tv Karen Tumulty The Triumph of Nancy Reagan CSPAN August 1, 2022 7:22pm-8:16pm EDT
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>> in this week center for public affairs and virtual event we bring you a conversation with the washington post, national politics calmness, karen - was joining us in conversation for brand-new book,ol the triumph of nancy reagan in addition to working at the washington best, karen has worked in time magazine in los angeles and the recipient of manyhe awards, including price for excellence in critical reporting prayed for years ago by scheinman and sister directed biography is finally being published tomorrow in april 15th, 2021 predict thepr reviews call this a lumins biography which chronicles the private life of critical influee of nancy reagan and the big draws and interviews with writing cabinet cabinet members and friends and familyy members at she became one of the most influential proceeds ofhe the century we nowie invite you to enjoy our virtual program joining conversation by reagan foundation and institute board
of trustees. >> good afternoon, i'm so pleased to welcome you today for this very special sneak peek at a much-anticipated biography on former first lady nancy reagan, the book and the triumph of nancy reagan, written by veteran washington post columnist karen to multi, will be officially released tomorrow and karen has graciously agreed to make that reagan library one of our first stops on the book tour and after devouring the book myself, i think the readers will agree that it is a well researched and balance an insightful look intod the life of one of the 20th century's most fascinating and consequential figures have read interest of full disclosure, that i would mention i was privileged to work for the reagan as a young woman in first in the white house, and that in los angeles after the reagan - washington and there, how as part of their small staff and their vibrant post- presidential
life and ultimately serving as their spokesperson and press secretary and it was an incredible adventure in one of the great gifts of my life the journey of this six years, who in myar eyes to the world to the importance of decency, kindness, character and leadership i also saw the private side of the reg is during unguarded moments, where i witnessed firsthand, their boundless devotion to one another. i was not one of karen's sources for the book so i read it with tremendous interest, just like all of you will an event that i knew just about all there was to know about nancy reagan, and karen's vote proven wrong and karen spoke to hundreds of individuals over the course of four years, running on archives, letters, nancy's own memoirs, president reagan's diaries, the white house reference, and much more. karen, welcome to the ronald reagan presidential library this webinar series has become so
popular especially during this year difficult separation and ii really wish that we could've been together at the presidential library, overlooking the majestic mountains and simi valley, a version that colorful section of the berlin wall. that section symbolizes freedom over communism the present reagan envisioned and as we learn in your book, nancy reagan had a diplomatic hand into an and said we are relying on technology today to take us back in time, and bring us togetherhe to better understand nancy davis reagan, the daughter and the actress, the partner, mother, first lady, and the care giver and before we launch into the meat of the book and we tackle so many topics, can you share a bit about what inspired you to take this on and how did you go about it, and why did you start the book with the soviet union. >> will first of all kathy, thank you so much for having me
and i look forward to when we can be sitting out there in that beautiful patio at the reagan library where i spent so many wonderful hours, mostly defrosting from the frigidity of the research room at the library. it was actually this book was not my idea, simon & schuster, my publisher is specifically was my editor on the book, facilitating so it is one of my dearest friends was myy editor t time magazine, and so she came to me in late summer early fall of 2016, just a few month after missus reagan died and said, you know, we would love to have a big biography of her. there was just something about this idea and i remember the day of her funeral i was driving around doing and doing errands and listening to it on c-span
radio while was driving i was thinking there are so many layers to this very complex woman and there's just something about the project that really struck me as interesting and especially since i came to washington in the 1980s, my knowledge of nancy reagan was pretty much everybody else's, it tended to run between one of two character chores, he that she was this socialite or skimming power behind the throne the really listening to some of the tributes to her at the funeral also watching the last decade of the presence five and then her life beyond that and you tend to get a sense real depth of this relationship. i originally bought that this was going to be a book about a woman in a marriage that would be enough story but as i get
deeper and deeper into the research, i realized it was so much more, it was really a whole new perspective on reagan's presidency on his political rise and i think ultimately a new perspective on an entire era of our history and so i did i come in with the story that george schultz told me about the soviet union. i was really looking for something that would signal to the reader that this was not your typical first lady biography. in the story that george schultz told me about nancy reagan, summoning are supposedly impromptu to the white house in the middle of a blizzard into half dinner, just the four of them, to couples upstairs in the white house it sounded like a social invitation george schultz
was pretty knew he'd only been secretary of state for seven months and so he did not really know the reagan all that well and then he had just gotten back from a long trip overseas that included a stop in china and as the dinner progresses, the reagan's both of them, start peppering him with questions about the chinese leaders had do they have a bottom line and do they have a sense of humor and what makes them tick and beyond that they start to talk about the soviet union and schultz, away from the kind of typical national security council, these meetings he begins really something about ronald reagan. ... ha never had a conversation with the big-time communist leader that he is dying to have one and he has really thought about this a
lot, he's very confident in his own abilities of the negotiator but then scholz realizes something else which is that this dinner invitation was not th which is that this dinner invitation is not a social invitation. really nancy reagan had wanted to get him along with the president. so that he could begin to understand something about her husband, something that really had the potential to change history. and he also realizes something else and that moment, which is that he, found an incredibly valuable ally in this first lady it was the only person in the world to whom ronald reagan is truly truly close and who understands a her husband like nobody else does. it seems to me a perfect opening into a book about her role her very unique role as first lady.
he was somebody who did not set foot in the west wing all that often. but everybody there knew when she was displeased about something. and people who were not in her favorite tended not to last very long and the reagan white house. she essentially saw herself as they are to watch her husband's back. he was someone who really did not have much of an appetite for interpersonal conflict or these battles. and really, she had a sharper sense of people. james baker who was chiefnd of staff and then told me she had this incredible radar. hers was better than her husband. >> there is so much here.
i would love to start at the beginning. you took an incredibly deep dive into nancy davis' childhood. the stability of her home life, are larger than life mother, edith who was largely absent during critical years. her father who had no role in her life, and the stepfather doctor loyal davis who ultimately gave her the stability and love she craved. tell us beyond nancy. >> you are right, she was the product of a bad match between a very ambitious actress and a car salesman who very shortly after her birth go their separate ways. and her mother, very shortly after that yves the little baby named aunt frances robin in the care of relatives. for the next six years of her life she just yearned for this
absent mother. and as her son ron told me, as other people pointed out to me that cast a shadow on her spirit. an insecurity but never really leaves her. it is one of the reason she was so complex. she believed, no matter how successful they were there was always a trapdoor in life. and any minute the bottom could fall out. almost loses her husband to an assassin's bullet. she wasn't somebody who shared a lot aboutt herself. her own children did not really know all that much about her childhood. or really theal insecurity with
the scar tissue it really left her with. she would also bristle someone suggested her mother hado apt at abandon her. i do find, if you don't mind, i found one speech she gave in 1986 at boys town the famous n orphanage near omaha founded by father flanagan. they were honoring her that day for her drug advocacy. but she says to these 400 children, who come from foster care and broken homes, she says something really remarkable in this speech. it was a moment of vulnerability, openness, and can door that really struck me. what she says is, the reason i am here today is not because of the award but because of you. there is a time when i didn't know where i belong to either.
what i wished for more than anything else in the world was a normal family. do you know what happens when you hurt inside? usually start closing your heart to people because that is how you got hurt in the first place. another thing that happened she stoppedha trusting people somewhere along the day you start to think you are not worth much. how could i be worth anything if someone would treat me in this terrible way? so i understand why you feel beaten down by it all. and i think when you look at that, you look at the instability of ronald reagan's childhood as the son of an alcoholic who took the family from one uncertain situation into a another is the basis the
bond between the reagan's into eachec other they finally found the security, the validation, and the love that the two of them had craved. and so, while this also explains kind of the insecurity of nancy reagan, the complexity of nancy reagan, i think it also explained her fearlessness. how she was absolutely fearless when she detected anything that could possibly jeopardize the happiness and the wholeness that she ronald reagan finally realized in each f other. quickset leads perfectly into my next question which is we all read and heard so w much about w the reagan's met. in the evolution of their love story. as you revealed in the book, ronald reagan was not in a great place in his life or his career
when they met. your book suggested he was broken insight in his heart was in a deep-freeze you say. she was loving, patient is ronnie would later write nancy it moved into my heart and replace an emptiness that i've been trying to ignore for aor vy long time. share a little bit about the early years of their courtship and the path of their marriage, and of course the beautiful eloquent love letters that he sent to her over their lifetime together. in the fall of 1949 they have a supposedly blind date. now i have found evidence that nancy davis, young actress newly arrived on the mgm lot had been trying to make their paths crossed long before that. but certainly even she opens the door of her apartment that
night, there is simply no way that either she or ronald reagan could have begun to imagine the future that laid ahead for thewo two of them. he wasn't actor whose career was trying to scrape the bottom. his first wife to his shock and dismay had essentially gotten bored with him, walked out. her star is on the rise and he really in some ways was carrying a torch for jane wyman. he did have of his own childhood. he was quite literally a broken man as he stood there unto crutches on nancy davises dorsett. his eye bone had been broken in half a dozen places in ane chary dobaseball game. he spent a couple of months in
traction. he would later say, if nancy davis hadn't come along when she didd, i would have lost my soul. but he is not somebody who is ready to settle down or even to open his heart. and i think because of her incredible radar, she senses she's going to have to wait this guy out. and at one point, his mother in nelly even tells her that. he says to nancy as she likes a lot better than she ever likeded jane wyman, she said i can see you are in love with him. but he is not in b love with you yet. you are going to have to wait. you won't know when he loves you but you are going to have to wait's, and she does. patiently, gently, it takes several years for him to come around and finally commit himself. hugs and on the early years of the reagan marriage vaccinating
as well. you referenced fewer interesting movie roles, the arrival of children, begins traveling the country and general electric. speaking all over america honing his message, his speaking style listen to issues that shoot working americans all led to the realization ronald reagan connected in a real intimate way with people. and then it all took off campaign sacramento more in the white house. tell us about this busy formative years that really prepared the reagan's for their life as public figures? and of course nancy's role in all of n it. quickset are really scraping tha bottom. affectionately, financially, that is a one point reagan agrees to probably what was the most humiliating most
professional endeavor of your life. a floor show in las vegas. but shortly after that, this new opportunity to gole into television as the host of general electric theater comes along. this is something a few years before that he would not have considered. he writes in one of his books, why would anyone pay to see someone in the theater if they could see them for home for free on television? to see how desperate they are in the show part of the deal is, he travels the country speaking to tens of thousands of general electric employees, doing promotional things for the company. that really is where he discovered his own gift as a politician. the people he is meeting in the late 1950s are the exact same
people who would later become the reagan democrats. but this puts an incredible stress on his life, he's home with two small children whose dealing with two stepchildren from the earlier marriage in the course of that, these letters, these incredibly passionate letters become so important. some of these letters are hot. >> please do. >> he writes her in 1963. from this point they have been married for over a decade. and he writes, do you know when you sleep you curl your fists up under your chin and many mornings when it is barely don i light facing at you and looking at you until finally i have to touch you, ever so lightly. you will not wake up but touch
you i must or i will burst. probably this letter will reach only a fewew hours before i arre myself. but notca really because right w as i try to say what is in my heart, i think my thoughts must be reaching for you without waiting for paper, ink, stamps and such. if i ache it is because we are apart. and yet that cannot be because you were inside in a part of me. we are not a part at all. yet i ache i would not be without the ache because that would mean being without you and that i can't to be i love you. anyway, there are dozens, and dozens, and dozens of the incredibly passionate letters. there are telegrams, she is saving every one of them in a shopping bag in her closet. ronald reagan in many ways as eloquent as he was as a speaker,
on paper i found he is even more so. there's enough of these beautiful letters for them to be compiled into a book wasn't there? >> that is right, that is right. it is lovely to go through them as wellin the library. some of them are kind of funny, his doing references to some of the characters in hollywood. they are absolutely wonderful. they really do speak to he constantly by the way they speak a little bit of the stress he also keeps promising her as hard as these long separations are on them, this will not last forever. i would be the ranch he had them and put barbed wire around the
whole thing nothing prepared them for washington's life. and that mediate scrutiny that followed. he spent a lot of time on nancy reagan's relationshipn' with the press the ups and downs of her approval ratings and her frustrations about being misunderstood. as you alluded to earlier life of a shallow socialite be one op a calculating power behind the throne. imposing her will both foreign and domestic. you concluded at one point america never quite figured out what to make of her. she really was in a public relations tug-of-war, wasn't she? i find the conundrum to me was
so incredibly shrewd and incredibly sensitive protecting her husband's image, she is almost always dead on the mark about his image, become so clueless about her own. she brings a lot of her problems on herself. for her to be going out and spending a lot of donated money. but nonetheless redecorating the white house a place setting up on thee very day they suck stat classifying catch up as for school lunch menus, which by the way was true. takes her a while to understand, number one how she's bringing all this upon herself.
also at number two, this is a problem she better fix. at some point she will become a threat to her husband's success. i think it is also very important. i tried as many times as i could to try to set her against the constant unchecked context of that's our time. she is a probably traditional wife. at least that was the public image you see how shrewd she is an understanding her own power. to the public image was not as traditional as you might think. this is set against the backdrop sacramento, the turbulence of the 1960s, the 1970s, there is this movement and nancy reagan comes to represent for a lot of these women, everything it is they are rebelling against. and i was struck by how in some
cases some of the harshest stuff written about her most by other women. younger women. who again, she was the mid century housewife there trying to shape. it's really interesting because the iran-contra chapter in many ways is the heart of the book. nancy reagan runs the rescue effort out of the white house as her husband's presidency is potentially going to be overturned by this scandal. she engineers a shakeup of the white house staff the begins firing of chief of staff don regan. she also convinces her husband, her very stubborn husband that he is going to have to admit to the country and admit to himself
that he traded arms for hostages. and as she does this all the sudden she's getting applauded by a lot of her feminists critics. suddenly the conservative guy says this is not the nancy reagan we thought we were signing up for. this is edith wilson running the country. neither of those things were true. she was first and foremost she saw herself as a protector of her husband's physical well-being. she had a very sharp sense of who was serving the president and who was really in it for now.
and who is promoting agendas perhaps ronald reagan might not have shared? >> one of the presidents reagan's occurred on march 30 , 81 when a deranged government nearly took the life of president reagan and washington hotel. it's heartedly to believe it has been 40 years since that date. that crisis changed everything, nancy.lly for i think it ever happened to might ronnie she wrote, my life would be over. what the world did not know at the time, how close he really came to death, ronald reagan was spared and he believed there is it higher purpose to his life. going forward he would be dedicated to that. nancy on the other hand was haunted by the horror of all of it plagued with fear or something like that could happen again. tell us about that moment, how
she learned the news and how she had to carry that horror with her after words. >> in that chapter i really did try to take the minutes at some point reader minute by minute by minute with that day was like for her. the head of her secret service detail appears over the command center under the oval office there is been a shooting. at that point they had told rawhide, the president's codenamebu he's fine he hasn't been hit but he knows that nancy reagan's got to get this news from him. does not want her to hear any other way. so he sprints up to the residence where he does not wait for the elevator. he gets there and as soon as he says there's been a shooting, she starts heading for the elevator.
and she says have got to get to him. he's at the hospitalay shot weit if he's not hurt, why is he at the hospital? i don't know, he was check on the wounded or something please stay here at mrs. reagan we do not know what's going on out there. he will be home soon he is fine. she doesn't listen to him she h said i will walk to the hospital if i have too. at that point they bring a car and by the time she gets there, michael meets the outside. and inform certain fact the president has been shot. and she goes in andsh sees her husband lying naked under a sheet with a bunch of doctors around him. she is the daughter of a neurosurgeon. she immediately knows how serious this is. her husband normally ruddy cheeks are just action.
it pulls his mask off and says honey i forgot to duck a pretty he's trying to calmer down. she immediately understands what happened. it really does sort of -- for the rest of her life actually she is never sure whenever he steps outside white house or steps outside home there isn't some other treachery waiting for him. i think it is really important to understand that. and what that left her with. because she did not have the same kindse of grounding in religious faith that the president did. and so, when you come to layer what is the most sensational uncontroversial chapter s of that's our time when it is revealed she has been relying on an astrologer, a woman she barely met in person, to help determine the president
schedule, it does not make sense atof it. but you really can understand this is a woman who is desperate. she is a grasping onto anything she can find, to get herself some feeling of control. and by the way, she becomes a very good friend to the secret surface from there on out. there is always in every white house a lot of tension between the secret service and the political people. because political people always want president to be out there. touching people, making people really connect with their president for the secret service that they had their way they would put them in saran wrap never let anybody near him. i was told the secret service agent said whenever we were concerned about something, all we had to dogo was go to mrs. reagan and it would get fixed our weight.
cost embraceable she was in the white house. for her, it was the antidrug cause. she knew she had a platform as first lady. and the issue over time became really central to her life. she knew the simple phrase, just say no issue is complicated. she could tackle such a thorny issue. tell us what you learned about the effort, the receptiveness of the country to her message. and how she, in the end was selected by saying those years provided be at the most fulfilling years of my life. >> 's kind of a double edge sword. it was memorable, it was catchy. but on the other hand it was founded simplistic. people would even market.
she got that message out every way she could going on television, you really cannot doubt her own devotion to this cause. i think it goes back tot the 60s and when she was in california and seeing what drugs had done to the families of a lot of her friends. and i think people are going to argue for a long time as to just how effective that really was. which is really the longest, best long-term tracking of young people's attitudes towards drugs. we really do see a change most
young people most of us thinking drugs, not a big deal. if you follow the data, it really changes in the 80s. and then it starts to shift back a little more, once nancy reagan is off the scene. i think there is evidence it was effective. was hhs secretary under jimmy carter who runs the project at columbia university also i interviewed him and he agreed with me as well. in fact he put nancy reagan onga his board, she would also do things that cause no small amount of heartburn within her husband's administration. one other thing she does near
the end of his presidency and george schultz told me aboutge this, is she gives a speech at the united nations. at that point the reagan administration was trying to crack down on people overseas, applying drugs to this country. nancy reagan gets up there many of the church of said wait a minute, that is only part of it. if we are going to be cracking down in his cocoa field in south america, we are also going to have to be looking at the investment banker who goes out on his lunch hour and scores a little cocaine. and schultz told me a lot of people from other countries came up and just thanked her for
really delivering a message that own administrations did not hear. part of the claim here is the demand. it is not just a law enforcement issue. we really do need to change social attitudes. >> admit a bit of this on this as well. i would love to go back to cold war for one more minute before we move on. all the things nancy went to see her husband achieved as president, and the cold war stood above the others. became nancy's special cause, ronald reagan, as we all know, despise everything poised to do business with a new kind of leader and gorbachev. he spoke about the role of george schultz but could you touch a little bit how both men
ronald ragan and goper chauffer the right man for the moment? and how nancy reagan work behind the scenes to pave the way? >> first of all, i don't think it was any great strategic sense on her part she felt so deeply about this. there are number off things. when her husband to go down as history as a great president, as a peacemaker. she really believed this was his role. also made some political sense that even people who liked ronald reagan were afraid that perhaps little to close on the trigger. she also understood something, that many people didn't aboutom ronald reagan. which is that along with the harsh cold war anti-communist rhetoric there's a lot idealism
to ronald reagan, that he was a believer in the biblical prophecy of armageddon. that he really was enough of an idealist who envisioned a world without nuclear weapons. that is something she understood about him that not a lot of people did at that time. again this is truly a marriage. and so the two of them would have the argument tone down as rhetoric. she was especially disturbeded when he referred to the soviet union as an empire. i have a pretty hilarious scene of the two of them arguing about it over dinner one night. but she does understand with gorbachev potentially has a
partner who could work with him on this. and she is absolutely relentless in pushing for this. the reservations up a lot of the hawkish hardliners in her husband's own administration in one of the oral histories i read, she really was a lot more willing than the soviets she had a lot of faith in her husband's ability as a negotiator. >> after president reagan wrote his letter to the american people dealing with this diagnosis of alzheimer's, he talks about nancy embarking on the final chapter of their love story. you write even her harshest critics would acknowledge the grace and determination she would show when her devotion was put to its greatest test.
in seeing nancy's strength the nation will gain a new appreciation of her character. never again would anyone doubt the adoring gaze that she fixed on her ronnie for all those years with anything but genuine. she would become one of the most admired women in the country. i think a lotot of us watch the way she cared for him is the ultimate expression of their marriage vows and their devotion. and i remember how fiercely protective she was of him in those final years. sure a little bit more about that chapter and how difficult it was for her. >> she it is the cruelest disease you can imagine. closing and on 80, but really vigorous, he is the only president, living president
seems like their golden years are going to be warm, wonderful, reminiscing up all the things they have done together. and then shortly afterward, he becomes incapacitated or begins to become incapacitated. at first then she is a little bit of denial. she does not realize he is going down a long road that she is not going to be able to follow him on. in becomes physical caretaker of his dignity. she becomes very concerned because she has had breast cancer. she is very concerned about finances. she is afraid he is going to outlive her. she wants to make absolutely
sure that the resources are there for him tore be taken care of. and his dignity a maintained in the way it musty be. but, what is also interesting and this is why this library becomes so important to her. also becomes the caretaker of his o legacy. other presidents survived decades of their out of office. they have a chance to begin to write for themselves really becomes nancy reagan's job what history sees of him, is true to him, is true to his value. it is true to his vision. the library becomes extremely important to her.
she wants to make sure it has the resources it needs. she also finds other ways to make sure history remembers ronald reagan in a way that is true to ronald reagan. suspicious of all of the reagan want to be's who went to co-op him, used his name, uses image for their own agendas. and she does something to that i found fascinating, which is on the one hand among conservatives ronald reagan becomes this icon. not only in ways that make her comfortable, she resists when they want to knock fdr on the dime and put ronald reagan on it. but she also knows there is still a perception of him among
liberals. liberal scholars, liberal historians that he was just an actor. he wasast reading lines that otr people wrote for him. put out there his thought in his own handwriting. when you see him decide to publish his diaries, something that very few presidents have ever done is kept to real-time diaries. people can see in his own hand what he is thinking at all these crucial junctures.ha at one point all of the speeches he was writingng as who's gettig ready to run for president. you can see in ronald reagan's
own hand, these were his thoughts and his values. and were very true to him. this library is not just -- she did not want to be a monument just to the past. which is why you see it has become a site for so many important events prints were george w. bush comes to lay out his vision on foreign policy. i cannot even count how many e republican debate have been held at the library. kind of programs it still puts on. even with the frustrating -- this epidemic going on. it is alive it is a living
institution. >> thank you for saying that. both patty and ron spoke so eloquently at nancy's funeral in 2016 but i hope you'll indulge me for a moment if i read some of their words that were so poignant. and then i will invite you to add to that. my parents for two halves of a circle. closed tight around theos worldn which their love for each other it was only sustenance theyea needed. while they might venture out and include others in their orbit, no one truly cross the boundary into the space they held with their spray. >> and that ron spoken followed with this. >> if my mother had one great talent i think it was i think she knew how to love. she loved one man more than the world. they will watch the sun drop over the hills and the west toward the sea. as night falls it will look out across the valley, my father
will tell her the lights below are hern jewels. the moon and stars will endlessly turn overhead in here they will stay. as they always wished it to be, resting in each other's arms, only each other'sh arms. until the end of time. >> i do not think it could be said any better. if there any final words that you would love to leave with us today about nancy davis reagan, her legacy, her love for her husband, and her fascinating life, please do. >> i would only encourage people to read the book. and come to it the way i came to it when i was researching it and i was writing it. which is to sort of set aside what you think you know about and francis robbins, later nancy davis and later nancy reagan. hers is a complicated and often very painful story.
but i think that ronald reagan chose well and his partner for life. and i do think the country owes him a debt for that. >> what you say about someone who gives your life meaning? what you say about someone who is always there with support and understanding? someone who makes sacrifices so your life will be easier and more successful. but what you say is that you love that person, and treasure her. [applause] [applause] i simply cannot imagine the last eight years without nancy.nc the presidency would not have the joy it has been for me without her there beside me.
in that second floor living quarters inoo the white house would have seemed a big and lonely spot without her waiting for me every day at the end of the day. you know, she once said a present has all kinds of advisors, and experts who look after his interest when it comes to foreign policy, or the economy, or whatever. but no one who looks after his needs as a human being. well, nancy has done that. through corporations and crises, every president should be so lucky. [applause] i think it is all too common and marriages thatrr no matter how much partners love each other, we do not think each other enough. and i suppose i do not think nancy enough for all that she
does for me. so nancy, in front of all your friends here today, let me say thank you for all you do. thank you for your love. and thank you for just being you. [applause] [cheering] [applause] >> the book is the triumph of nancy reagan, out tomorrow, on sale everywhere. from author karen and simon & schuster. thank you so much, karen for joining us today. ♪ >> weekends on cspan2 are an intellectual feast. every saturday, american tv documents america stories and on sunday, but tb brings you the latest of nonfiction books and authors. funding for cspan2 comes from these television companies and more including charter
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