tv NASA Deputy Administrator and Others Discuss Going Back to the Moon CSPAN November 15, 2022 4:33am-5:59am EST
>> it is so awesome, so amazing. what i really liked is the james webb pictures. how i got into space is i was a little kid in tahoe looking at the night sky and i got a telescope when i was 11. one of the first things i looked at was saturn and there were rings around it. i had seen pictures in books but here i was and i could actually see the rings.
i have been a space junkie ever since. i have worked in rockets over 30 years and now i have the pleasure of helping put this conference on together with aiaa . i want to thank everyone who has made this happen. it was not me. our guiding coalition, collaborative and technical program chairs, over 400 speakers. i want to thank you all for giving your time and everyone is prepared. you will hear some really cool things. we also have our sponsor by privateer. we will be hearing from them over the three days. our diversity scholars, 27 this year. we had about 12 last year. this video is a precursor of the things you are going to see. there are so many cool things on
there will talk about them the next three days. we want you to connect. we want you to see each other, network. you will see the collaboration is what we are looking for. i talked about collaboration and i want to hear about where you are going. >> thanks. julie and i both have day jobs. my day job is the general manager of lockheed martin space. we believe space is just the beginning. it is what you do when you get to space that matters. it is the mission that matters. lockheed martin protects with advanced weather sensing and missile warning. we connect civilians and military alike through global positioning systems and the space development agency
exploration. we explore space for the benefit of all mankind. those pictures of saturn and now jupiter, it is the next giant leap for space exploration with artemis. we are bringing the brightest minds together, like those in this room an online. we are rising to meet the challenge of our time. we are driving innovation to keep space at the forefront, inspiring our world. those are what we hold dear at lockheed martin and that is why we are invested in the experiences we will have this week. >> your comment on the brightest minds, i really like that. that is what we are doing here and that is what we want to do. the other part of that is it is not just smart people, it is a
diverse group of smart people. we have representation across the industry, internationally, a number of demographics. that is a core value. we believe bringing people together who do not think alike and working on the hard problems will drive solutions to those challenges. that is why we are here. >> i really believe we are at the crossroads of history. we have an opportunity to shape tomorrow. the only way we are going to do that is by leveraging full diversity with the people we have here and online. inspiring others to join us in this journey. that is what we are going to need if we are going to have innovation and drive to go with the speed we need to preserve our values and freedoms. space touches every aspect of our lives and we all get that. we need to bring other people
into that journey. we need to lean in hard whether you are representing academia or industry. how are we going to pull future leaders? future scientists? future engineers? inspirational artists? everyone who is part of this journey in space, how are we going to pull them together and move into the future? julie: i agree. it is not just getting to space and the technological accomplishments. we are going to be living and breathing and working in space and that is a different environment. we are writing history and you are helping create history. what we want you to do the next few days -- i am sure you are going to find something of interest regardless. there is so much to choose from. i will have a tough time of where to listen and participate but please, get involved.
you need to have the conversations. we need your input. participate in the roundtables and informal sessions. creating the type of -- meeting the people you are going to meet and creating those new bonds and partnerships, that is what is going to drive us forward. i am looking forward to it and i hope to meet a bunch of you in the room and a whole bunch more the next three days. johnathon: that's great. why don't we get this started? i am going to introduce the deputy administrator. she is a thought leader in her own right. she began her career as an air force test pilot and went on to become an astronaut and one of only two women to command the space shuttle. among her vital activities at nasa, pam has been the lead on guiding the creation of a set of
moon to mars objectives that will guide us on that path, with our partners, to go back to the moon and onto mars. please join me in welcoming deputy administrator pam melroy. [applause] pam: thank you, thank you. thank you so much. good morning. it is so exciting to be together again. i love the fact we are talking about collaboration because there is something magic that happens when we get in a room together like this. i want to tell you how excited we are about a decade of work or more that is coming to fruition. when we launched artemis i, that will be extraordinary. i want to remind you there is a lot of hard work still going on. we have work for artemis
ii, iii, iv in the works. it is time to step back and ask, what is our strategy going to be be the flight tests of artemis i through iv? it was important to me and bill nelson when we came to the agency to be focused on thinking about that strategy and what we were going to be doing after we got through flight test. i think it is critically important whenever we talk about we are transparent and collaborative. i think you will hear not just in my description of a strategy but how we got to the strategy and how we are trying to execute and how that is important to us. one of the things that is very interesting to me is if you go back and you look at apollo, i
think we learned something about ourselves. we learned if we said, we are going to do something big no one knows how to do, very aspirational, and you roll up your sleeves and do it, that it is possible. i think that is still very much a part of american culture and nasa's culture. that is really important. apollo inspired my generation of scientists, engineers, aviators and explorers. artemis is going to inspire that next wave. i want to mention it is important to us to prioritize the artemis generation. i am proud to give a shout out to to aiaa on the students to launch initiative. that is the opportunity to bring students in middle school to actually see the launch and be inspired. on our first artemis attempt, we
brought students from all around florida to have that experience. and a few weeks later we had 40 students from tribal lands in montana and kentucky come to the kennedy space center for launch. when i look at the students i see the first crew to mars. that is why it is so important we show them what it means to be part of the artemis generation. thank you for that partnership. my background not just as a test pilot but was as a physicist. i would like to go back to first principles. this is probably one of the most important messages that i give and that is why i give it every time i speak. it is interesting. we love space and we are embedded in it but we struggle to articulate to others outside
our industry why what we do is a good thing to do. i am guessing every single one of you in this room has at least one piece you are really passionate about. but what i found is if you go out and ask americans, ask people around the world, what is the value of going to space for humanity and for our country and citizens? you will hear one of these three areas, sometimes all three. let me unpack that. scientists front and center, it is about exploration and understanding the universe. the james webb space telescope telling us about the history of time which is the history of the development of our solar system and us. in addition, the exoplanet work we do, helping us understand the formation of the solar system,
the biological science we do on the iss that helps us understand our own body. of course, the work we do to try to understand the climate is critically important. that is the value space brings us. it exposes us to learning about ourselves and our universe. i think that is front and center. the next is national posture. sometimes that is the only thing that resonates with people. and sometimes it does not resonate at all. but what it has to do with his leadership in science and technology. why is that important? you can go anywhere in the world and people understand if you have strong technical base in science and technology, it is not just about space, it spills into aspects of all people's lives. it improves economic situations and outcomes were human beings. in addition, space is a key
enabler in international partnerships because it is global. finally, there is inspiration. i talked about the artemis generation. we need to inspire the next generation of stem students. in addition to that, what julie was talking about with the inspiration we get when we look at pictures from the james webb telescope. that is the human condition. it is what inspires us. for me, it is really important because we have a lot of stakeholders who some think only one is important, but even more think all three is important. if we do not approach that is ticking all the boxes, we might fail. we need to bring everyone together and be behind what we
are doing. you may not resonate with one of those areas, you may strongly resonate with one, but it is our job at nasa that we provide benefits to all humanity, we address all stakeholders. that is what makes us different than the private sector. they have their own why. they may pick one thing and go all in, but we have the responsibility to address all of our stakeholders' needs and bring them the value of space. we started with the why. the next step was to think about what are our guiding principles? starting with an objective based approach, meaning we think about what is the goal we are trying to achieve? you go all the way out in some aspirational way and say, what is it we are trying to achieve at the highest level? and then you can say, if that is the goal, let's start with that
and build an architecture backward toward where we are today. but as i pointed out we have hardware through artemis iv. we are not standing still. we have to execute from the left and bridge what we are doing today and make sure we are staying focused on that big goal. critically important to stay with a consistent plan. a lot of heartache and sad stories with changing the plan over and over. that is a central aspect but in order to have a strategy that everybody agrees with, we have to be able to articulate a unified vision in consultation with all of our stakeholders. we need to talk about it. we need to make sure everybody understands. and then we need to communicate, communicate, communicate. that is how we think we will have political resiliency to
stay with a consistent plan. so, the big picture all the way over to the right, the largest way we can articulate what we are trying to do is to create a blueprint for sustained human presence and exploration throughout the solar system. this is not about the moon. that is not our final goal. mars is not our final goal. humans throughout the solar system is our goal. we want to be able to do that in a thoughtful, repeated, methodical way. this is a tall order. the key thing to think about, what do we need to demonstrate on the moon so that we can understand how this blueprint should look? we are going to learn a lot on the way. we are going to discover, well, we should have done that and a different order. or something important is not
important. or something we thought was not important is the linchpin for the blueprint. a key part of that was to call together the technical leadership at the agency, the federated board that bill and bob and i use. bob cabana, our number three. we went across all the directorates, including aeronautics, and asked them to come up with objectives we needed to achieve to accomplish this blueprint but then build it on the moon and demonstrate it so we could practice it on mars. we came up with four general areas to think about transportation and habitation. you have to have a rocket and spacecraft capable of taking humans. you need to be mobile on the
surface of the moon so you can accomplish your objectives. science is very important. we are blessed to be guided by our survey but we are building a framework that goes beyond one decade. it should be two or more. that has been a challenge, so the consultation we had to think about that and look at our science objectives was important. operations. this sounds kind of obvious but i can tell you having lived on the space shuttle and built the international space station, the way we operated on the shuttle, short duration missions focused on a specific payload or a few major payloads, very fast operations focused on getting up, getting something done and coming down. we do not operate the space station that way. we have science going 24/7. the roles and responsibilities change.
when we start doing short duration trips at first and then longer operations on the surface of the moon in partial gravity focused on science, we are going to learn again. we are going to have to reinvent human operations. finally, let me comment about infrastructure. if we are really going deep into the solar system, we've really -- if we want to maximize the science of the learning we do -- humans are going to have to stay. it is fine for a test flight for us to send a crew six months to mars, spend 30 days, and six months back. but one of the reasons we built the space station was so we could do science 24/7, maximize the science you can get when a human is involved. we really need the infrastructure that supports humans for long duration in space. i will make a comment about that tech development.
it is critical we do that development right now to prepare ourselves for the next decade of programs of record that will take us to mars. i am excited, and i hope you are too, about our mission directorate, which is an inflatable accelerator that will launch on the jpfs mission on january 1 to have human payloads land on mars. one of the big aspects was the consultation. we started with starting in nasa and then reopened it to the workforce. we opened it up to the public. we had an industry academia and nonprofit workshop domestically and then an international collaboration. this is so important to us. i love the theme of
collaboration because we think a critical part of the resiliency of what we are going to do is to have those international partnerships. to have everyone consult, come up with a consensus and go forward. in addition, by working on an architecture that goes out more than a decade, that allows our international and industry partners to begin to plan for the things we are going to be doing five years from now, 10 years from now. that not only helps our political resiliency, it helps our financial resiliency. we can be more efficient if we have a plan in advance. i am delighted to say we went from 50 objectives to 63. i will not read everyo one but i wanted to give examples. there were substantial changes to many but i will point out a couple. we had some objectives that
referred to the term "large." like i did about large payloads. we need a range of payload sizes from small to large to accomplish our objective. that was a critical change. field geology. that is one of the things that the science mission directorate calls a science enabling objective. we all know we have to prepare astronauts to do science on the surface of the moon. but in fact, no, we need to create a training program for mission specific, in-depth science training for astronauts. because when you get a human there magic is going to happen. you can get things done faster but if we are going to take advantage, they have to be fully prepared. responsible use. this is kind of like a duh, but
we kind of assumed. we just assumed that is how we need to behave. it was critical feedback to say, do not leave it as an assumption. be as explicit as you can and call out everything that we do has to be responsible and sustainable. finally, remote-sensing. we were not really thinking about how all of these objectives play together and have science and other things we do actually support all the objectives. it is very important that we have remote-sensing to support those human led science campaigns. these are a few examples of the changes you will find. i really believe and hope some of you in the room recognize yourself in these changes. we asked you and you gave us over 5000 inputs. i really wanted to say thank you for being part of the journey
and going on with us. we think that is very important that we continue that. let me segue to looking ahead. where are we? we know our artemis missions are going to teach us a lot. that is going to influence every single time we fly the strategy ahead. today we also know part of that communication is documentation. we need to explain the history of each one of these objectives and why we focused on them. we need to get out and talk about it. that is what i am doing today. but we need to have a continual cadence. this cannot be one and done. we need a plan where we are continuing to communicate and get feedback. the architecture is owned by our exploration systems development mission directorate. you will hear from jim free later, the associate administrator.
the architecture belongs to him. the objectives belong to the agency collectively through the federated board. trying to figure out how we are going to do this cadence. the esd came up with an architecture and strategic analysis cycles. they in the progress of doing a review and it is an opportunity for us to look at the objectives and look at the architecture. we are looking for gaps and disconnects, programs we need to start, things we should be looking ahead. that architecture concept review, we are going to go through an annual cycle that will be aligned with our budget cycle. this is our latest planning and thinking. get feedback from the whole community and then feed that into the next architecture cycle review later. if we plan the architecture and
make sure it informs the budget going forward. one of the things i think is very complex about the architecture we have is it is really easy to jump to a conclusion we need x or y. the reality is, it is engineering. you have to have balance. that means there are assumptions we have to make and, more importantly, trades. to be transparent about those trades will help inform all of us. not just the few people working on the architecture. i have asked esd, as part of their architecture publication each year, to issue white papers that talk about the assumptions and the trades we had to make. that way we are all smarter when talking together. finally, i am so impressed with the incredible leadership and technical work of the federated board. we are going to continue to use
them as an advisory board. they will be doing periodic gap analyses and deep dives across not just the moon to mars strategy, but they have been so effective we are asking them to look at other things too. once again, rinse and repeat. i love this chart because it shows, at least from a hardware standpoint, the connectivity of what we are doing. you can see how much we are going to learn from our operations on the moon yes, things are going to be different on mars. they will be different on any planet. we just have to accept that. it is about learning how. what is the process of doing this? what are the questions we have to ask? what are the problems we have to solve? i hope that this shows you we are going to the moon, mars and the solar system by careful design.
as we learn we will tick off objectives, change objectives. in my mind, the objectives serve the purpose of a multiset of signposts for human space exploration in the solar system. that is getting to part of that political resiliency. we do know that we have to do a lot of onramp's for tech development to support what we are doing to mars in the next decade. that is a big challenge. loften is a great step but we have to do tech development around nuclear propulsion, thermal and electric, that will support the analysis of alternatives in the early 30's so when we get ready to begin the design and procurement of a mars transport vehicle, we really understand the pros and cons of propulsion systems. in addition to all of this great
technical work, we have to be aware that everything we are doing is setting a precedent. we have the outerspace treaty, a set of principles, but we have challenges. we have concrete things we are about to do on the surface of the moon with our commercial lunar payload providers who are going to be starting to land scientific and technological payloads on the moon next year. we have some questions that we need answered. the artemis accords was a first step in that direction. to articulate, based on the outerspace treaty program, articulate what are the principles we want as we go forward to the moon and onto mars? how should we be thinking about things? in paris this year, the u.s. along with brazil and france,
two of the other 22 signers of the artemis accords, came together in an electrifying conversation. we talked about, how do we get down to brass tacks about what safety is about? how do we communicate other countries, particularly those that are developing in the area of space capabilities, the importance of responsible behavior? we talked about if we do all of this work, what are the multilaterals and how do we share that knowledge, that analysis, that consensus? stay tuned. there is a lot more learning and activities coming in the policy areas. i would like to conclude by saying that this qr code will lead you to the latest version of our objectives. we will continue to be publishing new information, the
rationale behind them, the white papers out of esd. we will constantly refresh and becoming back to you once a year to talk about this and may be more. i want to encourage you to all stay engaged because we as a community have to do this together. we have to be on consensus going forward. that is how we are going to ensure that we will actually be successful. i go back to apollo. it was hard. we were not sure we could do it but we rolled up our sleeves and did it, and we did it together. that is what we want to do for mars and beyond. thank you. [applause] it looks like i have a few minutes for questions. who has got the tablet? thank you. julie: we have a few questions.
does nasa have plans for mineral and resource exploration on mars or the moon to support human presence in space? pam: i think there is a strong sense that the ability, especially when it comes to things like propulsion, the ability to create capabilities from resources that do not require so much logistics to come from the surface of the earth is an important part of sustainable presence. we have a lot of questions that have to be answered. what does sustainable excavation on the moon mean? no plants, no animals. you should be thinking about things like, maybe this is the most beautiful place on the moon.
that was one of the pieces of input we got to the moon to mars objective that made me go, of course, why are we not thinking about that? in addition, those resources reflect -- as we bring back samples for study from asteroids, mars and the moon -- that is critical, valuable information about the history of the solar system. how do we balance those things and make sure that we are being responsible in what we are doing for isru? one aspect of that -- i talked about the science mission objectives. they call that an applied science set of objectives. it is objectives they have that support other objectives. they are focused on the science behind isru because we are not there yet. that will help us answer these questions in the future. it is a crawl, walk, run. that is where ics at -- i see us
at. julie: how can we encourage states without developed space programs to be involved in space exploration? pam: wonderful question. that was a source of most discussion. i will share my perspective. to me, the first step is around the artemis accords. i just want to remind everyone it does not cost anything to be a thoughtful leader. you do not have to have a huge program of record to be thoughtful about how humanity should be going out into the solar system. for me the artemis accords is a critical way of engaging and being part of the dialogue, ensuring your voices heard. making sure no decisions are made that actually preclude or exclude folks who are not yet ready with all the technical
capabilities that they would like to have in the future. that would be a horrible outcome for humanity if only the people who can do it today are going to benefit. that is not right. that is a critical aspect of being part of the conversation. in addition to that, we inside nasa have taken the step to start to look at what can we do about partnerships? the beautiful thing about a lot of our objectives is some of them are very science focused. i try to remind countries just getting into this, no, no, we are not asking you to build a rover or a rocket. you need to build your capacity to do that. but everyone has universities and scientists. our space science is a global thing. every country has scientists that do it. let's work together on those science objectives, particularly the ones about human-machine
teaming. what are the tools we are giving our astronauts? what did they see in their headset? are they talking to a scientist on the ground? those things are great ways to get started in those partnerships. i really think it is very important that we scale on ramps for every one according to their current capacity to help them build capacity up. julie: last question. do you think nasa is taking full advantage of collaboration with the private space sector? or could it cooperate even more? has this accelerated the capabilities for the moon to mars program? pam: absolutely. i am proud of how we partner with industry. i look at our commercial cargo and crew programs that literally transformed space capabilities in the united states and we are the envy of the world. i have seen it. people say, how do we get an
industry like you have in the united states? i feel nasa has been a critical part of that development. to me, one of the most important aspects -- because i spent time in industry -- you plan where you are going to put your limited investment for the future. for us to lay out the objectives and the things we plan to do the next two decades provides a clear on ramp for industry to decide where they're going to make investments and where they want partnerships and what they want to do about it. i am seeing it happen already. can we do more? we can always do more. but it is a great point and i am glad you brought it up. you are going to have an amazing panel. i am very excited to introduce the next panel to you. it is about partnering for innovation in lunar exploration. hold onto that last question. starting in 2023, the u.s. is
going back to the moon with nationstates and commercial partners for exploration and development of outposts on the moon's surface. nasa and partners will discuss how human and robotic exploration will secure a better future for us all. i am proud to introduce the moderator, ellen, my colleague and friend. and former director of the nasa johnson space center. the director of the staff for the u.s. space force. jim free, nasa's associated minister. the aerospace corporation's jessica jensen. the vp for customer integration at spacex. and sandra connelly, associate deputy administer at the directorate. enjoy. [applause]
>> good morning and thank you for joining us for the kickoff panel of the 2022. we are on the cusp of moon exploration with many capabilities and development by a wide variety of organizations and some about ready to be demonstrated. we are excited about artemis i. we are going to start with each of the panelists giving a few minutes of an overview of their organization's key objectives
for lunar exploration and key partnerships. why don't we start with you and exploration systems at nasa. >> good morning and thank you for letting me be part of this. it is tough to follow pam. she set the bar pretty high. in exploration systems development, our job is to develop the architecture. you will hear more about that through the week. and then developed the systems to the concept to the hardware and then fly it. there is no group that wants to fly artemis i more than us. but the theme of the panel, our job is to embrace partnership.
it is incredibly important to the long-term success of what we do. and also to that sustainability of lunar exploration, and, frankly, exploration overall. part of that is honoring our commitments. that is something we need to do within the framework when we sign up to things, be in a contract or international agreement. it is our job to do that, to create interdependencies. they help us longer-term in exploration and my interdependencies are folks that are on the stage from other parts of the agency and science to industry with jessica. without that i think we are not as successful. let's see if i can get this to work. artemis is that global effort for us in every part of what we are doing today and will be in the future.
our work with the space force and national weather service just to do with the vehicle during a hurricane is incredibly important. there are 10 countries on the european service module, 12 across gateway. all 50 states have suppliers. 2000 suppliers today for artemis. pam mentioned hardware through artemis iv. we actually have it through v. 700 small businesses. all of that feeds the space economy which leads to sustainability which leads to jobs. that is part of our goal in partnerships as well. because of the history and what we have done we can buy services like we have not been able to do before with partners at spacex for the first lander. what we did with suits. laura kearney really
transitioned suits for us to buy the service. but it is one of the most incredible examples i have seen of transitioning workforce. with the growth in buying services we can also begin to think of new structures we can use. we are always going to have our procurement range of fixed-price to broad agency announcement. i think pam hinted at that as well. i think we do a good job of using those. it is very structured when we decide to go that route. my biggest partner i believe is science. all of our systems have science built into it. sls has cubesat's. gateway has internal and external platforms. our first human lander we allocated 450 kilograms for
science. our suits are going to the used to do science as well as our rovers. more missions equals more science and that learning we are looking for. that science connectivity is important. our partnerships with science goes to the fact we had a formal dissent from science to the implementation decision we made on artemis. which i think is fantastic. we should be going for as much science as we could but we are trying to balance how much we can do. modeling partnership is modeled through dissent as well. all the partnerships going to the moon are really going to help us do that science, develop that technology and get sustainable exploration. >> thank you. why don't we go to sandra?
>> good morning. i am delighted to be here to chat with you today about science and going back to the moon and be here with distinguished colleagues on stage. as jim was saying. it really is about the unprecedented partnerships. to be successful with artemis. nasa internally, in the last couple of years, have really developed our partnerships internally. pam talked about the federated board. at the leadership level, we are working collectively to make sure we are integrating science and technology together with exploration objectives. it is really exciting to see all of us work together on the collective mission in ways that we have not in the past.
not that we have not been partnering, but it is unprecedented the level of collaboration going on within the agency. similarly, we need to leverage industry and international partners and engage new ones. the deputy administrator mentioned that. that is going to be critical. i have to say i don't have the experiences that others have in experiencing launches, but i am super excited to be seeing the artemis launch. i hope it goes in a couple of weeks. literally, i have seen a number of launches but they never get boring. i don't know how many of you had the opportunity. i hope you do sometime in the future, but i cannot wait to see, hear and feel the power of the sls rocket and see the engineering majesty of the orien
capsule. we have six payloads flying along with artemis i. excited to see the signs coming out of that. also, the technology that is going to result from this entire program and everything we are doing with respect to artemis really is going to transform our lives on earth. and as we start to have sustainable life on other planetary bodies, it will transform that as well. the moon is an exciting target. it provides a historical record of the formation of our solar system and many of you may know science is dictated by the survey. in april, the national academies issued the astrobiology survey. it reinforced the importance of science on and around the moon and also on mars.
for the first time ever it highlighted the importance of the integration between robotics and exploration in humans to achieve that science, that groundbreaking science. this is exemplified -- they called out the endurance mission, which is going to use robotics to gather samples from the dark crater on the moon and deliver them to astronauts to return home. it is a great example of achieving extraordinary science through the partnership. innovation also matters and is critical in the advancement of science and exploration. a commercial lunar payload service is a great example of how not only do we need to be innovative from a technical perspective but we need to evolve our models. jim spoke to this as well.
with the payload services we are using industry to deliver science and technology payloads in and around the moon. we need to look for new and better ways to create capabilities. we need to leverage emerging capabilities like artificial intelligence and machine learning in new ways. we need to transform the human and robotic integration integras that are unprecedented for us as well, looking for the new ways to prepare to leverage those robotic reconnaissance together with the humans are really achieve that extraordinary science. i'm happy to be part of that effort. [applause]
>> let us go to the u.s. for space force. -- let us go to the u.s. space fourth. >> if for our moderator and my distinguished colleagues, how to be here with you. before i talk about what it means to be the united states space force, i thought i would talk about what it means to be in the space force at all. i have a feeling i may be the first space force garden you have ever met. -- guardian you have ever met. i may talk about why the space force was formed, and how we are evolving our mission into the future. the united states space force was formed on december 20th in 2019.
we were formed because there are nations out there who are creating capabilities in space that are threatening to the united states. these countries are very specifically, russia and china. in fact many of us were in the room in november, 2021, when we learned that russia had destroyed one of their satellites with a direct ascent missile, called an asam. they destroyed one of their satellites, creating 1500 pieces of debris. it is alarming that we are here. we learned that the iss had to
shelter in place because of the threat of the debris. that is a very threatening act, irresponsible. china, as well, has systems, both countries have direct ascent missiles. both countries are working on ground based jammers that interfered with signals. both countries have lasers that can interfere with satellites. this is not unrelated to the satellites we have in orbit.
we were created to deal with this. just recently, a few weeks ago, china, we have been talking about the satellite, sizhuan 17 is in orbit. china used a position timing satellite, the equivalent of our gps, with a grappling arm, they moved the defunct satellite out of its orbit, and took it to the graveyard orbit. that act, while helpful to china, we in the military think of all the other applications that a grappling arm could have. and the threats at that that kind of activity on orbit could pose to u.s. systems.
the space force was stood up to protect and defend, in law, we have remain tasks. protect, defend, space systems of the united states of america, not just military. not just military. we can get into that later, possibly, with q&a. that is the first job. second, we are to deter attacks against the united states. and, we are to continue to conduct operations. the space force conducts the types of operations that we all benefit from on a daily basis. we are of course part of every military operation joint force as well.
these are systems such as gps, the space force designs and builds the gps timing and positioning for the world. we build and launch and operate communications satellites and weather satellites and missile warning satellites so that we can be warned of attacks on our country. that is what your united states space force does. we have been operating for decades under the air force. we were pulled out, and created as the sixth department of the military because of the threat. that i just described. when we talk about the future, how we will actually protect and
defend our systems in space, we talk about architecture and making architecture more resilient. today, the systems that we do launch and operate our exquisite. best in the world. incredibly capable. but they are not defendable. the russians and the chinese know this. we would like to have not have specific equipment that can only speak to other specific equipment. we are going to put systems into orbit, diversify orbits, and this is the first architecture that we are working on, we are going to work on communication capabilities.
allies and partners will be part of this as well. this will be the first step to making resilient architecture for the effect of all of us. -- benefit of all of us. ellen: as we talk about cislunar, we have been bound by the binding of the earth's gravity but from our inception we have been thinking about cislunar. because our nation very soon will be traversing cislunar space. what is it? it is actually huge. it is not just a straight line from the earth to the moon, but it is the volume of the earth to the moon.
some define it as beyond. but the volume from the earth to the moon is 2.4 times 10 to the 17th kilometers. what does that mean? 218,000 earth's specific to that volume. -- could fit into that volume. it is a huge volume, when you talk about the mission of the united states space force to protect and to defend a united states interest in space. we are going to need similar technologies to but we have -- technologies that we use today we will need to increase , our space surveillance and domain awareness activities. we are going to need communication in cislunar, and abilities that we could all use in cislunar. we are talking about active debris removal, debris has been a problem for sure, but debris will follow where humans go.
we have been looking at that technology as well. i want to give you a preview of how your military is thinking about space, what we are doing for you, and how we are thinking about cislunar, as well. [applause] ellen: thank you, let us turn to jessica jensen from spacex. jessica: i am super excited to be here. it is exciting to talk about the future of our industry and the future of our solar system. it is incredible. i want to talk about what space x is doing to enable all of that and help all of you. this is a picture of our first orbital vehicle that we are working through a series of static fire test to get to our first flight.
it is a fully capable space vehicle system, it will be capable of caring cargo and crew to interplanetary destinations. we are building a fleet of vehicles as we work on this first flight. the reason we are doing that, twofold. one, we want to start out with a rapid flight rate. we want to have test flights and our early starling commission to -- star link commission to learn quickly and get to solutions that will help everyone in the future as fast as possible. the other cool thing is designs that your designs are simple and many factual -- the cool thing
is that your designs are simple and easy to manufacture. we want vehicles all over the solar system, they may be on the moon or mars, you want systems that will be easy to repair, move and fly again. when i think about sustainability, reliability is part of that. and what we think of what's next, pam talked about this earlier. i want to elaborate on public-private partnerships and how they've been incredible enablers. more than 10 years ago, nasa issued a requested proposal for cargo for the space station. they needed cargo for the space station, they put out to industry. one of the interesting things about it, is they only gave the capabilities needed, and it led to competition, which built complementary services.
that led to these great vehicles. that has enabled everything. dragon is now caring commercial crew to the space station, astronauts to the space station, all of that will enable launch vehicles it's interesting to think with all of that, and our internal funding, none of this could've happened without that initial public private partnership, i always want to thank nasa for that one, it's very cool. everyone should think back to
that last example and how can we do more of that moving forward into this new regime. and the new regime is the moon. we at space x are so honored to be a part of the artemis program. one of the things that we are doing, is flying commercial missions, we also fly government missions. what that does overall, is it builds up a flight rate and allows us to reduce the financial and technical risks to the government. we have shown that with falcon 9, and we want to do the same for starship. we are working on human landing systems, and we are working on that a parallel in working on commercial capabilities. we will incrementally build the capabilities it takes to safely land people on the moon.
we are very excited about it. lastly, how do we go to the moon and stay there, and go to further destinations? there are a few things that spacex is going to work on to enable all of this. one, so important for all of us is to lower the cost of transportation. that is going to be a huge enabler. we are going to work very hard , the industry wants to work hard at that, that really is key. we are thinking about going to the moon, sustainability, and thinking of vehicles that come back and hang out to the lower earth orbit, there are vehicles refilling in orbit. we need to think of this together and how to build sustainable presence. the last part, from the spacex
side, we are going to work on, -- we want to deliver significant amount of cargo and infrastructure for all of these missions. we believe that this will be essential for allowing people to live, work, and do research on the moon for long durations. i'm excited to be part of all of this, and i am excited for the future. ellen: thanks, jessica. [applause] let's turn now to todd nygren, from the aerospace corporation. todd: i'm going to be quick. i have one what -- two how's. the what, to frame it, cislunar
is the new high ground and we are in a competition. that adds urgency, and a poignancy to the things that we care about, when you think about the artemis accords, these are freedom loving people. freedom loving people who respect and envision the rule of law, open innovation and for competition in my view, is with russia and china. russia is articulating, and china is articulating a vision in this space that is very different. you can imagine what it would look like, if you want to imagine, if you think that cislunar is open and free, think of the south china sea, we are in a competition. to frame this in a competitive element really helps put focus on what needs to get done.
it is chartered to look across the space enterprise, and i've never seen such an interesting event diagram between the dod, the intelligence community, and our civil customers. in this domain. it bolsters the interest as well as opportunities. two quick how's there is a lot of infrastructure building block elements. when you think of logistics comes, security, environmental monitoring, cyber. quick pause. i want to shut out to space -- shout out to space isac.
many of you here, your companies may represent the opportunities across cyber. the kind of sharing that we need to do is critical to achieving safety and cyber is a huge issue as we look at cislunar. these foundational building blocks, we really need to think about who will lead, who will follow, and how will follow, and how we architect these blocks in order to move to a capability that will make sense. i've lived in the world of stovepipes. where we build ourselves into elements that we can't share our work across. even thinking through data standards, nasa, the dod, intelligence agency, we will have to be able to share and work through those. thing about the infrastructure. -- i think about the infrastructure.
one how is infrastructure. pam melroy talked through that we need to work through this as a planning commission as we go forward, but it has to be broad, agile, and really provide the opportunity to be intentional about critical risks and opportunities. when you look through the chinese plan, they are working through a very structured way to go through that. we need to work together to go through that. incredible opportunities, incredible excitement in this domain. it is a good place to start a discussion and how we do this together. ellen: thanks very much, todd i appreciate the overviews and sharing your organization. in the time remaining i thought we could follow up on some of the opportunities and challenges that you mentioned.
let's start with opportunities. you've talked about this and -- in your overviews, but maybe other comments you want to make about how your organization is leading an innovation, and how your thinking has evolved. jim would you like to start. james: i would like to start with the architecture that we were talking about earlier, when i was with the agency before before i retired the first time. architecture was very insular. what does nasa want to do, how are we bringing others into it, how do we want to share what we are doing? being very deliberate, as pam said, about where we want to go -- but share in our architecture
review. we also need to look for inputs. i will tell you the challenge with that, we will make some people mad. if we used everybody's idea we would have seven or eight architectures and we would never get there. we will need to make hard choices, but for me, it starts with architecture. if we can define clearly how we are going to get there. and keep open new technologies as they come about or know or other companies come up with, we eventually will need to make choices. there will be a reporter that says nasa tried to cram a six-year development into four years. that's what i'm trying to avoid.
innovation starts with architecture, defining it, getting feedback and moving away at the same time. ellen: jessica. jessica: sure. one area i didn't talk about was space medicine and opening space to more people. as we have started to fly private astronaut missions, how do we open space to not just a specific set of astronauts, how do you fly people who have diabetes or specific things. how much data needs to be collected to make space travel safer for human beings. i would like for us to work together as an industry to make sure that we are sharing that data to open up access to base to more people faster.
-- two space to more people faster. ellen: thanks. todd: i want to interact on those points, how do -- how do we share in that architecture, can the spaceport take the lead? can we operate in these different obstacles is something that we've been talking about in the aerospace corporation. there is different standards, how can we bring those elements of modularity and flexibility to allow us all to have the innovation and standardization to get the cost point down. some of my colleagues will be presenting a paper later on on -- how we may think about that later on. we need to think through how these sharing aspects are.
it seems like a strengthening of the architecture. ellen: sandra, in terms of leading in innovation and science, you talked about robotic and human exploration, not separately. how we could innovate the ways that those would work together. sandra: i think we do need to be flexible with our designs, and be willing to modify it as we go and as we are learning. to not lock ourselves in. i think that recognizing we have many modalities for achieving our science and our exploration goals, policy and technology, i think about this in a couple of different categories. traditionally, for science it
has been robotics. we would crash a spacecraft into an orbit of a astroid. that was exciting. and a place where we leverage other platforms, other vehicles, to actually perform science. that is another modality. there is a joint thing we've done for some time with the international space station. i think the challenge in where we need to be focusing and evolving, i think all of this will remain in play, but we need to think about how to enable and optimize that interphase between humans and robotics. whether it is reconnaissance for astronaut missions. whether it is the human and
providing tools that support in science. we need to think strategically and tactically. ellen: yes. are we looking at other technologies, jim and terms of robotic and human exploration? james: absolutely. we went to go to south pole very badly, but we need to understand what dangers await us. we want to use ltv to operate while our crew is not out there. it can operate up to 30 days when the crew is not there so we will learn how the rovers operate on mars. we wanted to be a scientific
platform. gateway, i feel like we are stealing from all of nasa do to make this work. the arm on iss, the canadian arm is going to use artificial intelligence to evolve a sense of touch. these are technologies that we see and other agencies as well. sandra: i was listening to a panel about how in four years, ai will make decisions for us, and i wonder will it be the system that will feed into what the system is. this requires trust that i don't believe we have explored before. how can we learn to trust machines?
i think it is fascinating. i think all of our areas of expertise will be involved in some way or another in the future. ellen: maybe too many of us astronauts grew up on how. we think that there's a way to do it smartly so we went ahead. when we think about challenges, i want to ask you first, todd, about what you see as policy gaps as various countries and organizations proceed with lunar activity? todd: i think we understand safety in the domain that we are used to. we have talked about a standard for keeping this environment pristine.
there is significant areas they -- there are significant areas there. i think how we share information, and working through space domain awareness, data sets. classifications. all the things that, we are used to keeping things in a nice little ball. we will need to learn to share. i think that the opportunities that digital engineering offer here, will forecast our futures and also start to forecast digital twins -- some of these areas are very interesting. and may be a sense of trust, how do we build trusted frameworks for ai and things like that. a lot of places for opportunity.
ellen: i see you nodding your head, do you want to add something? lt. gen. armagno: i think we have a chance to lead the nation in this realm. we, the vice president the other day and a few months ago stated that we will not conduct destructive tests. that is a -- that we we can be leading by example and as military, as we make our conversations more resilient, that is not enough. you have offenses and putting a limit on and i cap on the kinds of -- a cap on those behaviors, i think that is fantastic, the secretary of defense put out a memo outlining the different
behaviors for the military for the department of defense and our conduct in space so that we can lead by example with safety in mind and communication was a huge bit of it. we do not do that very well. with russia or china. it is an area to improve in. it is nothing seem to be getting much better these days, that is for sure. eileen: it feels like we just got started but we have to bring this panel to a close so that we can move onto the next panel. i want to thank all of the panelists. pam talked about the artemis generation, there are many early career folks out there and i hope you are as excited as i think everybody is up here on this stage about what is coming