tv Lectures in History CSPAN November 30, 2014 12:00pm-12:52pm EST
forow us on twitter information on our schedule, upcoming programs, and to keep up with the latest history news. next, indiana university talkssor john bodner about sexual freedom in the 1950's and the beginning of dissent against cold war-era moral values. professor bodnar talked about how america in the 1950's was portrayed as a morally righteous nation and how virtue was seen as an integral part of patriotism. he lists the publication of the kinsey reports on male and female sexuality, the creation of "playboy," and the development of the birth control pill as factors that promoted a revolt against prevailing cultural norms. this class is a little under an hour. >> good afternoon. we have been talking about the cold war and the global
dimension of fighting communism and its domestic dimension of promoting certain outlooks and certain values that were seen as indispensable in america's fight against communism in the world. so, as we discussed already, the cold war not only had a military component, but it had a moral component, a dimension where if you were to be seen in american society as an ardent cold warrior committed to the fight against communism, then you not only had to be a patriot, willing to do battle -- figuratively and theoretically -- against communism in the world, but you had to live by certain standards to prove your american loyalty and american patriotism. interestingly, in the late 1940's and early 1950's, just
when this alliance was getting off the ground, this alliance between the political fight in the world and the need for moral rearmament domestically in our country, just as that was emerging, we saw the beginning s of a fracture, a division, or even some sentiments of dissent within american culture and american society. a wave of dissent that began to ofstion not all, but some the moral values that were seen indispensable to the larger project to fight the cold war. and today, i want to talk about the beginning of that dissent. it won't be a full-scale rebellion yet against the cold war or these traditional values
that were so important to the mindset of americans during the cold war, but it will represent the beginnings of a wave that will build, and it will explode in a much more determined fashion in the 1960's, but that is something we will address at a later time. and you will notice today, when we talk about the beginnings of this wave of dissent against the traditional values that were foundational for cold war america, you will see that this wave of dissent or this sense of rebellion is not coming from teenagers who are suddenly energized by new music and rock 'n roll and teenage rebellion, but actually before all of that happening, this wave of dissent is not coming from kids. it is coming from adults. we will be talking about it, looking at those adults and what they had to say and how they
began to challenge the edifice of the whole structure of traditional values that were promoted so widely during the cold war, the early years of the cold war itself. so we will be looking at the impact of the kinsey reports, authored by an indiana university professor and biologist, alfred kinsey. we will be looking at the work done to promote the work of the development of the birth control pill in the 1950's. we will be looking at the impact hugh hefner made with "playboy" magazine. we will look at the popularity of the beats, poets and writers, who were starting to attract a sizable audience. we will look at the messages women were given who were expected to live their lives as a housewife mostly from popular
media and a little bit about how consumer desires was beginning to alter the perception that women's place was simply to be in the home. certainly if there is any traditional value at the center of this set of cold war values, it was the celebration of the traditional marriage, father and mother, father working, the mother at home, domesticity. now we know the eruption after -- we know that traditional values erupted after world war and it was in part a response
to the frenetic pace of the war itself. people were uprooted from their homes. there was turmoil and there was a general desire to slow down and retreat to a world dominated by traditional roles and traditional expectations. so marriage rates rise after world war ii. we have noted that. church attendance rises, increases. religion, formal church membership and religion is attracting more people. and, of course, it goes without saying there is a constant preaching and promotion of patriotic values and loyalty to america, because that goes very definitely to the issue of being loyal to the effort to fight the cold war, and proving that, you cannot be suspected of spying or being sympathetic to any communist ideology. post-war dreams were articulated, as you know, in magazines. that particular portrait of, i
guess, a happy couple. we do not know how happy they may be. but it is certainly an image that suggests the desirability of marriage, traditional roles, being aadwinner, female mother at home. and, of course, this was not only the time of increased marriage, but the time of the baby boom. this is a part of the world that america feels it is defending against godless communism, the world of stable families, traditional roles. parents raising children. in the late 1940's, americans begin to marry at higher rates than before. rates of marriage in the 1930's were lower and slower because hard times made it difficult for many young couples to even contemplate moving out on their own and starting a family.
the economy was somewhat precarious in that regard. more americans than ever got married in the 1950's and at a younger age. the average age for a woman to get married in the 1950's was now just about 20, whereas in 1930, it was a year older. and because women are getting married earlier, they are beginning to have children earlier. this is one of the reasons driving the baby-boom itself. and you can see the fertility rates, the number of women per 1000 in the population having children, from 1930 to 1957, there is a substantial increase. so all of the statistics bear out what the promotion of values suggests, and that is marriage and parenthood are part of this
value system. it is emerging with anti-communism itself. and we have already said church attendance is increasing substantially. so it is part of the mindset that we have to fight this bliss -- godless communism in the world. we could be destroyed any minute by some atomic nuclear exchange. so, finding peace in this time is very much tied to this adherence to values and religion becomes very entwined, as you know, with patriotic belief. if you're going to be a good american or if you're going to be a good christian, as billy graham said in 1950, you also have to be a good american. but all of a sudden in the middle of this celebration of
traditional values, religion and family and had n heterosexuality and patriotism, etc., and this growing consensus and this effort to bring americans together under this set of ideals, we get the beginning of challenges to this perception and this identity that americans are a people who believe in god, who believe in traditional values, and are ready to take on the anti-communist crusade. interestingly, the first shot fired in this early wave of dissent or challenge to these values comes from a biologist at indiana university-bloomington, named alfred kinsey. books, sexual behavior in the human male and sexual behavior in the human
female are sort of earthshaking in the impact they have on american society and culture. why? because kinsey's data from his research showed that while americans talked about adhering to traditional gender roles, sexual roles, containing sex within marriage, the necessity for heterosexuality, in fact his , his data show that americans were not practicing what they were preaching. now people challenged kinsey's data. he is a scientist. he was rendering what he thought were results from his research team. he had researchers going out all of the country. chicago, new york, the midwest, etc. talking to people with all kinds of sexual orientations. he reports the data and he says
in 1948, 67% of american men are -- 60% of american men are having sexual intercourse before marriage. maybe that is true. maybe it is not entirely accurate. but it challenged the public perception that americans were these virtuous people living by traditional values as the way they guided their life, and this was tied to the sense of who they were as they fought communism. to fight communism meant you had to adhere to traditional values. if, in fact, you have people who are not adhering to that in some way, then maybe they are not adhering to the fight against communism itself. 37% of the men, he reported, had homosexual encounters. this is hugely controversial in 1948. everybody is picking up on what kinsey is saying. this guy, they say that he is going to destroy the moral
morals of the country. he is obviously going to evoke substantial criticism. because in part, people do not want to hear or are reluctant to accept what he sees as reality what they see as a distortion. because it distorts what the cold war says and thinks about who americans are. if the book on human male sexual practices was controversial, it was even more controversial to come out with documents in 9053 and the data in 1953 about the 1953 andocuments in the data in 1953 about the practices of american women. because american women were perceived to be or expected to be virtuous. contained sexual practices to families, marriage, etc. and he is coming up with data showing that half the women he talked to had sex before
marriage and a quarter of the women committed adultery after marriage, once married. and there is even more controversy and hostile reaction from the public. from religious leaders, from newspapers, from educators, etc. more so than even his data on american men. so kinsey is beginning to sort of make a crack within the structure of cold war america. with this delicate balance political, anti-communism, and cultural, moral, traditional values. and he is not coming out and he is probably not thinking he is critiquing the cold war, but he is critiquing part of the sort of structure of the identity of who we were and why we were fighting the cold war, which was partly to reserve these values. -- to preserve these values. he is basically saying not all
americans are adhering, and that is why he is so controversial. kinsey began his thinking about marriage and sexuality in the late 1930's. he started a marriage course at indiana university. students have the option to have private and separate meetings about their marriage plans a sexual behavior and histories with kinsey. course, and by the way, there were many college courses in the 1930's about marriage, etc., but kinsey, more than the others, also delved into sexual practices. how did people have sex? when did they have sex? did they have it outside of marriage? who were their partners?
was it heterosexual? was it homosexual? these were the things that interested him. he brought it into discussion of his marriage class, and of course he proceeded with individual discussions with some of the students. as you would expect, this was going to create turmoil on the bloomington campus. other professors, some administrators, certainly people in the state are more and more questioning what kinsey is doing and trying to do with his marriage course. faculty members are complaining to the president, especially when he talks about issues like homosexuality and masturbation in class. no one did this in the 1930's . so, herman wells, the president of indiana university
in dealing with the critics, he says, look, make a choice. if you want to keep teaching the marriage course, stop the data collecting, or drop the course and just do the research. figuring if he was just doing the research and his critics were not seeing these issues discussed and presented in class, he would defuse their criticism. kinsey decided to drop the class , but he did decide to continue the research. through the 1940's now, kinsey is going to amass this team that will go all over america and talk to people about their sexual histories, going to compile all of this data. always going up to chicago. always going to gay communities in new york, talking to ordinary families and the midwest. he was devoted obviously to this, for him, the scientific research project. here's a picture of kinsey conducting one of the
interviews. but he had other interviews. he did not do all of the interviews himself. that is a photograph of kinsey and herman wells, who continually had to defend academic freedom. kinsey's right as a scholar or researcher to do his research. because wells was always getting pressure from religious authorities, legislators, etc., to put a stop to what was seen as such controversial scholarly work and research. wells was an astute politician. when it came time for kinsey to publish his second book on human sexual behavior in the human female in 1953, wells arranged for a publisher who would release in the summer when the state legislature was not in session so it would take them a while to gather their forces and come back with criticism, of course, which they did in time. but by that time, the book had been out for a while.
kinsey became fascinated with the play and then the movie -- the play came out in 1947, the movie in 1951 starring marlon brando -- "a streetcar named desire." it was written like tennessee williams, who was gay. in his writing, he was interested in exploring variations in sexual activity. if you know the story or have seen the play or movie, it was controversial. it was popular. but it was a play about very aggressive sexual behavior. marlon brando was in the play and the movie. in the play, he beats his wife, rapes his sister-in-law. they take the rape scene out of the movie. it is in the play. they do not want it to be explicit, but they do have one
episode where he strikes his wife. and interesting topic today, and not one that was talked about much either in the 1940's and 1950's. kinsey is fascinated that williams, in this play and movie, are actually exposing this sort of deviant or sexual problems or sexual aggression, because it is stuff that interested him and is certainly consistent with kinsey's research which questions the idea and the ideal that americans are all adhering to traditional sexual practices. kinsey goes to the play in new york, actually, gets to know tennessee williams, and then he starts to take these sexual histories of all the people in the play. the data at the kinsey center is coded, so you cannot tell, but i would presume he has marlon brando, maybe even vivien
leigh's sexual history in there. but you could not be sure if that information could be confirmed. it is true though. he was trying to interview and did interview most everybody who was in the play. are there any questions so far? the reactions to kinsey are predictable. as i said, he is criticized by religious leaders. interestingly, the gallup poll shows to a large extent, about half of the u.s. population approves of what kinsey is doing. his critics are vocal, but in pure, raw sample data, if you will, people are beginning to question traditional values. traditional sexual practices. that is what kinsey was saying. that americans are doing this
anyhow. and the opinion poll suggests there is some sympathy if not a total embrace, even though this was the dominant idea of anti-communism traditional values. people were beginning to question the cold war, not directly -- more about the values wrapped around the cold war ideology. and kinsey's data is sort of nonjudgmental. he is not condemning anyone, not condemning a woman who committed ogletree or not condemning someone who had -- who committed adultery or not condemning someone who had a same-sex relationship. he is simply reporting the data and accepting it. but in a sense, acceptance is the beginning of the acceptance of a more diverse outlook in
terms of sexual practices. we would say that today. he may have not said it exactly the way i just said it, but that was what he was doing. he was challenging what was perceived to be the norm. the norm from which you were not expected to deviate. a cartoon from "the new yorker." of course, the good women in the cartoon from upper montclair, new jersey, suggesting an upper-class setting. they are aghast at what kinsey had done -- and the one woman is saying "well, i am sure dr. kinsey never spoke to anyone in upper montclair." suggesting that he took his data from less reputable places in the united states, not this virtuous community. margaret sanger was another adult who began to bring to bear challenges to the norms of
sexual practice. she was a social worker who had , early in the 20th century, worked with poor immigrant women in lower manhattan, new york. she was struck by a number of things -- their impoverished conditions, for sure, but also the number of pregnancies these women had and how hard the hardship that came with these people living in crowded conditions, these women especially having so many children, all of the health issues that were involved. and really the medical problems of many of these women trying to induce their own abortions and causing infections from which many were harmed or killed. so she continued her social work with a sympathetic view of women in marriage, a critical view of the domestic arrangements where women have little control of the number of children they were
to bear. she set up ato -- clinic early in the 20th century to pass out birth-control information. it was closed down by officials. birth-control information was seen as a transgression of obscenity laws. information about birth control was seen as obscene, and therefore they shut the clinic down. but over time she kept at it, and she eventually she secured financial support from a philanthropically-minded woman, catherine mccormack, married to a wealthy industrialist in chicago. she was sympathetic. and mccormick provided the necessary or fundamental financing for researchers at inrk university
massachusetts to develop a pill that could block ovulation and lead to -- and finally become the birth control pill, which was finally okayed in the 1960's. it would take time for the use to spread, but the challenge to the notion that women in marriage had to have children or had no control over the number of children she had, etc., really began obviously early than the 1950's, but the development of the pill, the financing and the ideas come together so that the pill becomes one of the things that is happening in the 1950's, as is kinsey's books, challenging this traditional notion of motherhood, childbearing, domestic relations. and if you're going to be talking about a challenge to marriage and conventional sexual
norms in the 1950's, you cannot leave out hugh hefner. does anyone know where hugh hefner went to college? not far away. no, not indiana. but he probably wished he had because he loved the kinsey report. i mean, he devoured the kinsey books. kinsey was telling him all the things he was thinking anyhow, that you did not have to live your adult sexual life through the conventions of marriage. and so hefner, as a veteran back from world war ii, as a student at the university of illinois, started his own magazine in college. he called it "shaft." it had a feature called "coed of the month." he is clearly laying out the blueprint of what will become
eventually, as you all know, "playboy" magazine. he was engrossed with kinsey. he thought kinsey was totally on the right track, his track, to sort of explode the conventional perceptions of what sexual behavior should be. although he was a married guy, a vet, he also began to lose interest in his marriage and eventually moved on from that. first issue of "playboy" was 1953. those are some example issues. marilyn monroe was on the cover. the centerfold of the first issue of "playboy" magazine. there was a picture already being used in a widely circulated on a calendar at the time and he bought the rights. he did not put a date on the very first cover, because he did not know if there would ever be
a second issue. he did not know if he would succeed. they sold 1000 copies of the -thousandold 50-some copies of the first issue and from that on it kept building and growing. and "playboy" was one of those places where these challenges to marriage and conventional sexual norms were being expressed and regularly articulated. the first article in "playboy" was about alimony. and how men should be careful about getting married because eventually a woman would want to divorce you and take from you the money you have earned. i know that is not any of you guys in class, fear of alimony, but that was what "playboy" was preaching at the time, questioning the viability of marriage health. -- viability of marriage itself. saying about half of the readers were "free men" and the other half, the married guys, were
free only in spirit. hefner wrote on the first page that it was not a family magazine. he told women who saw the magazine to pass it on to a man and move on to "ladies home companion." that man who does not want to be tied to family responsibilities and fatherhood is the playboy. "playboy" magazine. the playboy is the man. it is the image. he is interested in pleasure. he is not interested in family roles and responsibilities. he should enjoy sports cars and consumer goods and dating many girls, etc., and all of the pleasure that men can have outside of marriage in a consumer society. he was adapting to this wave of change that was challenging conventional values, and
interestingly, kinsey, sanger, hefner are all questioning marriage. you could say this is not as -- not the rebellion of the 1960's, but it is the beginning of the attack on the entire structure of cold war values and will then devolve and trickle down to the kids to will be part of the counterculture in the 1960's. before we have the counterculture, we have these adults who were questioning the conventional moral prescriptions. the beats. the beats were artists, writers, poets. they became very popular in the 1950's, but they, too, were popular because, in part, they refused to adhere to or to conform to traditional values, which is the theme of the entire discussion. they produced poetry, wrote fiction, but it was about people who were moving from place to
place, were not settled. it was about people who had a number of different sexual encounters. it was about people who had a critical perspective on america. and to have a critical perspective on america, to say -- let's just say you raised the issue of racism or drug use or homosexuality, that was to run the risk of being seen as un-american, not sufficiently patriotic. we had mccarthyism where people were losing their jobs for not being seen as unpatriotic or not practicing conventional, following conventional sexual morals. writers like allen ginsburg, a poet, and jack kerouac, the novelist, were becoming more popular. people were reading their stuff,
but it was about another sort of life in america that was not all that virtuous. was not so patriotic and was willing to question the established authorities of the time, which were mobilizing to fight the communist crusade. that is a picture of jack kerouac. kerouac is on the right, right here. this is his buddy neal cassidy. "on the road" was a sensational bestseller. especially among younger people, college students in the 1950's. it is the story of two men moving across america. they are not fixed to work routines. they are not moving ahead. they are just split up from marriages. there is no domestic bliss here. there is a variety of sexual partners.
they comment on seeing poverty and racism in america. this is not what the true believers of the cold war -- mccarthy for example -- wanted to see and hear in our culture, because it ran against the idea that we were fighting a force in the world -- communism -- that was threatening america and traditional values. it's faith in god, it's solid families, it's virtuous people. that is from ginsburg's poem "howl." those are just excerpts. you can read them and look at them. i saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, dragging themselves through negro streets -- he is being metaphorical. he is trying to create images. the point is, he is talking
about people in america who are adrift, who are drug addicts. there are references to drug addiction and homosexuality. a more disturbing view of america. it is a dissent from traditional values, and that is why it was popular for some, but many people would be quite hostile to what kerouac was writing or what ginsburg was writing. one person who really was -- at this stage, he was 15, 16 years and absorbing a lot of this more critical perspective, and at the time, he is a young person. he become sort of really tuned in to the literature of the beats like ginsburg and kerouac, of course is bob dylan. there he is with ginsburg, and they are buddies.
they are together in greenwich village. there talking a lot. in the 1950's, dylan is reading "howl," "on the road," and he by this influenced stuff. and he will convert into his albums later in the 1960's, but these ideas are in part being drawn from these writers in the 1950's. just as hefner is drawing from kinsey, dylan is drawing from kerouac and ginsburg. i mean, these ideas are spreading. we're not yet at the level of the counterculture in the 1960's, but we are questioning -- at the level of significant dissent from a set of traditional values of the cold war. well, despite the popularity and the controversy of kinsey and
despite the popularity of the beats, etc., if you counted up all of the newsprint that was devoted to a single subject in 1952, 1953, it probably would add up to christine jorgensen being the most-talked about person in america. if you want a story and an example of how an individual advocating nontraditional ways or nontraditional gender roles is making an impact on american culture and society, maybe even more than kinsey, it is pretty hard to top christine jorgensen. what did christine jorgensen do? do you know?
christine jorgensen, like hefner, was a veteran of world war ii. part of the greatest generation. but christine jorgensen decided that he wanted to be a woman and she had a sex change operation -- went to denmark -- and this becomes huge news. this is a veteran back from the war. this is after the operation. and, of course, there could be no greater challenge to be -- the celebration of traditional gender roles than for someone to change their gender completely. kinsey is upsetting the apple cart. sanger is looking for a way to affect marriage. hefner is challenging marriage. jorgenson is more than
challenging marriage. she is challenging the very idea of sexual, gender roles itself. as i said, christine was born george jorgensen, a gi, served in world war ii. always claimed that his desire to be a woman was very overwhelming, powerful and strong. made huge news in 1952 when he had surgery in denmark. apparently, he was the most written about person in the u.s. press in 1953, which reminds of that public opinion poll on kinsey's books where half of the population were sympathetic to opening up the discussion about sexual roles and sexual practices. just look at the interest here in jorgensen's sex change operation. that is substantial. if, in fact, to the extent that that is true, that the most
talked about person in 1953 in the press. and of course, it certainly is a challenge to prescribed roles. gender roles. those are some news clippings, just to give you a flavor or a sample of what people were seeing or reading "ex-gi becomes blonde beauty." "md's rule christine 100% woman." you can see why this got a lot of attention. it was grabbing attention from a lot of other things grabbing attention, like kinsey and hefner, and you can see this percolating in culture and society which is not simply following in lockstep behind the anti-communist crusade. and there are other instances and examples or suggestions that the attitudes of many
americans were changing. look at those, for example those , those points -- single motherhood, increasing significantly. it was more likely between 1940 and 1960 that a woman very child -- that a woman would bear a child out of wedlock. that always happen, but it was happening in increasing numbers. kinsey had a point. people were practicing in ways that did not acknowledged and not realized. and we see much more discussion and even training of physicians in issues of planned parenthood, birth control in the 1950's. it is still controversial. it is not like today. i mean, it is not birth control in any way you want it. it was not prevalent, etc.
there were ways to do that. but the information is now being disseminated. sanger's project was moving forward in the 1950's. medical professionals are being trained in ways, especially from planned parenthood, which was an organization that was started out of the early work of margaret sanger. birth control is one of those issues that is being pushed forward to challenge convention. there is another way to see the persistent,, but evolution of change, or change, within the early 1950's in regard to traditional values, and that is in the polls but the -- that the gallup poll organization and others took of
the time about who the most admired women were in america. usually the most admired man was the president, but the most admired women were women who had careers or women who were working. even though this is an age that has been celebrated as the age of the suburbs, the age of the baby boom, the age of more and more people getting married, etc., when women were asked who they admired most, they admired women who had careers outside the household. almost every year of the 1950's, the most admired woman in america, usually the top of the polls, was eleanor roosevelt. she was the widow of franklin roosevelt, who died right before the end of world war ii. she was an active political
her life, the rest of even before he died, but certainly after he died. she was a delegate to the u.n. in 1946, chair of the united nation's commission on human rights, was part of the committee that drafted the u.n. declaration of human rights issued in 1948. she was an outspoken supporter of liberal causes throughout the 1950's, and it would be fair to say she was something of a liberal political icon in the 1950's. but she wasn't on the most admired list because she was a liberal icon. she was on the most admired list because she was a woman with a highly public career. that is a photograph actually of eleanor roosevelt visiting with herman wells, the president of indiana university. that was here in bloomington in 1950, right between the publication of kinsey's first book and second book. while kinsey is working on his
second book, and i do not know if kinsey came out with any reception or celebration for eleanor roosevelt -- she was here and emblematic of everywhere she went of women finding active careers outside traditional marriage. another woman who often appeared on these lists in the 1950's was clare booth luce. again, we get the idea of the interest that women, even though domestic arrangements predominated the way most men and women were living there adult lives, domestic marital relations, clare booth luce -- she was married to the owner of "time" magazine. but she is also widely admired
because she has a public career. she served in congress, she was a writer, she advocated careers for women. she was a journalist in world war ii. she wrote from the war zones, widely admired. these women are suggesting, as of the public opinion response to kinsey's books and the popular interest to christine jurgensen -- jorgensen, that while people may be living under these rubrics of traditional values are thinking quite strongly about and are interested in some, if not all, of the alternatives. and, finally, there is the interesting and unpredictable or unintended, perhaps, consequence of this growing desire for consumer goods within married
families themselves. and the point here is this. we know that, after world war ii, there was this wave of marriages, pregnancies, births, homebuying, suburbanization, and this consumerism. remember, i said this earlier, during the war, americans were only producing war goods. planes, tanks, guns. tvy were not producing cars, sets, new housing, all of that consumer stuff. and during world war ii, people were working, but they did not have opportunities to spend the money they made. so that pent-up savings were increasing. they were eager to start buying in the return to consumer production after the end of the war. in this new consumer system taking hold after the war, women are getting married.
they are getting married earlier and, therefore, they are trying to stop or end their child-bearing earlier. earlier pregnancies and to try to end pregnancies and look for other opportunities within their married life. they are not necessarily moving out of their marriages, but they are now, increasingly in the 1950's, looking for jobs outside their traditional domestic relations jobs that will allow , them to earn the extra money this television set here, the sort of quintessential image of the contented consumerist traditional 1950's family. or cars or furniture for the house. so, consumerism, in a sense, is beginning to propel some women out of their traditional
domestic lives and into looking for part-time or full-time jobs. there's a steady increase of women working outside the home throughout the 1950's and that is consistent with what we see. we see in this first decade or more of the cold war and this effort to bring together americans behind the banner of anti-communism, the banner of traditional values, we see an underlying sense of dissent or change or discontent or stepping back from those values. kinsey exposes the fact that we do not practice what we preach. sanger wants to challenge traditional notions of married women as simply being mother after mother after mother. hefner wants to challenge marriage completely and
celebrate alternative lifestyles for men. people are fascinated by sex change operations, starting to leave the home for consumer goods. women are widely admiring other women who work outside the home. while the overlay of the cold war 1950's is grounded in patriotism, heterosexuality, traditional values, religion, marriage, motherhood, and fatherhood, the underlay, the undercurrent is going in a slightly different direction. and as you will see as we move in the weeks ahead, this sort of crack in the cold war edifice begins with challenging and changing perspectives of sexual behavior. eventually it will become more political. eventually it will deal with more racial issues and
eventually it will explode in the 1960's. but the seedbed of the counterculture of the 1960's , which totally challenges the cold war, can be quite seen quite clearly in the early efforts of these dissenters from traditional sexual and cultural values in the 1940's and 1950's. that is our lecture today. i thank you all for attending. are there any questions before we finish? ok. see you next week. thank you. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every .eekend, on c-span3 to join the conversation, like us on facebook.