniel wouldn't have so much trouble if he would lower the price. ... >> and he doesn't and he won't lower the prices because it might attract lower-class heard
so he struggled, and george walker the second one, about some energies in advance of her money and recruited other business people and even but out of proprietors, and inherited the land. but george walker is unable to attract investors and he has to find new help every year and gives up by 1800. in between the two was william found, who may even been recruited by walker but he is brought in these irish laborers and he orients his investments to them. he builds ordinary businesses. selling bricks and hay and by the new yorker people actually were in a had year round employment.
i didn't build up by the capitol, he didn't try to attract 50 people who would not state. and he is the one that was successful. this is the square itself, the blue arrow marks walker's tavern numbered 728 and this is from the roadmap. this is the hotel building that you can see it is now attached into something else which is the old brick capitol but in the meanwhile, he forgets to attach to, it was walker sold his interest completely come of that land everything in 18 oh one to estella who also was a character keeping hotels and so from on capitol hill rated and so by 1810, resulting to somebody else and it's will begin in 1811 and
also 1912 and also 1913 and finally, by daniel in 1815 and now that is a year that the british had burned the tavern hl over on what is now the capitol grounds so just in with and within months with inmate, he sold the ruins of his other tavern in but this one in july. but now it is time to talk about the old brick capitol. this is a picture of it later and you may be able to notice at the bottom, this is right across the street from the capitol where the supreme court is now around the corner and by the time of this picture of 1865, and had been there for 50 years and yet the streets are still not paved. in shows that even if with the
civil war, they have not paved the streets in washington right in front of the capitol. but you see the orange arrow and that is the building that we think it was walker's tavern. and you can see the windows have decorations above them and i seals which the north part of the building which is the part closest to us does not have. so that may be what they're talking about, maybe that is not that building that's being described, we don't know for sure. but it became the part of the old brick capitol which is where the congress met. and i will talk about that but i do want to note that eventually, they became part of the headquarters of the women's suffrage campaign. in the bricks from the building work preserved no makeup the
patio to the belmont house, suffrage national historic site just a block away from their freighted how congress appropriated after the british for the capitol building, funds to rebuild the burn capitol of the day went home but they did not designate any funds or interim meeting place. so they were concerned that the congress would never return if they went off and and annapolis or green states and all the money they've invested in washington would be gone. and so they went to the commissioners who had responsibility for the money in the commissioner said no, we cannot use this money for anything except for building the capitol they manipulative president madison he agreed with the commissioners and so as a
continuing story common law says that we have got to do it ourselves. so daniel was one of the investors are probably provided much of the land for it but they get group of people together and they're quite a bit of a building so the congress doesn't go somewhere else. another congress that point is meeting at the hotel run seventh street but that was the biggest building in town besides the capitol itself but is just not adequate for congress. in law and the others knew that congress was not going to like that. so they said, we open up this building is a good investment and even if the congress decide not to use it, you'll make a good hotel site with big meeting rooms that the city did not have.
they knew they had to get it done in a hurry so here are the quotations from the. about construction of this building. it says that the spot in which this spacious building stands, the cabbage garden on the morning of the fourth of july. and that afternoon, the digging was commenced and congress convened their december 5th. suet is four months that it took them to put of the building, been building a seat right in front centered here. so that's what's on the corner with the supreme court is not a supporter of a street and not maryland avenue which way will show you in a moment on the map because a street existed at that point but it does not now and congress reconvened on
december 5th and 1st looked over the building and decided that yes this is what they needed and so they leased it right away. insert thomas law and daniel carroll are triumphant again and they have moved and then they have done the civic things needed the congress would not do. know the ones we credit with creating capitol hill because he made decisions like that. and you look at the building, the house of representatives was upstairs in the senate was downstairs. in the wing that was walker's hotel that has the orange arrow there was where there were offices in committee rooms. the congress met there from 1815 - 1816 and then after the election, they came back in 1817 and also 1818 and they were back in the capitol by 1819. and president james monroe was in the operating outside of this
building read in the legend is not seen it actually documented because the congressional record does not exist word for word in that. but supposedly there was a controversy between house and senate as a who's chamber they were going to use. for that evening inauguration in monroe finally said let's do it outside. that's why we had this outdoor inauguration you may remember the george washington was a took the oath of office out side in the balcony in new york and federal help for his first inauguration with anyone inside to give his speech. so the first time that both the speech and the oath were done outside was one monroe did that at this building. andrew jackson of 1829 is when they finally established the creation outside all of the
time. the congressman in their and the supreme court did not meet here, they have their own billing over on new jersey avenue. and very southeast as i pointed out. but the treaty against the war of 1812 established a commission process by which the u.s. and britain establish the negotiating over the details of the program and reparations for the destroyed property and the meetings took place in the old brick capitol here after congress had vacated it. then it was taken over and made into a boardinghouse. but other things were done here when thomas jefferson sold his library to the congress. the library was housed here
until the center part of the capitol had been filled with a provided for about 6000 books trembles sketches meetings in the rotunda were first exhibited in this building. in some rooms were used for sculptures studios and particularly no that persico worked on the genius of the constitution and the pediment of the capitol building the patient of this building it can the pieces of the statue was stored there before they were installed, one year and a half between the time they arrived in washington it went down was ready the statute to be put up there and also in the boardinghouse, the senator the former vice president john calhoun died in a boardinghouse.
a lot when on over the years. in 1861 he became the capitol, the after the first battle of manassas, the troops came streaming back into washington because there was no place to put them and so every building in town was requisitioned even the churches for use as hospitals in the barracks. in this case is a prison. right after the battle use the rotunda of the capitol for a hospital in the troops slept in the marble floors but then they immediately build a temporary barracks for them in every vacant lot in the city, were used for this purpose. hospitals and barracks and prisons all over the city. and this was the most elite prison, the spy val boyd and
green how and they were incarcerated here read the lincoln conspirators and john moseley were confined here and then henry the commander of the anderson prison where the prisoners were allowed to starve. he was a believe the only prisoner hung in after the civil war that was done here. this father was 1865 was done by alexander gardner. 1967 the building was sold to george brown who was sergeant at arms at the senate and he turned it into boarding houses. now, this is a photograph of a stereo card that is why it is so fuzzy but on the right with a green arrow you can see the
statute of george washington that we will talk about in a moment but this building was the blue arrow is the reconstituted old brick capitol made into some nice-looking board houses there. boarding houses. never seen this photograph before looking and i was looking for photographs of the statue and then i realized there in the background, is the old brick capitol reconstituted as a boardinghouse. it is really quite attractive. certainly from what the building of the pipe before. by 1929 congress had purchased his boarding houses and tore them down for the construction of the supreme court but they had been used in the headquarters of the women's suffrage campaign and so the very associated to that of the life of the building. it never going to talk about the statute.
here you can see this is lincoln's inauguration and again the blue arrow shows you where that statute was at that point. the statute was designed for the rotunda. by horatio greenough and greenough thought that he would help educate the americans with great hard and he lived in italy and was the most prominent american sculptor and he thought it was wonderful and that the unclothed good bodies and beauty to the americans did not agree with that. the statute itself is rather awkward in size and the building and so they moved it outside. here's a group of schoolchildren looking candidate you can see the lamppost in the background there. this is what it looked like outside and you can get a good picture of george washington there showing off his muscle and
teaching us like he was a greek leader. when americans did not like that predict this was 1915 up with the blue arrow to say where that statute was. greenough knew that that statue would be controversial and he had had an earlier statute that included some little cupid like figures and they were little boys and showing the little boy parts. on the location where it was women got together make diapers and put on the little boys. and you can see that so the statute proved unpopular. and here is the chronology. it was commissioned in 1832, and put in the rotunda and 41 and moved outside and 43 and
sometime before 1908 is what outside of the patent office probably not for very long. that's a building or in seventh street now national museum of american art and the portions gallery. in 1908 went to the smithsonian. it sat in the arson industry building and it essentially got moved to now known as the museum of american history so that is the story of that statute. then this is east capitol street and i just want to mention that it has a story that people would not have thought of. this was the first street that was leveled with washington and the reason is that the top of the hill, not actually where the capitol is. the capitol is a dramatic point are we have the help on top of the hill was further up the
capitol street street here in edmonton every time it rained, the water come flowing down east capitol street and right under the capitol grounds and it floods the construction project and so the architect of the congress to agree to level the capitol streets and that meant it made a logical place to put market. we have no since today of how hilly this area was an now on an even ground. it all looked advice and even there today but it was unusual to have an open flat area and so they decided to put market there and this was after the british invasion, 1815 and the city market was put in the middle of the street here. i was a earlier market on new jersey avenue down near the navy yard but this was for the people
who lived here at the top of the hill rated in the city paid for a house, a little place where things were weighed greatest scale house. be out of the weather and so forth and i had one employee. and along the street there was a dry goods store and a book store but in 1814, the market was established and by 1838, neighbors petitioned to have the market removed and they said was a nuisance. that's a very exclusive neighborhood and those of you who have watched program a couple of weeks ago about french, this is a law clerk for southwest right here where the library of congress is now. and now going to end with one park map and this is the satellite view of the area and you can see what it looks like
now. the me activate the meter here. this is where a street used to be. it actually stops over here and the supreme court has been built out there but a street came through here in the old brick capitol is located here in the corner of a street in the walkers building was located about here. in right appearance where the women's party moved and that is where the patio is from the walkers tavern and this is where the market was here along east capitol street at print is houses about here. and that statute was located just about here after they've moved it out of the rotunda over here. so i am ready for questions.
>> i'm firing the video back up there so thank you steve, fascinated and we a few questions for you. first, going back to mcneil elliott met, we have a question, viewer noted it at the state maryland was listed as one of the land owners are curious about how that might've come to be. steve: there was land complicated by the state of maryland because it belonged to a loyalist. and i believe it was the land that was shown there will actually make a backup there. here's the land that we were talking about the belong to a loyalist, believe the story that is the loyalist had transfer the ownership to a son who was a
patriot by the state of maryland it took the line anyway and it was in litigation for a long time rated and is one of the reasons it was not developed. the map is much larger and includes the entire area and all had been compensated were marked as state of maryland at that point. >> we have another question by the paved streets of washington in particular when they started to be paved it, when they reached a point where they were mostly paved. steve: i would relate to the sewers and running water inventions and for most of the city. people could pay to have their own streets paved it which happened in a number of cases but have not done study research there and that is why i was
surprised to find the first street was still unpaid after the civil war played i do know that at the beginning of work pennsylvania avenue was the only paved street that was not paid by somebody privately for a block or so and even after the civil war, it was not paved it is during that time when particularly in the regime where they straightened out the streets and ruined the properties by cutting the streets and steep hill to get up to the property. it would be heavily done in the early 1870s but i know that later on that potomac avenue and originally been called dirt avenue, with the last of the stadium is not paved. and that irritated a member of congress from georgia and he insisted that ministry there
were building out of washington, the main road out that have been called seventh street road would be called georgia avenue and that's why georgia to this day is one of the original 13 colonies, and does not have the revenues. >> that is fascinating and you can imagine the frustration that might have felt as the only unpaved state avenue predict we have a question about the market on east capitol street in the question regards whether there were any african-american vendors working in the market perhaps farmers from maryland. steve: i do not have information on that and it wouldn't surprise me a lot if they were not because there were african-americans who grew food the logical place for sale would be that market and so it would
be quite likely but are not the one who's in the research on that one back then we have one final question for you before we start macy were going to go ahead if two final questions, someone asks about carl on capitol hill. further information on that. steve: yes, carl was one of my heroes. and he was sort of the model german version he was famous from the revolution of 1848, because he was a student and his professor was one of the leaders of the revolution in frankfurt and knowing the way things operated in germany, when his professor was arrested and imprisoned and he very dramatically rendered a carriage and bribed one of the gardens in the guard lowered the professor
into a huge basket out the window in the prison and carl got him into the carriage and he rushed him off they went off to london together and that is one of the dramatic moments of 1848 and so shares becomes his or becomes the model for that. debbie comes to america as a hero of the 40 meters and we talked a little bit about previous times of a group of very intelligent hand highly educated germans who came here a result of the revolution of 1848 and the failure of germany so it goes to early comes into philadelphia. any goes out to wisconsin for a settles and his wife, was when he led the first kindergarten in america. and it all goes back to his wife injures himself as almost immediately nominated the governor of wisconsin and later
on becomes a senator from missouri. but as i look at back to his life and try to find out with her came to washington, can't find any signs indicate washington. we campaigned at fort lincoln in 1851 and got a national reputation for that and so represented it along with some others in the german immigrants. they were key in the election of lincoln. we know that he came this is lincoln while he was president. and so we know he came to washington at that point. but as far as i can find them a he did not come to washington during this period. >> sure, were going to do two final question, quick one and then i think one you will enjoy so we'll start with a quick one. did the congress pay a fee to the old brick capitol building. steve: yes, they leased it.
in the in-flight amount of money i believe it was 5000 rated this was in the book. they give a flat amount of money for the furnishings and then they leased the building based on a 6 percent rate of return on the investment. >> and so the last one, before if we things up that i think you'll enjoy. when we talk about the treaty, it was worked out in the old brick capitol then your points at the present medicine signed the treaty at the house over at northwest and they asked about the connection between the house and the capitol and whether any members of congress attended that signing on to go ahead and start with a connection there. steve: let me clarify if i didn't make it clear before, what took place in the old brick capitol was nothing negotiation but the follow up from the treaty. and it was negotiated and not
here in washington. there were a lot of negotiations and coming to an agreement on who owes what money and that kind of thing. and those negotiations took a place after the signing in the octagon house. one of the members of congress and not knowing much about the signing of the treaty. probably the congress commissioners that were doing the negotiations. >> and just the connection between the octagon house and the u.s. capitol building. steve: declares one is bullying fortin designed it, his design was much more successful at the octagon house and regarded it as a domestic architect but it was completely untrained of the time as an architect.
not a lot of nice things were said for the design of the capitol building. >> what you get it for this wonderful presentation and i had the pleasure working with you for the better part of four years and still learn something new every time we chat. >> cspan on "c-span2" an intellectual feast every saturday american history tv documents america's story, and on sundays book tv brings you the latest in nonfiction books and authors. funding for "c-span2" comes from these television companies and more, including - the world is changed the fast reliable connections is something that nobody can put out so well is there for our customers the liability and speed of value in choice and now more than ever, and all-stars with great energy. debbie of w. these television companies support "c-span2" as a public
service. >> next on american history tv it is time for lectures in history and this week university of central florida professor teaches a class about people who challenge the u.s. are true industry status quo from the post world war ii era to the present day and then the case of the nodaway tribe describes the indigenous societies during the colonial era and the role of the native women today. later on reel america 1970s film president nixon's november 1969 "silent majority" that explodes the opinions of working-class presidents and then chicago neighborhood and find more information at your program guide online at cspan.org/history. and now is lectures in history.