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tv   Lectures in History  CSPAN  November 1, 2014 4:03am-4:54am EDT

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the brotherhood wasn't the first union, there were two others that failed at the turn of the century. and randolph is an important figure because he brings certain insights to organizinorganizing no doubt about that. but that's only part of the story of success. you can't really account for the success of the brotherhood without taking into account what melinda's is talking about in her book. >> one last quick question. >> all right. good afternoon. i've enjoyed panel session. i'm joy, i work for the park service. i'm here with three mid level managers for the park service in
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the corner. i wanted to know what your thought if the sight is not 402nd national park. what are the plans? >> yes, to answer your question joy, i think that is a really good question. the position of the campaign as it has gone over the last two years has been pullman is well positioned to be 402nd national park sight. er the status of the campaign, senator who is assistant in the u.s. this senate and senator in the minority has co-sponsored legislation to have this if become a national park. that was first step. congressional route is one way
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to go if it doesn't work initially you have the second option, that is using president antiquities act created in early 1900s was designed to help preserve the country, the president can step in and designate federally owned property as a national monument and direct national agencies, such as the national park service to manage that sight. where we are in that process is in regular communication with d.c., with our partners in formulating enough supporters on the ground to say there is 110% local support for pullman being designated as a national park sight. we have well over 15,000 who
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have pledged their support and labor groups advocating us. that's where we are. that's the take action notice for everyone here, we want pullman to be 402nd national park sight, the people with the loudest voice are the ones recognized. and there's plenty of supporters who want it to be 402nd national park sight, chicago's first national park sight and we can makes that come together that pullman should be a national park. >> i would say in addition to that. 402 is a campaign, a brilliant one, but also a parking space. if we have to fight it we will take that too, that's success. i want to thank our panelist.
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[ cheers and applause ] i think you have copies of your book that will be available at the book signing. or at least in the book area. we have two great authors here who have done great work on biographies, two good books you should pick up, both are available in the vendor area. once again i'm from the national parks association, i have several coloraleagues that will here, raise your hand, that's us. if you have any questions about us who we are, what we do stop by and visit us and pick up our
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brochure. this ends the opening 99th annual conference. i look forward to being back next year for the 100th. thank you all. >> tl
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. >> good friday. today we're going to be discussing two separate conflicts that took place in north america. we talked about the french indiana wars and queen anne's war. today we will talk about two separate conflicts. one is not actually the french
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indian war. but actually the war between british colonies in the south and spain. and the war that occurs just before the french indiana war. these are words i put up for spelling. often times i will mention these and students like to get the right spellings. other spellings will be on the slide. we will part here with the peace that ended the previous war, queen anne's war and war of the spanish succession and it ushered in peace both in europe and the colonies but war again rerupted in late 1739 when
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britain declared war on spain. the nominal reason for that declaration was de gradation for british commerce. this listing saying spanish privateers are seizing our ships on the high seas, this is an insult and there is an increasing clamor in britain to do something about it. also some of the tension between british and spanish over something that is basically a slave trading contract. it is a 30 year contract that gave britain the right to furnish slaves to spanish colonies. there was specific numbers on that. there was one incident in particular is that later gave this conflict the name, war of
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jenkins year it was in fact a result of one of the ships, the rebecca, that had been seized by the spanish, the captain was a man named robert jenkins and he had his ear cut off. it was severed. everyone handed it was handed back to him. to him it was symbolic. he gets his ear cut off in 1771 but talks to the government, there's a carton of him talking to the prime minister. there's his wig, they are showing his ear, the prime minister dismissing him. he would rather talk to a lady
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than have to deal with this issue. so it shows there's a tension in britain and eventually britain does declare war in late 1739. now of course as american military history class, we will focus on events in the colonies. we will start with jameis's official title, i have to read it browse it is so long. we may think of him as being the governor of that area. seeing that war between britain and spain has broken out, he sees an opportunity there's a contested area between what is today florida and georgia. there is a certain area claimed both by the spanish and british colonists and so this man says
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it will be great if we can seize that area for the crown. so he puts together a force in december 1739. and they begin marching towards, where is the place they would probably want to take, guys? st. augustine, right. so we've seen drake in the 1580s try to take it. so he puts together this expedition and captures some small spanish forts. and in june in st. augustine is a national park now, you can see this is a classic, new world european style fortress which had been built back in 1686 drake raid.
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bottom line the troops will need to siege the forts and at the same time put a block aid to e prevent fresh supplies from coming in and a seize will happen. that's what takes place. the head of the fort there was a fellow named manuel monday t montano. we have really good records of this. this is a good slide. this is in the digital library in georgia. you will say why is he writing in english? he's not but in fact his letters
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were considered so porj of important that someone translated them into english for us. it is a great resource if you don't speak spanish because you can go see is this stuff online. i want to talk about this letter he wrote on the 24th of june, 1740, the day of the siege commenced. he is writing to his superior and writes i can't express the confusion of this place. here the only defense is its fortress all the rest is open country. the families have left their families -- pitiable, not sure if he means the people are suffering either way there's a problem. he ends by saying if you cannot aid us we must perish. so the spanish government sends
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in resupplies that reach the fort. the siege fails. he realizes he won't succeed. he is logistically unable to continue it and goes back to georgia. what do you think is comincomin? yeah counter attack. so he says we would like to reattack and the spanish government provides significant resources to montanyo, they give him 5,000 troops, a large number of troops in the mid 18th century. so they sail out and outnumber the georgia defenders, combination of british soldiers,
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by about four and half to one. the numbers are roughly 4500 to 1,000. and yet orglethorpe is able to defeat the invasion. the battle of the bloody marsh, he achieves ever lasting fame, built him 9 foot tall bronze statue because he saved the colonies by the invasion by the spanish and essentially that is the end of major operations here in america. montonio withdrawals. nothing becomes of the counter attack plans. at the end of the day, we essentially have one attack in
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one direction one in the other direction and at the end of the day nothing really changes. so it is this inset right here. he comes down. goes back up. and the spanish are defeated at bloody marsh. so the war was inconclusionive. it was a draw. the border remained between florida and georgia, a rough line through the wilderness, it would say that way until 1763, treaty of paris is a topic we will talk about next week. so, that's an important part of the conflict here in north america but in europe things are proceeding at pace. so step back 1744. british and spain go to war. france is supporting spain in this effort. it is largely a marimaritime wa.
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if we go back to 1740 other things are going on in europe, one of which occurs in the spring, a new monarch is sent to the throne, frederick the great, his father passed away 1740 and the emporer of the holy roman empire passed away and frederick the second saw this as a great opportunity. he had sewn roots there and saw a growing power and saw this crisis in austria as something of an opportunity. who succeeded him was his daughter, maria theeresa, and
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during his lifetime he tried to line stuff up, like can we have a woman in the throne in some places the rules of hierarchy in terms of succession, it is not possible but it was contested. that's the short version. they said it is fine. others say it's not okay. really in part it is about her gen gender but also about power. he is using this as an excuse to attack parts of the holy roman empire. so war breaks out between the monarchy and their allies and prussia. ultimately the cold war there
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ends march 1744 when france declares war on britain. seven days later britain responds in kind and really it is like a world war. it is known as war of austria of succession in european history. once again the colonists see an opportunity. as you recall the french lost their akadia as part of treaty. what an opportunity to recapture their lost territory. in fact that's exactly what the french governor of canada does. he organizes an expedition to recapture the capital of nova
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scot scotia. they built a massive fortress here. almost 150 cannons to built, took a number of years to build, not only is it a great place to launch an expedition but to house privateers. a private ear is a pirate that has been officially authorized by the french governor. they gave a letter saying you are authorized to commit pier raci as long as it is against the british. one man's private is another man's private eer is another wa to think about it. so the colonists are unhappy
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about this. the new england colonists like a buffer zone. they like that akadia now renamed nova scotia is in brit hands. not happy about commerce being raided. if you send out a ship that is captured and taken to france that's not good. so the french launched this expedition, the british are unhappy about the efforts to recapture nova scotia, and the will privateering. nick knack indianas. talked about the chicago asaws supporting in
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. >> the nick knacks were not treated well. unfortunately they and the french didn't talk very well together. the nick knacks had their own ideas how to take the city as opposed to the french wanted more traditional warfare. the bottom line is that the effort by the french to recapture is not particularly successful. in fact not at all, it fails. well, with nova scotia threatened by french privateers operating out of the islanders, a politician named william shirley decides this is an opportunity for him and proposes a gold proposal and says we can help our english brothers on nova scotia and we can get rid
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of the base, let's go take louie borg. what do you think they said? yes, are you crazy. right. so he goes rnd and of course they turn him down and say no we're not going do that but he's persuasive and gets the merchant class to support him. it is their ships being raided. they offered to provide their own money to support this expedition and eventually by one vote they approve this expedition and he is also talking to the british government an and royal navy. also the guy from western station trying to get his support. he is like if i get orders from the crown i will help you out. so he has a great idea but a lot
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of people skeptical of the idea what is important the new england colonies all come together although majority of troops rhode island, new hampshire, even some m mid-atlantic states and colony of new york said we got cannons we will provide. and quaker said we'll provide food and clothing. when you look athe earlier conflicts they are focused on a specific colony. this is a real effort to go and recapture louie borg. the back ground shirleyy is able to convince the assembly. first of all it is a very close vote. allegedly. it was a tie vote.
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the guy who was, the last guy voted for, there was another guy that was going to vote against the expedition and he was coming to vote and he broke his leg in the carriage. i don't mknow if that story is true or not but good story. but we do know he had good intelligence. we knew morale was low. in fact at one point they had a mutiny. it was considered entirely okay if you didn't get paid for a certain amount of time, the mutiny was like, i'm not doing anything until you pay me. so the french garrison had low morale if you had high morale you may be willing to wait
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longer for your pay. so shirley knew this so he was able to authorize the expedition. he needs a leader for the expedition. he already talked to peter warren who he got the word back from him. he's like i'd like to help but i need the king to buy into this and i don't have that yet. so shirley is willing to take this expedition without significant support by the royal navy which probably would not have been a good tact but he's still looking around trying to find somebody who can lead the expedition. just to kind of give you an idea of what they're trying to do here, this is a view, part of it we extend across, it gives an idea of the difficulty of capturing this area. at the time this was filled in with little towns.
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if you come through the land side you got to get through this fort. from the sea side they will shoot you. this is a difficult, difficult operation. so he needs just the right guy for this. in fact shirley finds his man in william pepperell. this picture is painted after the expedition, and that is allowy borg in the back ground. pepperell is a great choice. described as a man who promises to give weight -- the point about his wealth is not insignificant. all right. how will you fund this expedition? there's only so much money the colony has. in fact private merchants pay a
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lot of the cost. including pepperell himself who was a arifto krat and he contributed 5,000 pounds gave it to them, and also allowed to pay for his own bounties to get people to join the expedition. so clearly the money that was contributed by pepperell and others was important but he didn't have significant military back ground. this is where it became helpful that the king finally got back to warren and said yes you can contribute and support this expedition. so the royal navy joins this expedition scheduled for the spring 1745. there's another factor i want to
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introduce, that's the role of the local clergy, they played a large role in drumming up support foreign support. they believe they had were doing god's work. there's a strong religious element to the decision to join this expedition. for example this is a letter that was wrote during the siege itself. one saying i'm willing to stay until god's time comes. and his wife refplying say i leave you in the hand of god. if you look at the letters on google books, a number of things were published in the mid 18th century, these letters published between soldiers writing back
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home. a majoritiy of them invoke this belief in god. we're doing god's work. if god will will it, it will happen. there's a lot of factors that go into why these shoulders decide to go and fight in this conflict. shirley was able to put together a fairly large expedition of 4,000 troops. first contention arrived may 11, 1745. royal navy also contributed ships. it's interesting because pepperell and warren didn't work together well but just well enough to make the operation a success. the expeditions often times didn't necessarily draw people from higher etch lon from
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society. there was way group of soldier who's plunderred a bunch of french rum and said it's better than ours. but by in large these are not professional soldiers, they are militiaman signing up. they besieged and bomb barded the fortress and unlike five years earlier, this time the royal navy prevented resupplies from reaching allowy burg and the ench from capitulated in a little over seven weeks. here you have a drawing of the f fortress. even up here. right. so you got guns here and over here. you have to take it from the land, stop the ships from
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getting in, it's a difficult task. that said probably not as difficult as it was made out to be. we now know that there was issues with construction, there was problem because of the weather mason was more likely to crumble and a few other things. although it wasn't as impressive as the colonials made it out to be it was a impressive military achievement, able to have the most impressive fortress in the world. with help of the royal navy but colonial army. it ha long lasting implication
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in terms of a thought process for the colonist. it reduced the colonist opinions. it led numerous colonists to conclude that citizen soldiers were superior to earthy sovereigns so if we're a citizen soldier with god on our side we will be allowed to defeat professional armies. so they beat the army at allowy borg but you have the contrast of success at allowiburg with two major defeats. 12 . >> in 1741, british suffered a massive defeat in present day columbia. they were not impressed with the performance of the british. and more recently in very stark
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contact to the successful capture of louieburg is battle in present day belgium which takes place in may 1745. so the british army doesn't seem as impressive and the french army not as much either so this perception develops that citizen soldiers are the equal and professional army. we will talk about that later. here's a sketch during the occupation. you can get a real feel for what it looked like. now. louie the 15th, king of france agreed to a massive expedition in nova scotia either to retake
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louie borg or put in a letter to the charger of the expedition an equalivelent. quebec city. perhaps. he gives him a lot of latitude clearly in response to the colonial -- british capture, i should say, of louieberg. 11,000 men. 25,000 tons of shipping. the largest french force until the revolution. this is double the size of either the spanish effort to take georgia or even the colonial successful attempt on
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louieberg. this is a massive expedition. he chose the duke of anville. here's his full name if you want it. anville was described by one scholar virtually without naval experience. he had a high rank. he was lieutenant general of the army. so he had a high rank and you might say why would they pick this guy, he had achieved his rank and fame through his political connections in the court, but when you look athe the french navy all of their at me -- admirals were 80 years old. he was fairly young being middle aged instead of an old guy. he took his job very seriously.
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and he started to work with the marines, but from the beginning the expedition was beset with problems. there were problems with provisioning. they were supposed to leave in early spring, left in late spring. had transit endured poor winds, the wingds shifted. they were very slow in getting there. we heard of skurvey and other diseases that go through your ship. fresh water is hard to get. and they also experienced stormy weather. including a hurricane. there was not a lot of. >> stunot a lot of good stuff gg on. diseases and storms, they have hurricanes before they get there, they don't arrive until
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late december, weather not so good, and then are late getting there and there's a discussion, do we just go back home. what do we do? they weren't even sure where some of the ships were. did the ships sink? and it shows up in port one day because they all got scattered by the storms. so things weren't looking good but got worse. anville died shortly there after. historians think he was killed by a stroke but we're not sure the stroke killed him because after he had the stroke and had the classic symptoms of a stroke, weakness and mumbled words but his doctors were trying to fix him and he kept getting bled and eventually he
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suckums and dies and okay fine there's a second in command so a guy who never thought he would have to take command is overwhelmed with his responsibility and three days later he resigns and apparently we don't know the full story but apparently attempted suicide in a feverish deleer yum. he was in his room, heard a yell, tried to get in, broke the door open and there he was with his sword through his belly through his back and they pulled the sword out and he recovered. which is amazing. so we look at the third guy, at first is like louieburg is too
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much let's take quebec but decide no probably not a good idea. and he's quite velicose. there's some say he was overwhelmed. he looked at the depleted forces and decided to capture royal this too ended in failure. so to some it was a complete and total failure. in fact the title of the book sums it up extremely well. "anatomy of a naval disaster" and it really is. there are ultimately many reasons for the failure.
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inadequate logistics. poor leadership. nasty path opathogens. all things that led to the failure of this expedition. but the new england colonists tended to focus on one thing in particular. what do you think of these four things. logistics, leadership, weather, and disease, which do you think the new englanders tended to focus on what do you think and why. put yourself in the mind of a 1740-something new englander. >> weather. >> weather why do you say that? who controls the weather. god. you're exactly right. there's multiple reasons but the new englanders tend to focus on the weather. they attribute their salvation to the hand of god. they all knew the amata was
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coming and it turns out they could have attacked the eastern sea board but their focus what to land in akadia. it was a possibility and they thought it would happen. there's a real fear that the french are coming and will attack boston or some other city on the east coast of the colo coloni colonies. so magically the storm comes right before they arrive. there's a famous poem i'm going to read that talks about it. it's called "ballot of the french fleet" here's a temporary painting by a frenchman who was very, very familiar with this event.
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sewerly i like to think he has the failed louieburg expedition in his mind. this is october 1746 by longfellow. a fleet with flags araid sail from the port abreast the signal southwest -- to ravage our helpless boston town -- danger hovering near -- mouth to mouth, i stood in the old south saying humbly, let us pray. oh, lord if in our providence tempest should arrive -- thine the glory be. this was the prayer i made for
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my soul was all inflamed and the answer came shaking the mighty walls and tolling the bell in the tower. the lightning unsheathed its flaming sward and i cried stand still and see the salvation of the lord. sea was white with hail nld an ever more fierce and loud blew the fleeted hail. -- [ reading ]. >> all right. now you might say why are you reading 19th century poem we're
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talking about 18th century, i do it because it is something that really shows the religious aspect to this conflict that we're talking about. now after 1746 there's a few minor actions. at one point there's an effort to take this little part of nova scotia here. this is another failed attempt. and so basically after the anville expedition, there's not a lot of major action in king george's war. british are also using privateers against the french. bottom line is it dies down. one reason is because the french lost the war by the end of 1747.
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in may and again in october there's two very famous naval battles disastrous for the french off the north western tip of spain. the first and second battles of cape finisterre. they are efforts by the french to get convoys across to help new france and in both cases french navy forces are destroyed and able to stop the convoys from crossing the atlantic. so with this, essentially by 1747 and into 1748 war extended. france still had the advantage in europe. of course at sea the royal navy and britain had achieved the upper hand. with this stale mate in place,
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the two sides, negotiations, maria teresa was allowed to maintain the throne. and although the war was fought over deep tensions it was a draw and both sides went back. we will see a new war known as the seven year's war will break out within a decade. that is october 1748 and we have seen this before. right? and what happens when we go back to status quo, what happens. >> essentially they go back. and return to the way it was before and so what does that mean? it goes back to the french. so if you're a british kcolonis, what do you think of that?
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we just went back to this thing that you spent all this on. it makes perfect sebs, right? britain did not win the war. the french dominated on the continent. and you know, they had maritime advantages. from the colonial perspective, this is our great military achievement and you took it away from us. we have this great achievement and you took it away with the stroke after pen. that the perception. and so, economists robbed of the fruits of their greatest victory and there's a second part to that. and the frefrm head back to the place where they can put their privateers and raid and they are just as vulnerable as they were in 1744, 1745. so colonists are not happy and it makes sense from the british perspective. and not pleasing to the colonists.
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so what are the takeaways that we might have from discussing king george's war under this period? i think there's three things we can kind of take away from this particular conflict. the british colonists have once again banded together in times of crisis. we talk about coming together, gives you a sense of style and so there's definitely a shared sense of community that comes out of this. and you can kind of imagine, right? it is maybe the modern monologue of going to a modern football game. you're all one, all cheering no your team, right? the idea the crisis comes, all together and then there is this panic, right? that the coast will be raided. then a storm dispurses and there is rejoicing together. and so there's this creation, not that it wasn't already a sense of community but it enhances that, that, that feeling amongst the people. and creates a sense of
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community. distinct of being british subjects. it does take valuable military experience, right? as we know because we've seen the few tour, there's more coming up, the american revolution. and there aren't too many colonists around who fought in queen ann's war by the 1750s or 60s, and if they are, they aren't able to fight. but 1740s, take place ten years later. there is definitely valuable military experience. and lastly, i think that another thing, and we've beat this drum a bit here, is that it did convince many people that in fact, providence was on their side. right? that citizen soldiers coming together to do god's work would allow for the defeat of a regular army. right? this is something that a lotof


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