tv Lectures in History CSPAN November 22, 2014 8:00pm-9:01pm EST
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industry and funded by your local cable or satellite provider. like us on facebook. >> follow us on twitter. >> each week american history tv sits in on a lecture with one of the nation's college professors. you can watch the classes every saturday evening at 8:00 p.m. and midnight eastern. next, indiana university professor john bodnar talks about the idea of "sexual freedom" in the 1950's and the beginning of dissent against cold war-era moral values. professor bodnar talked about how america in the 1950's was portrayed as a morally righteous nation, and how virtue was seen as an integral part of patriotism. he cited the publication of the kinsey reports on male and female sexuality, the creation of "playboy," and the development of the birth control pill as factors that promoted a revolt against prevailing cultural norms. this class is a little under an hour. >> good afternoon.
the coldtalking about war and the global dimension of fighting communism and its domestic dimension of promoting certain outlooks and certain values that were seen as indispensable in america's flight -- fight against communism in the world. we talked about already the cold war not only had a military component, but it had a moral component, a dimension where if you were to be seen in american society as an ardent cold to the fighttted against communism, then you not only had to be a patriot, willing to do battle -- figuratively and theoretically -- against communism in the world, but you had to live by certain standards to prove your american loyalty and american patriotism. interestingly, in the late
1940's and early 1950's, just alliance was getting off the ground, this alliance between the political fight in the world and the need for moral rearmament domestically and culturally, just as that was emerging, we saw the beginning of a fracture, a division, we even -- or even some sentiments of dissent in american culture and society. a wave of dissent that began to question the moral values that were seen as essential to the larger project to fight the cold war. aboutday, i want to talk the beginning of that dissent. it won't be a full-scale against the cold
war were so important to the mindset of americans during the cold war, but it will represent the beginning of a wave that will end it will explode in a much more determined fashion in the 1960's, but that is something we will address at a later time. , whenu will notice today we talk about the beginnings of this wave of dissent against the traditional values that were foundational for cold war that thisou will see sense of rebellion is not coming from teenagers or suddenly energized by music and rock 'n roll and teenage rebellion, but actually before all of that happening, this wave of dissent is not coming from kids. it is coming from adults.
we will be talking about it, looking at adults and what they had to say and how they began to challenge the whole structure of traditional values that were promoted so widely during the cold war, the early years of the cold war self -- itself. thewe will be looking at impact of the kinsey reports, authored by an indiana university professional biologist, alfred kinsey. we will be looking at the work done to promote the work of the birth control pill in the 1950's. we will be looking at the impact you hefner made with " playboy" magazine. we will look at the popularity of the beats, who were starting to attract an audience. we will look at the messages women were given who were
expected to live their lives as a housewife from popular media and a little bit about how beginningesires was to alter the perception that women's place was simply to be in the home. certainly if there is any traditional value at the center values, it was the celebration of the traditional marriage, father and mary, the father -- married, the father working, the mother at home. is in part irruption a response to the frenetic pace of the war itself. people were uprooted from their
homes. there was turmoil and there was a general desire to slow down and retreat to a world dominated by traditional roles and traditional expectations. so, marriage rates rise after world war ii. church attendance rises, increases. religion, formal church membership and religion is attracting more people. it goes without saying there is a constant preaching and promotion of patriotic values and loyalty to america, because that goes very definitely to the issue of being loyal to the effort to fight that,ld war, and proving you cannot be suspected of spying or being sympathetic to the communist ideology. were articulated, magazines., in
the particular portrait -- happy couple. we do not know how happy they may be. but it suggests the desirability of marriage, traditional roles, female wife, mother at home. timehis was not only the of marriage, but the time of the baby boom. this is a part of the world that america feels it is defending against communism, the world of stable families, traditional roles. 1940's, americans begin to marry at higher rates than before. marriage rates in the 1930's were lower. difficult fore it
many young couples to even contemplate moving out on their own as during a family. the economy was somewhat precarious in that regard. more americans than ever got married in the 1950's and at a younger age. the average age for a woman to wasmarried in the 1950's just about 20, where his in 1930, it was a year older. and when they get married earlier, they had children earlier. this is one of the reasons driving the baby-boom itself. see the fertility rates, the number of people in 1930opulation -- from 21957, there is a substantial 1957,se -- from 1930 to there is a substantial increase.
all of the statistics there out what the promotion of values suggests, and that is marriage and parenthood are part of this value system. and we have already said church attendance is increasing substantially. that is part of the mindset. we have to fight this battle of communism in the world. we could be destroyed any minute. timeinding peace in this is very much tied to this adherence to values and religion becomes very entwined, as you know, and patriotic belief. be a goodgoing to american or if you're going to be a good christian, as billy graham said in 1957, you also have to be a good american. in the of a sudden middle of this celebration of
traditional values -- religion and family and heterosexuality and thisotism, etc. -- growing consensus and this effort to bring americans together under this set of , we get the beginning of challenges to this perception and this identity that americans are a people who believe in god, who believe in traditional values, and are ready to take on the anti-communist crusade. shotestingly, the first fired in this early wave of dissent or challenge to these values comes from it biology at indiana university-bloomington, alfred kennedy -- alfred kinsey. sexual whose books,
male andin the human sexual behavior in the human female are sort of earthshaking in terms of the impact they have on american society and culture. why? data from his's whilech showed that americans talked about adhering to traditional gender roles, sexual roles, maintaining sex ,ithin marriage heterosexuality, in fact his data show that americans were not practicing what they were preaching. now people challenged kinsey's data. he is a scientist. he was rendering what he thought were results from his research team. his research was going out all of the country. chicago, new york, the midwest,
etc. he reports the data and he says in 1948, 67% of american men are having sexual intercourse before marriage. maybe that is true. maybe it is not entirely accurate. but it challenged the assumption that americans were virtuous people living by traditional values. this shook the sense of who they were as they fought communism. if you fight communism, then you must adhere to traditional values. if there are infect people who are not adhering to that in some way, then maybe they are not adhering to the fight against communism itself. 37% of men had homosexual encounters. this was hugely controversial in 1948.ate -- everybody is picking up on what kinsey said. this guy, they say that he is
going to destroy the moral fabric of the country. people do nott, want to hear or are reluctant to accept what he sees as reality what they see as a distortion. if the book on human male sexual practices was controversial, it was even more controversial to in 1953,with his book and the data in 1953 about the practices of american women. american women were perceived to be or expected to be virtuous. contained sexual practices two families, marriage, etc. and he is coming up with data showing that have of these women have sex before marriage -- i'm
women committed adultery after marriage, once married. and there is even more controversy and hostile reaction from the public. etc.apers, from educators, kinsey is beginning to sort of make a crack within the structure of cold war america. betweenicate balance anti-communism and cultural, moral, traditional values. and he is not coming out and he is probably not thinking about the cold war, but he is thinking about the structure of the were.ty of who we
he is basically saying not all americans are hearing -- are adhering, and that is why it is so controversial. about began his thinking marriage and sexuality in the 1930's. he started a marriage clinic at indiana university. meetings aboutte kinsey.stories with and by the course -- way, there were many college courses in the 1930's about marriage, it's that are a -- but more than the others, also delved into sexual practices. how did people have sex? when did they have sex? who wear their partners?
were they homosexual or heterosexual? he brought it into discussion of his marriage class, and of course he proceeded with individual discussions. as you would expect, this started to create turmoil on the bloomington campus. other professors, administrators , certainly people in the more are more and questioning what kinsey is doing and trying to do with his marriage course. especially when he talks about issues like homosexuality and masturbation in class -- know when did this in the 1930's -- no one did this in the. 1930's wells, the president of
indiana university in the choice.he said, make a the marriageh course, stop the data collecting , or drop the course and just do the research. figuring if he was just doing the research and his critics were not seen these issues -- kinseyin class decided to drop the class in the 1940's. the 1940's now, kinsey is going to amass this team that will go all over america and talk to people about their sexual histories, going to pile up all of this data. all through the gay communities and new york, through the midwest. he was devoted obviously to this , for him, the scientific research project.
here's a picture of kinsey conducting what it is interviews. but he had other interviews. he did not do all of the interviews himself. kinsey a photograph of and herman wells, who continually had to defend academic freedom. wells was always getting pressure from religious ,uthorities, legislators, etc. to put a stop to what was seen as so controversial. wells was an astute politician. when it came time for kinsey to publish his second book in 1953, publishernged for a who would release in the summer when the state legislature was not in session so it would take them a while to gather their forces and come back with criticism, of. hours which they did in time,
but by that time, the book had been out for a while. withy became fascinated the play and in the movie -- the play came out in 1947, the movie 1951 51 starling -- starring marlon brando -- "a streetcar named desire." play talks about variations in sexual activity. it was controversial. it was popular. but it was a play about very aggressive sexual behavior. marlon brando who was in the play and the movie. ,n the play, he beats his wife rates his sister-in-law --rapes his sister-in-law. they do not put that in the
movie, although they do suggest it. they do have one where he strikes his wife. and interesting topic today, and not one that was talked about much either in the 1940's and 1950's. kinsey is fascinated that women in this play and movie are exposing these sexual problems or sexual aggression, because it is certainly consistent with kinsey's research which questions the idea and the ideal that americans are all adhering to traditional sexual practices. goes to the play in new york actually, gets to know tennessee when -- tennessee williams, and then he starts to take these sexual histories of all the people in the play. the data at the kinsey center is tell, but iu cannot
would presume he has marlon brando. sure ifcould not be that information could be confirmed. it is true though. he was trying to interview and did interview most everybody who was in the play. are there any questions so far? the reactions to kinsey are predictable. interestingly, the gallup poll , abouto a large extent half of the u.s. population approves of what kinsey is doing. , but inics are vocal pure raw >> data, if you will, data, if youample will, people are beginning to question traditional values. that is what kinsey was saying.
americans are doing this anyhow. and the opinion poll suggests there is some sympathy if not a total embrace, even though this was the dominant idea of anti-communism traditional values. people were beginning to question the cold war, not directly -- more about the values wrapped around the cold war ideology. -- and the kinsey data is sort of nonjudgmental. he is not in damning anyone, whether it is the woman who he isted adultery or -- not condemning anyone, whether it is the woman who committed adultery or had a same-sex relationship. we would say that today.
he may have not said it exactly the way i just set it, but that was what he was doing. he was challenging what was perceived to be the norm. the norm from which you were not expected to deviate. yorker." from "the new upper montclair, new jersey, suggesting an upper-class setting. aghast at what kinsey had done is saying woman "well, i am sure dr. kinsey never spoke to anyone in upper montclair." he took his data from other places in the united states, not this virtuous community. was anotherger who began to bring to bear
challenges to the norms of sexual practice. who hada social worker worked with poor immigrant women in lower manhattan, new york. she was struck by a number of things -- their impoverished , but also, for sure the number of pregnancies these women had, and how hard the hardship it came with, these people living in these conditions, having so many children, all of the health issues that were involved. and really the medical problems of many of these women trying to do their own abortions and causing infections from which many were harmed or killed. so, she continued her social work with a sympathetic view of of then marriage,
situation where women have little role of the number of children they were having. and so, she began to -- she set up a clinic. to pass out birth-control information. birth-control information was seen as a transgression of obscenity laws. information about birth control was seen as obscene, and therefore they shut her down. kept at it, and eventually she secured financial support from a philanthropic lee lynded -- philanthropical minded woman married to an industrialist. mccormick provided the necessary or fundamental financing for researchers at boston university in massachusetts and developed a
pill that could block population and lead to -- block population and lead to an finally become the birth control pill, which was finally okayed in the 1960's. it would take until the 1970's for the use to spread, but the challenge to the notion that women in marriage had to have children or had no control over the number of children she had, etc. -- the development of the pill, the financing and the ideas come together so that the pill becomes one of the things that is happening in the 1950's, as is kinsey's book, challenging these traditional notions of motherhood, childbearing, domestic relations. and, if you're going to be talking about a challenge to
marriage and conventual -- in theional sexual norms 1950's, you cannot leave out to hefner. does anyone know where he went to college? not too faraway. indiana. but he probably wished he had because he loved the kinsey report. he was devouring the kinsey report. he was saying that he did not have to live your sexual life through the conventions of marriage. veteran back, as a from world war ii, as a student at the university of illinois, started a door magazine in college -- dorm magazine in college. he called it "shaft." it had a feature called "coed of
the month." he is clearly laying out the blueprint of what will become eventually, as you all know, magazine." he was engrossed with kinsey. he thought kinsey was totally on the right track to explode the conventional perceptions of what sexual behavior should be. although he was a married guy, he also began to lose interest in his marriage and eventually moved on from that. boy" was night"a was 1953.y" marilyn monroe was on the cover. there was a picture being widely circulated the time and he bought the rights.
he did not know if there would ever be a second issue. he did not know if he would succeed. they sold 1000 copies of the first issue and from that on it kept building and growing. "playboy" was one of those places where these challenges to marriage and conventional sexual norms were being expressed and regularly articulated. "playboy"article in was about alimony. men should be careful about getting married because eventually woman would want to divorce you. it was what "playboy" was preaching at the time, questioning the viability of marriage health. the readers were
"freeman" and the other half were free only in spirit. hefner wrote on the first page they were not a family magazine. he told women who saw the magazine to pass it on to a man and move on to "ladies home companion." that man who does not want to be tied to family responsibilities was a playboy. magazine. it is the image. he is interested in pleasure. he is not interested in family roles and responsibilities. he should enjoy consumer goods and sports cars and all of the pleasure that men can have outside of marriage. this was part of this wave of change that was challenging conventional values, and
,nterestingly, hefner, sanger and kinsey are all questioning marriage. as could say this is not rebellious of the night 60's, but it is the beginning of the attack on the entire structure values and will go down to the kids to will be part of the counterculture in the 1960's. before we have the counterculture, we have these adults who were questioning the traditional world. beats. the beats were artists, writers, poets. in thecame very popular 1950's, but they, too, were popular because they were seen refusing to conform to traditional values, which is the theme of the entire discussion.
wroteroduced poetry, fiction, but it was about people who were moving from place to place, were not settled. it was about people letting had a number of different sexual encounters. and to have a critical perspective on america, to say you raised the issue of racism ,r drug use or homosexuality that was to run the risk of being seen as un-american, not sufficiently patriotic. we had mccarthyism where people were losing their jobs for not being seen as -- not practicing followingal, conventional sexual morals.writers , ginsburg and jack care wet, kerouac, the--
novelist. they are talking about another sort of life in america that was not all that virtuous. they questioned the established authorities of the time, which were mobilizing to fight the communist crusade. that is a picture of jack care wet -- kerouac. he is on the right break here. cassidy.is buddy neal ." wrote "on the road it is the story of two men traveling across america. they are not fixed to work routines. there is no domestic bliss here.
there is a right of sexual partners area they see poverty and racism. this is not what the true believers of the cold war -- mccarthy for example -- wanted to see and hear in our culture, because it ran against the idea that we were fighting a force in thatorld -- communism -- was threatening america and traditional values. faith in god, solid families. that is from ginsburg wrote: "howl." those are excerpts. you can read them and look at them. i saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked, dragging themselves through
negro streets -- the point is, he is talking about people in america who are .drift, who are drug addicts there are references to drug addiction and homosexuality. popular forit was some, but many people would be quite hostile to what kerouac was riding or what ginsburg was riding. -- writing. at this stage, he was 15, 16 years old. at the time, he is a young person. he become sort of really tuned in to the literature of the beats like ginsburg and kerouac and bob dylan. they are together in greenwich
village. there talking a lot. 1950's, dylan is reading road," andeshe convert into his albums later in the 1960's, but these ideas are in part being drawn from these writers in the 50's. just as hefner is drawn from kinsey, dylan is drawing from kerouac and ginsburg. these ideas were not yet at the inel of the counterculture the 1960's, but we are questioning the set of traditional values of the cold war. well, despite the popularity and
andcontroversy of kinsey despite the popularity of the if you counted up all of the newsprint that was to a single subject in probably would add up to christine jorgensen being the most talked about person in america. if you want a story and an individualhow an advocating nontraditional ways or nontraditional gender roles is making an impact on american , even if youociety are kinsey, it is pretty hard to top christine jorgensen.
jorgensen, like hefner , was a veteran of world war ii. part of the greatest generation. jorgensen decided that he wanted to be a woman and she had a sex change operation and this becomes huge news. this is a veteran back from the war. this is after the operation. no of course there was greater challenge to be celebration of traditional gender roles than for someone to change their gender completely. kinsey is upsetting the apple cart. sanger is looking for a way to affect marriage, hefner is challenging marriage. jorgenson is more than challenging marriage. she is challenging the very idea of sexual, gender roles itself.
said, christine was born jorgensen, agi, served in world war ii. always claimed that his desire to be a woman was very overwhelming, powerful and strong. had surgery in denmark. apparently he was the most written about person in the u.s. reminds of53, which that opinion poll on kinsey's books where half of the population were sympathetic to opening up about sexual practices. just look at the interest here in jorgensen's sex change operation. that is substantial. course, it certainly is a
.hallenge to prescribed roles some -- just to give ple of whatr or a sam people were seeing or reading -- beauty.comes blonde you can see why this got a lot of attention. it was grabbing attention from a lot of other things grabbing attention, kinsey and hefner, and you can see this percolating in culture and society which is not simply falling in lockstep behind the anti-communist crusade. and there are other instances
and examples of questions. the attitudes of many americans changing. look at those, for example those points -- single motherhood, increasing significantly. between 1940ikely and 1960 that a woman very child out of wedlock. happen, but it was happening in increasing numbers. kinsey had a point. people were practicing in ways that did not acknowledged and not realized/ -- realized. and we see much more discussion physicians inf planned parenthood, birth control in the 1950's. it is a controversial. it is not worth control anyway you want it -- worth control
anyway you want it. information that was being disseminated. the project was moving forward in the 1950's. the development of the pill and professionals are being trained at planned parenthood, which was an organization that was started out of the work of margaret sanger. that is an organization being pushed forward to challenge convention. there is another way to see the slow, but persistent evolution change in the early 1950's in regard to traditional
values, and that is in the polls but the gallup poll organization and others took of the time about who the most admired women were in america. the most admired man was the president, but the most admired women were women who had careers or women who were working. age thatgh this is an had been celebrated as the age of the suburbs, the age of the baby bump, the age of more and more people getting married, etc., when women were asked who they admired most, they admired women who i careers outside the household. had careers outside the household. almost every year of the 1950's, in most admired woman america, usually be top of the poll, was eleanor roosevelt. franklin roosevelt died right your the end of world war ii.
she was active politically for the rest of her life. u.n.as a delegate to the in 1946, chair of the united nation's commission on human was part of the committee that drafted the u.n. declaration of human rights. she was an outspoken supporter of liberal causes throughout the 1950's, and it would be fair to say she was something of a liberal political icon in the 1950's. but she wasn't on the most admired list because she was a liberal icon. she was on the most admired list because she was a woman with a highly public career. that is a picture of eleanor roosevelt visiting with herman wells, the president of indiana university. was in 1950, right between
the publication of kinsey's first book and second book. i do not know if kinsey came out with any perception or celebration for eleanor roosevelt. of was here, emblematic womenhere she went, of fighting active careers outside traditional marriage. finding active careers outside traditional marriage. questionedan who marital bliss me 1950's was clare booth luce. women -- even though domestic relationships predominate the way most minimum were living --ir lives, clare booth luce she was married to the owner of "time" magazine.
she is also widely admired because it is a public career. she served in congress, she was a rider, she advocated careers for women. she was a journalist in world war ii. suggesting, as is some of the public opinion polls and the interest in kinsey thathristine jorgensen -- while women may be living under these rubrics of traditional values are thinking quite some, if not all, of the alternatives. finally, there is the interesting and unpredictable consequence of this growing families.hin married
the point here is this. ii,now that after world war there was this wave of marriages, pregnancies, births, homebuying, suburbanization, and consumerism. remember, during the war, americans were only producing more goods. planes, tanks, guns. there were not tv sets, houses, all of that consumer stuff. and during world war ii, people working, but they were not spending the money they made. savings were increasing. they were eager to start buying in the return to consumer production after the end of the war. in this new consumer system
taking hold after the work, women are getting married. they are getting married earlier, and therefore they are trying to stop or into their -- bearingtheir child earlier. to end pregnancies and look for other opportunities within their married life. they are not necessarily moving out of their marriages, but they are now increasingly in the 1950's looking for jobs outside their traditional domestic jobs that will allow them to earn the extra money to buy the televisions that here, the sort of quintessential image of the contented consumerist traditionalist 1950's family. or cars or furniture for the house.
consumerism is beginning to propel some women out of their anditional domestic lives into looking for part-time or full-time jobs. there's a steady increase of women looking for work outside the home in the 1950's and that is consistent with what we see. we see in this first decade or and thishe cold war effort to bring together americans behind the banner of anti-communism, the banner of traditional values, we see an underlying sense of dissent or change or discontent or stepping back from those values. kinsey exposes the fact that we do not practice what we preach. sankar wants to challenge traditional notions of married women as soon leaving mother after mother after mother. hefner wants to challenge
marriage completely and celebrate alternative lifestyles for men. people are fascinated by sex , starting toions leave the home for consumer goods. women are widely admiring other women who work outside the home. overlay of the cold war 1950's is grounded in patriotism, heterosexuality, traditional values, religion, marriage, motherhood, and fatherhood. the underlay, the undercurrent is going in a slightly different direction, and as you will see as we move in the weeks ahead, this sort of crack in the edifice begins with challenging and changing perspectives of sexual behavior. eventually it will become more
political. eventually it will deal with more racial issues and eventually it will explode in the 1960's. but to see that in the counterculture of the 1960's which totally challenges the quitear can be quite seen clearly in the early efforts of these dissenters from traditional sexual and cultural values in the 1940's and 1950's. that is our lecture today. i think you all for attending. are there any questions before we finish? ok. see you next week. >> join us every saturday evening at 8 p.m. and midnight in history.lectures they are also available as a podcast.
visit our website -- st,.c-span.org/history/podca or download them from itunes. year c-span is touring cities across the country. next visit to madison, wisconsin. you're watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3. today we are on the campus of the university of wisconsin-madison in front of where 100 years ago last month in 1914 the society of american indians met at ir fourre annual -- the fourthmeetingth -- annual meeting.
it was the first secular american indian society. there were professionally will, lawyers, members of the bureau of indian affairs. 52 of them gathered together in wisconsin to set the agenda for the future to shape congressional policy. was happening at the time for american indian people was the reservation system was appearing to be a failure to many different interested parties. and people were poor, undereducated, had been losing vast quantities of land, their tribal economies were in bad shape, and the feeling around the country was it was time for a change in indian policy. agenda, the their wanted to get citizenship for indian people. they would become citizens in
1924. they were wards of the united states government, not citizens. by 1914, there was a good 100 year backlog of complaints native american people had about the failure of the treaty relationship, so the one of the court of claims open to them so they could litigate their claims against the united states government. they would assemble what they called a memorial and actually presented the president of the united states, woodrow wilson at the time, in december 1914. woodrow wilson did not have indians high on his political agenda, though he would take the matter very seriously. 10 yearst until 1924, after this meeting, that american indian people would finally get -- so, the people who came to this particular meeting were really the first generation of rather prominent indian national
figures, perhaps -- prominent indian national figures. perhaps the most prominent was henry -- cloud. he would have a big impact in the roosevelt administration, and he was the scholarship behind the indian new deal. another was laura cornelius, an activist from the oneida people here in wisconsin. who waswas we'll lock, a lawyer and activist working on behalf of of indian rights. carlos montezuma was a member of the society of american indians. so was charles eastman who had written a number of books. he was also a physician. all of these people had tribal affiliations. the you read the minutes of
meeting, you can see the characteristic intertribal teasing that goes on between american indian people. they were working out this idea of the unique contribution of the indian race, as they put it. lesser member in 1909 the naacp had been formed. we get a sense of conceptual continuity, especially with the idea of race. the society would sexualize over two issues and the course of the late teens and into the early 20's. one was the role the bureau of indian affairs could have. there were a number of employees in the bureau of indian affairs and there were a number of people in this society who did not think the bureau had a place in the society. overalso had factions quixote, the native american church. and wasety debated this
on both sides of the issue. ultimately what would happen in the 1920's, the society would dissipate over these issues of conflict, so in 1928, they had their last meeting in chicago. the society would leave the last consul of the national of the american indians and subsequent baby national congress of the american indians. i think it is important to take recognition of the anniversary of the conference that took place during the campus of the university of wisconsin-madison, because it seems that this conference at the time started a relationship between the university and the tribes of wisconsin. shortly after this conference, the university began to reach out to the american indian community in wisconsin, sending researchers and personnel and again a research relationship -- it isnk the time
time that we looked back on that 100-year history and look forward to the next 100 years. throughout the weekend, c-span3 is featuring madison, wisconsin. learn more about medicine and other stops on c-span's city tours -- learn about madison and other stops on c-span's city tours on c-span3. >> each week, american history tv brings you archival films that help to tell the story of the 20th century. on behalf of the people of the united states, i am pleased to be here and accept the precious gift of the pandas