tv Richmond in 1865 CSPAN April 5, 2015 11:03am-12:01pm EDT
one thing that he is well known for is his website, civil war richmond. if you have not seen that, you really need to go there and look at it. i tell my students that this is about one of the best websites related to the civil war i have ever seen. i did an article on civil war hospitals and got a lot of good stuff from his website. definitely go see that. mike served as technical advisor on the set of steven spielberg's lincoln, and also served as technical advisor for the movie free state jones with matthew mcconaughey. he has been involved in those types of activities. also he has done an article -- i
yesterday got the magazine of virginia history and biography. the new issue is on lincoln's visit to richmond at the end of the war. there is an excellent article. the talk this evening is on photo forensics. richmond, 1865. please welcome him. [applause] michael gorman: i am miced up. can anybody hear me? i hate podiums. first things first. was anybody here for the last time i spoke in 2010? wow. we got some new people and some veterans. this is great. i was thinking about, what did i talk about in 2010? i don't remember. so this is a completely new taking what i love to do
picking apart the photographs. finding the stories within them. the best of. there are over 500 images i could show you. i am showing you about 60. if you want more, we will hang out sometime and do that. [applause] [laughter] photo forensics. you might also call this a love letter to the library of congress. the reason is, in 2003 or so the library of congress digitized their original negatives and put them online with stupid resolution. you can go in and see individual blades of grass. this has revolutionized what we do u.s. historians especially visual historians. you have the same memory as me. how did you approach the civil
war? the golden book. remember that? i must have spent hours looking at those things. and every single one would have a view of ruins of richmond. where? it is a big town. what are we looking at? as i got older, it was easy for me to morph that childish curiosity into a historian's position. it is great because it pays the bills. you might describe this as professional geekery. to kick this off, i would like to show you this monument to my lack of a life. it is a map that shows all the shooting locations for the firms that visited richmond.
you can see a lot of the trends that brought photographers into richmond. remember all the photographers , on the east coast were flocking to richmond. tracy just told you about petersburg. petersburg and richmond. are you wondering why there is no photograph of the surrendering to grant -- lee surrendering to grant? the obvious one, the shot of the century, the greatest photograph there never was. because every photographer in the east had made their way to richmond and was there when lee surrendered to grant. sorry, appomattox folks. we win. all right, so how did you make these things? gosh, it is right rbright in here
can we bring down the lights? how do we make these images? there we go. back then, almost all photographs made during the civil war were made in 3-d. the process, you have seen them. they are called stereo views. remember these? yeah, you are geeks, too. when you look in those coming can see in 3-d. first, you have to expose the plate. that is what the actual negative is going to look like. you have two images, slight variations. your left eye versus your right eye. camera one camera two. same thing. you can see that there is a little bit more over here. slightly different images. they are going to take that, develop it, print it, and mount it on the stereo card which is how it would be sold.
this width right here is three inches. that is how you would have seen them in 1865. small. tiny. almost ridiculously small. but you would see it in 3-d, which is cool. some day, i will have to come back and do my 3-d show. tonight, we will use these as documents themselves. we will jump inside and play this way, by blowing them up and seeing what the photographer saw. this is about as close as we will get to a time machine. yeah, this is a staged photograph. you don't believe me? look at these guys. you think they were just hanging around it just like that? [laughter] these kids just stopped where they were? and look at these guys, the soldiers. oh geez, there is a been going on over there. a lot of them are doing their napoleon. this is what they wanted you to see. the things i love, and we will
play with this over and over again, are things that don't go well. like this. a kid with a dog doing what dogs do. he is not sitting still. the kid is trying to keep him still, but it doesn't work. he is blurry. these guys are in the picture but not the kid with the dog. you have the guys looking back at us in 1865. they have captured richmond. they are part of the garrison forces. this photograph was probably made after lincoln was assassinated. think of what they have just seen. it has just happened, and it's happening to them, and this is that window in time. why don't we start where i often
work. why not? the ironworks. this is the main visitor center for the richmond battlefield national park. the most reproduced in of the ironworks. you see an awful lot that is important. this is after the evacuation fire. jefferson davis got the famous telegram. having to evacuate the city. well, on the way out, the confederates set fire to warehouses and factories and it got out of control. when i refer to the evacuation fire, that is what i am talking about. the fire that occurred on april, three, 1865. you can see some of the ruins over here. but the ironworks remained intact. lucky for them. also over here on the left of the image, go back, come on. ok. imagine that incredible shot
this is the laboratory building. it had all these wooden structures on it. that is where they were making things explosive. powder. everything was coming off of there. it completely escaped the evacuation fire. which was ironic, because in 1863, it did blow up because of a workers accident. a little girl working there caused an explosion that killed 69 colleagues. over there, the laboratory, now, it is intact. what is cool about this, especially from today? you have all the sites you can see. begun foundry which is now the american civil war museum. the merger with the museum of the confederacy. the unfinished roof, that is where i work. it is always need to see neat to see
a place you are familiar with in an 1865 photograph. that is chock of exhibits and displays. this one like i say, kind of annoys me. i prefer this one, up on the richmond and petersburg embankment. this thing here is a burned out gate onto a bridge which is burned out as well. you are looking over the ruins of the confederate arsenal or armory. these three sites this is , essentially be warmaking heart of the confederacy. without this, without what you are looking at in this image there is no war. it is that simple. now you are overlooking these ruins after the fire. of course, i like blowing things up. that sounded wrong, didn't it? [laughter] you know what i meant. now you can see the laboratory
buildings. you get a sense of orderliness cleanliness, and professionalism. to show you how almost insanely clear these things are, remember these negatives are about this big. the lens is this big. they are getting deep focus without necessarily intending to. you can see about a mile away, james monroe's tomb. you cannot do this today. that is what enables us to reach inside these images. look deeper. and find the story. all right.
nearby, the photographers went across the river. there are the in buckman's of the bridge. they took this amazing shot which i love. you know what i'm going to do. look at these people. think about the week they have had. these are african-americans, probably former slaves. you think they were just sitting there, having a picnic when the photographer rolled up? this is completely put together. what is powerful about this. that the photographers considered themselves not photographers like we consider ourselves. they are trying to show you something, but it is their art.
we had to take them on their terms and understand this is not documentarian, this is art. the ruined bridge. the ironworks. see it back there? this is sending you a message. who is out front now? he has definitely got a message here. reminding you -- this is the current issue. art propaganda, sure. , does that surprise you? i am ok with it. what we might consider neutral journalism did not exist back then. moving on, nearby to bill isle. i'm sure some of you have encountered bell isle before. these were the big confederate prisons. i cannot resist putting this in my show, even though it is 1860 -- 1863.
yes, this is a wartime image of richmond. it drives me crazy. they photographer climbed this fill and got an amazing view. but look off in the background. this is downtown. this is downtown richmond. it is going to burn in 1865. his negatives do not survive. i cannot blow this thing up. i can just pick things out in the hazy mist. there are two flour mills. on the right, the confederate capital. it is actually acting as the a capitol. you can see the laboratory and the richmond and petersburg railroad ridge, long before it turned to cinders.
in 1865, another photographer got up there. i'm sure he did not know this, but almost the exact same to view. this is two years later. you can see the gun overlooking the camp, now empty. there is all the downtown we just described. over here, right there, that is all that is left of the mammoth flour mills. there is the untouched state capital overlooking this city of ruin. over there is the intact laboratory that we saw. where did the bridge go? it is just gone. photographers found bell island attractive. what greater message could you send? you climb this hill to get this view of that.
this symbolic confederate capital. this is propaganda at its height. you are going to say, we didn't know about the terrors and and starvation at belle isle. you knew. you could see it from the hill . that is the message. you think he just happened to plop down his camera? think that was an accident? you think he just happened to come across somebody weeping in the grave in the cemetery? of course not. we know who that is. that is his assistant. this is the bell isle cemetery. again, there is the capital residing over the city.
this is grabbing at the heart and twisting. i understand the art. what intrigues me is some of you might be able to see, right in here, we have a legible tombstones. you can read them. actual men who died on bell isle. buried side-by-side and removed to the richmond national cemetery. you can go and see their graves there today. i love that they are still to -- right next to each other. i find that stuff fascinating. they are there and you can see them today, always intrigues me. this one makes me angry. the reason is there is not one photograph of the ring of forts, enormous forts, that surrounded richmond during the war. this cameraman went up a hill,
100 feet up a hill, and stood with his back to one of the forts. turn around. it drives me crazy. if you took this relatively mundane shot of bell isle from the south side. he was determined to make lemonade out of lemons, there is a nice skyline. here is treasure. there it is. that there, right there, is my visitor center. in fact, our desk is right in there. scrolling through, you have the foundry building. right next door you can see the big smokestack. the armory mill. moving up the hill, second
presbyterian church. a famous preacher preached there. when jackson came to richmond, he attended two services there , but they will tell you all about it forever. my favorite building of all time is in this shot. pratt castle. i love insane architecture. this guy, he made his bones as a photographer, before the civil war. he built this actual castle up there on the hill. very mad architecture. glass panes and secret rooms. let's talk about it. look at this guy. don't you want one? i do. can you imagine this any winter -- in the winter?
talk about pretentious and ostentatious. apparently, he designed it himself. photographers came here to shoot, not just because it is a prominent hill, but because they knew who he was. by this time, he was gone. at least one photographer saw the possibilities of this turret. alexander gardner got up there on april 6. think about what is going on while this is being made. he made a five plate panoramic. thanks to the magic of powerpoint, i'm going to show you left to right in 1865. if this doesn't do it for you, i can't really help you.
there we have the capital. i love that you can see the spotswood hotel and the customs house. look at everything else, gone. here is the big canal basin. we are coming up now on the richmond and petersburg and -- embankment. on the right, the armory. i think it has seen better days. don't you? and there is the laboratory. if he had taken one more stinking plate, over to the right would be the ironworks. but i can't complain. think how long it would take to make five plates and to do it again in stereo. some poor slob is going to have to run that down to start developing it. run up a fresh plate. do it again. you are talking all day.
truly a feat of photography. we talked about the canal basin, which was the basin for the james river canal. but photographers found the possibility of this thing irresistible. it is a big lake, three blocks wide, right in the middle of downtown richmond, amongst the ruins. you can see why you would want to take a shot from there. wow. this if you ask me is the shot , you are looking for. for the photographers, this is money. why? right there. it is almost impossible during the civil war to photograph motion. the reason is the exposure time of these photographs could be as long as 10 seconds. anything moving is going to blur.
for the flag, it has to hold in place. he gets the shot. what is interesting about this is that you're are strolling around looking at the other national archive images, and you notice something in the corner. somebody has seen my show before. what this is is a nasty dead horse. floating in the canal basin. i'm not pointing this out to be gross. this nasty dead horse told me something. the theme of this talk is photo forensics. i will show you what you mean. take a look at the horse. now watch. wow. he was over there and now he is here. what have we got? two different images. with the photographer is doing is what you would do if you were trying to get the shot.
did we get it? we will try to take it again. maybe 0.5 minute between the shots. the wind is also pushing the horse across the canal basin. you think to yourself, i have two shots from the same place within seconds of each other. here we go, folks. motion. from the civil war. nothing to it, folks. >> is it still alive?
michael gorman: if it is still alive, somebody put it out of its misery. you can see this door opening for ever. little things happening. look at the wind, blowing through the trees. little bits of life. the difference of 30 seconds or maybe a little more between the shots. the life coming right back at you through the window in time. these are not people putting on napoleons. this is accidental. they don't know they are being photographed. they certainly don't know some geek is going to come along 150 years later and make a movie out of it. it won't be the last time that we play that way. capital square, what could be more symbolic than this? come on, this is the tangible symbol that the war is coming to a close.
everybody needs the shot of the capital. what i find entertaining is somebody you have heard about is in the image. matthew brady. brady by this time, we think he was suffering from a degenerative sight problem, but that is ok. his name was synonymous with photography. you would actually say, i'm going to have my brady made. i give a good interpretive talk folks, but i don't pick you up or say, i'm going to do a gorman. -- i don't think you're ever going to say, i'm going to do a gorman. it is like the where's waldo of the civil war. he loves to put himself in the image. it becomes fun to pick him out.
the long, black coat. we will see him again. but capital square was and is a photographic mecca. of course, you have to take a picture of the governor's mansion. look at that. the trees are starting to come into bloom. well this one is a bit of a trick, but there he is. this one, there is so much to like. gardner's crew shooting towards old city hall. you see a crowd of union soldiers resting in the trees. here they all are. hanging out, chilling out.
what is going on here? two pantless yankees running round capital square? [laughter] maybe it is good that they are not in the image. i bet some of you are wondering, what is going on? me, too. the focus is just out enough so that when you blow it up, you do not get much better. there are only so many letter combinations that could make that happen, so i sat down with an adult beverage and said, i'm going to figure it out. i came up with it, folks. looking there, it actually translates to, keep off the grass. do not sleep. the groundskeeper must have been having a bad day. there they are, just hanging out in capital square. in fact we think this was taken
, two days before lincoln's assassination. a lot is going to change. they don't know that yet. same situation, same day. the washington monument on capital square. anybody know why this is important to confederate symbolism? it is the confederate seal. if you look at the seal of the confederate states of america, that is it. a statue of george washington. both sides wrapped themselves in revolutionary war symbolism. the confederacy was no different. here you have union and confederate soldiers milling about on capital square, some back from appomattox. others who were gobbled up during the retreat. it is just calm. they have taken their parole. what i love about this, so much so that i cannot get over this. you can actually watch -- the moves the camera about five
feet. i could kick him for this. otherwise, we would have a movie. you can see the crafting of an image by looking at this one made shortly after. watch the hand of the artist. which one is better? he was really working for this. would you stand up, sir? how about on your arm? constructing a scene, just like a painter would. exactly like a painter. when i look at this, it did resembled a painting. it seemed something very familiar. ok. how about this? am i going to sit here and tell
you he was a photo geek and looked at the photo? no, but it is the same principles that motivate a painter. they are exactly the same. look at it all. the strong central vertical. this one with her skirt out. the creepiest one, this guy on his arm. same principles. it is art, not a document. libby prison. the most photographed building in richmond without a doubt. the problem i have is there are 100 or more shots and most of them are of this corner. i could go on. [laughter]
i find that corner annoying, but it is important to understand. it is completely overdone. let's see some of the more interesting bits which do not show that corner. this one brought at extreme personal expense. the negative does not survive, even though it should. it should be in the library of congress. it's not. some fool probably dropped it along the line and it shattered into one million pieces. the only way to do it is to buy an original, which i did. what i love about this, let me blow it up. the only good reason for this. i talked about how this is art. in this case, it is documenting something. this is showing the important sites of the libby prison escape.
february 1864, the largest prison break ever. 109 men escaped through a title. they popped up behind the building. everyone of them escaped out that door. no other reason for that door to be in the shot. he is giving us the details and struck gold. if this negative had survived, it would be produced all over the place and we would know it better. sadly, only geeks like me get to see it. now like you. there is what i am talking about. the prison, the tunnel, the door . all in the same image. my favorite view by far, is of the notorious corner. here we have -- if anybody wants to tell you how sweet smelling
and lovely it would have been in the past, remember these. try to keep that perspective in mind. what we have got here, we have got a group of union soldiers outside libby prison. there is a guy resting in the window. these kids sitting there. a wonderful shot that shows real-life happening at libby window. if you are like me, you're looking at the rest of the images and you see it change. i feel a movie coming on. i am obsessed with these kids. let's take a look.
i have never looked that cool in a photograph ever. these kids are so cool, i made them my mascot. they are on my website. the kid on the left, you look at him. if you stare at this long enough, you start to wonder about what were their lives like. the kid on the left, i think he is a lollipop guild candidate for sure. this one blew my mind. it is marlon brando. it is the same pose. he's got his hand there, too cool for school. it's the same thing. everybody is saying, brando is the wild one. he's got him beat by 100 years. those kids, i wish i knew who they were. think about their lives, all they have known has been war.
st. john's church. who knows why it is important? give me liberty or give me death, or whatever he actually said. a lot of the photographers were taking this to show people of the north, this is it. so much so that brady could not resist and put himself in the image. this is my favorite grouping of shots. this is st. john's church. mission accomplished. we also have these kids. let's put them against the wall and have them stand still. a lot of clues show you why it is such a cool shot. the negative box for brady's crew. that is his darkroom wagon.
who doesn't know a kid just like that? all his buddies are against the wall. he is in front with a big grin. the reason they are up against the wall is because they were trying to keep the kids still. so they could be photographed. did it work? this guy is a horror show. he has two faces. every single one of them is moving. they are doing what kids do. they could not be still for five seconds. there are my children of st. john's church. but wait, there is more. oh yeah. i've got you. just in. oh, you want to see the kids up close?
of course you do. i find this interesting. he appears and disappears. why? i don't know. there they go. now they put them all in there like they are a criminal line up. there is the grinning kid, he has been disciplined. he's back there. all right. this is the image that launched a thousand ships, as far as i am concerned. the first time i was able to make an important point using an image. what is so neat about this is that this has been reproduced 100 times. the caption is, hollywood cemetery. does this look like hollywood cemetery to you? no. me neither. i was like, i don't know. i noticed that over here on the right, you will see you can read the headboards. it says george w dawson 11th
regiment. i thought i would match him on the register and he is not there. just on a whim, i cracked the oakwood cemetery roster. and there he is. this was the first time i was able to say, these captions are not necessarily correct. we have got to go back and look at these and find the real story so we know what this is. it is important to know. you can visit private dawson's grave and stand with the photograph and match it up. that was the first one i did. and the rest is history. all right. strolling around downtown richmond, and we will bring this ship in. i'm going to put this out there. nobody has seen it before. until last week, i had never seen it. if you have seen it before, you
should start talking to me. this image was on the library of congress site for years and years. i could not place it in major catalogs. who took it? what is it? i got the location. you can see the engine on the tracks. we are close to the richard and -- richmond and petersburg depot. last week, you will notice fires are still burning. this was very soon thereafter. two weeks ago, my friend bob sent me one of these over the transom e-mails. attached was an e-mail from a guy named hathaway. he showed me this and i instantly recognized this is a panorama. here is the original image. here is the new one. blending them together, you have
for the first time ever the panorama just west of the richmond petersburg railroad. i don't know why he took it, but it is cool and you are the first to see it. if you did not enjoy that, good night, folks. [laughter] this is what i live for. finding these things, putting them back together, putting them in context geographically and also timewise. this proves hathaway was probably the first photographer into richmond. it was probably made april 4 1865. that means that abraham lincoln was probably in town when he was making the photograph. go somewhere and take a picture of him. that is the greatest picture that never was. can you imagine, abraham lincoln on the steps of the capitol? but it did not happen. downtown richmond, at least the part where the evacuation fire occurred, this looks like
berlin. after the b-17s went by. it gives people the impression that all of richmond burned out. wrong. wrong. wrong. don't believe that. if you are a photographer, are you going to want to take pictures of this or the untouched houses? i know what i'm going to pick. we do it today. we have tanks rolling into baghdad. we don't want to see the order and peacefulness. this is visual. this is what you want. you will see this particular ruin. and then this door like thing. you have seen that before. countless times. there is that wall. right there. i was able to find the original caption. view of ruins, richmond, from
main street. looking down 14th street, april 8, 1865. lee's army still on the field. lincoln still very much alive. all of this, that big week has yet to occur with the exception of the evacuation of richmond. how many of you have seen the caption, women mourning the deaths of the confederacy? they are still out there. the confederacy is not dead. they are just wearing dark dresses. they could be in mourning for all i know, but it shows how far we go to make ourselves the story. knowing the caption, you get the actual one. nearby was the ruins of the exchange bank. the exchange bank was one of several that burned during the evacuation fire. it is a pretty boring shot until you dig in.
if you look here, you will see civil war soldier graffiti. a cartoon of two guys boxing. one is described as u.s. grant. this is nothing new. we do it today. we might as well. [laughter] direct connection to the past. gardner was politically active and an abolitionist. when he constructed this image he is definitely making a statement. look at this. are you going to say he is not a man? that the family around his feet are somehow less than yours? they may not have shoes like you, but they want the same things. could you even imagine a more patriarchal scene than this?
i would love to have my family like that. he is giving it to him, but he is also pointing at the northern people, saying, this is what it has been about. from an abolitionist point of view, this is powerful. that is why gardner's images are particularly interesting because he is always trying to needle in a political point and in this case it is right between the eyes. coming to the end, the white house of the confederacy. which i'm sure some of you have visited. it is open to the public. you can only really shoot it from this angle. that is a problem now, because if you match it up, all you see are the hospital buildings. it is rather depressing. in 1865, you can see that he has constructed a man, standing next to the light pole. brady himself. there he is again. i'm not so much interested in
mr. brady as who is in the house. the union commander in richmond is major general -- if anybody is casting about, that could work for your grandchild. it needs to come back in a big way. anyways, look at the caption. wife and child at the mention formerly occupied by jeff davis. on the doorway is the table on which the surrender is signed. it is now a photographic prop. look at the girl, daddy's knee and mother's chair. she is locked in. she gets in the photograph. some thing else, the preoccupation with her
cardiovascular health. i don't understand this gesture. look how they solved the problem of keeping the little girl still. put your head on daddy's shoulder. so charming. ord is not going to escape my joking. here he is with his staff, on the back porch of the confederacy white house. then you will find a slightly different shot. oh yeah, we have a movie coming on. this fascinates me on a number of levels. look at this guy's pants. untucked, tucked. untucked, tucked. why? what was so important about it? i've got nothing but it is neat to see. you are watching the construction of the image.
take your hats off. thank you. put your hands in your pockets. why? but you get that sense, the construction of art. this is the only chance we get to see inside with the artist, the photographer, was thinking. let's wrap it up at the lee house. which has got some great stuff. once lee arrived in richmond kind of bad timing. he arrived on april 15, 1865. anybody see a problem with that? bad day to be showing up in richmond. the news of lincoln's death is now crossing the globe. interesting point, and i cannot prove they are connected, but the news was embargoed a whole day. it did not get to richmond until april 16. i believe the reason was they wanted to make sure he got into the city without incident. one can imagine a scenario where he was met by a hostile crowd.
mercifully, that did not happened happened. all the photographers could do he has all the windows shut. the first news he gets, he comes back to this house. the end of his military career. he takes off his uniform and hugs his wife. and then somebody comes and tells him the president is dead. can you imagine? so he knows that everybody is going to want to see him. he is not seeing anybody until matthew brady shows up and convinces him, one last time, to put on the uniform and show the world. if matthew brady is photographing you behind your franklin street home, it is over. this is the general working with brady to deliberately construct an image that will go around the world. what is interesting about this it is funny.
every guy knows, white soxcks, black shoes. don't do it. that's probably why in the margin, the photographer scratched, don't use. look at them constructing the image together. the general doesn't look particularly good, so don't use it. let stand him up and get one that is better. not quite there, though. move, sir, thank you. just so the head is in the middle of the cross. the image that has gone around the world. even this has a forensic secret. the devil is in the details. some angry union soldier scratched here, devil. the image was scratched april 20.
there were union soldiers that felt that way about lee. sure. i understand. remember how we felt after 9/11? scared fearful angry. same thing. that is what lee and brady are conspiring to take on. it is over. you don't have to hurt us anymore. these images, as we have seen time and again, it is so easy to focus on lee or grant. when you look with the eyes we can, you can see people who look like us. you and me. people who once had aspirations and dreams for the future, just like you and me. all you've got to do is go to the library of congress, the national archives, and look. when you do you will see a world , that looks like ours. and people that look like us. sometimes, well -- sometimes,
a little too much like us. [laughter] thank you very much. [applause] >> now you can see why i say that is one of the coolest civil war programs there is. we have the microphones. a couple of questions? >> lay it on me. >> hi, i am susan. we were fortunate enough to see your 3-d at the civil war roundtable. >> i will have to come back. >> i have to tell you, it is one of the best shows we have ever had. i read the article that patrick was referring to in the virginia historical society magazine. finished it last night. michael gorman: what did you think? >> i loved it.
absolutely loved it. michael gorman: did you get your check? >> not yet. i heard you say it was in the mail. my question is, you were talking about lincoln coming into the city. the difficulties they had trying to find a place for him to land. so you indicated they came into a sand barge. now from the pictures we just saw, was that sand barge in any of those pictures? michael gorman: she is referring to when lincoln and his entourage were coming to the city, nobody knew where to go or land. so they eventually put him in a sand barge, which is the most humble thing you can imagine a president coming in. it is photographed. i did not included in the show
which i'm kicking myself for. as you can see, there are only so many i could focus on. when i get off the stage, track me down and i will show you the image. it is literally just a sand bar. it does help you understand that when he landed, nobody saw him. and then every buddy saw him. any other questions? lincoln or otherwise? again folks, i hope you enjoyed it. it is always fun for me to show this stuff off. thank you for coming. enjoy the rest of the seminar. [applause] >> with live coverage of the u.s. house, here on c-span three we complement that coverage by showing you the most relevant congressional hearings and public affairs events. on weekends, c-span three is home to american history tv with programs that tell our nation story, including six unique series.
the civil war's 150th anniversary of visiting battlefields and events, artifacts, touring museums and his stork sites to discover what artifacts reveal about america's have passed, history bookshelf the presidency, looking a policies and legacies of our nation's commanders in chief lectures and history, with top college professors doping into america's past, and our new series railamerica, featuring government and educational films from the 1930's through the 1970's. c-span three, created by the cable tv industry and funded by your local or cable satellite provider. >> this weekend, the c-span cities to her has partnered with cox communications to worry about the history and literary life of tulsa, oklahoma. >> frank phillips was an auto man. philip 66 was a company he founded just north of us here and toss the -- in tulsa
oklahoma. it became the headquarters for phillips 66. today, you still see the familiar shield, phillips 66 has become a familiar -- as familiar to many people out here. it is iconic in the mind of motorists. he was part of that flamboyant oil fraternity that came out of the early -- late 19th century and into the 20th century and flourish. these were men who had amazingly solid egos. they were very sure of themselves, and that was very important. but he was human. that is all part of the story the good, the bad, the ugly, but
he was many things, that always first and foremost he was an oilman. >> watch all of our events today at 2:00 p.m. eastern on c-span three. >> monday night on "the communicators" and author on cloud storage and big data, and how the government is using it. >> national security, you can see, is building one of the largest cloud data centers in a facility in utah. it is doing so because it's surveillance needs require that level of storage and security. the u.s. government's chief information officer, three or four years ago ordered