tv Forgotten Surrenders of the Civil War CSPAN April 7, 2015 9:59pm-11:01pm EDT
image that is. it really helped you understand when he landed nobody saw him and he crested and everybody saw him. any other questions? lincoln or otherwise. i hope you enjoyed it. it's always fun for me to show this stuff off and thank you for coming. enjoy the rest of it. at 8:00 the battle of sailor's
creek. it's all wednesday night starting at 8:00 eastern here on cspan 3. this sunday on q and a, senior editor for the weekly standard andrew ferguson on his writing career, the gop presidential candidates for 2016 and what voters are looking for in a candidate. >> they want somebody who looks like he's stood up for them. i'm amazed now to the degree to which primary voters on both sides are motivated by resentment and the sense of being put upon and those people really don't understand us. here is a guy, he's going to stick it to them. hillary clinton will give her own version of that kind of thing. i don't think that was actually
true 30 years ago. the resentiment has always been part of politics but the degree to which it's almost exclusively the motivating factor in truly committed republicans and democrats. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern and pacific on c-span's q and a. american history tv recently visited longwood university in farmville, virginia for a seminar on the closing of the civil war in 1865. as well as the closing activities in the transmississippi area. this is about an hour. >> i want to go ahead and
introduce our speaker. our first speaker for the morning. robert dunkerly. he's worked at nine different historic sites. most recently at richmond national battlefield park and he has written two books that aren't specifically listed. i'm sure he'll be talking a lot about them today. one of them in the for sale bookstores. the final surrenders in north carolina elsewhere and the other one is the confederate surrender at greensburg.
the final days of the army of tennessee. his talk to will been on the forgotten surrender and indian territory. since i did my dissertation on florida, i hope he'll mention florida a few times. burt dunkerly. [ applause ] >> thank you. >> good morning. i want to thank the organizers for having me. i really appreciate the invitation. it's great to be here with so many people interested in this topic. what i'd like to do is talk about all the surrenders. i do want to compare the
surrenders and talk about how different they are because each of them unfolded in its own way and each of these surrenders happens independently and they each have a fascinating story and talk about how this whole ending of the war is going to set the stage for reconstruction. all right. we're not going to spend a lot of time on appamatix. the couple of points i do want to make is the campaign for all participants is going to be pretty grueling. as the armies move from richmond and petersburg to the west they're going to be marching and fighting every day.
think about the state of the roads and the armies especially the confederate armies which for the last several months has been pretty static in the trenches around petersburg and richmond. all of a sudden the army has to be mobile and you've got to move horses and wagons artillery pieces and the soldiers themselves pulling them out of earth works, getting them on the road. just that in and of itself is a challenge and in keeping the army moving, keeping it together. as you all know things will unravel along the way. what confederate soldier wrote day and night blended together. it was just constant action. there will be skirmishing in the few actual battles every day of the campaign. another confederate soldier wrote that night and day blended together. it was constant marching. if we weren't marching, we were
fighting. if we weren't fighting, we were marching. even union accounts of the campaign talk about the hard marches and the long days on very bad roads. on the map here behind me, it's a busy map, you can see the movement of the armies that cover a lot of ground. it's going to be several battles along the way. by the time the armies actually get to appomattox they've got a good bit of fighting. they've been in constant contact. when they arrive there's even going to be a final battle on the day of the surrender. no one knew there was going to be a surrender that day on the morning of april 9th. here we are at sailor's creek. largest battle of the campaign 8,000 confederate soldiers
captured this one day. eight generals. it's a disaster for the army of northern virginia. as the army of nevada drifts into appomattox courthouse, union cavalry has gotten in front of the confederate army blocking the road they intend to use. i need to point out the goal all along for robert e. lee is to get the army of northern virginia down into north carolina. that was hit objective upon leaving richmond and petersburg and that never changed. lee can't make that turn to the south because union forces keep blocking the way. the union armies are pursuing lee behind him but they have also gotten around in front of him by the time they get to appomattox courthouse. this map shows the final battle which takes place on the morning of april 9th. confederates initially pushed the union troopers back but as
republican reenforcements arrive they realize they cannot breakthrough and the army surrounded on three sides with the river on the other side. lee and grant will meet that very afternoon of april 9th. one of the things that makes the appomattox surrender unique is we have this active campaign and right up to the last minute there was fighting. we don't know who the last casualty was. there's probably no way to know because fighting spread out all around the village. one of the possible candidates is 18-year-old william montgomery montgomery, a soldier if pittsburgh, pennsylvania. that's his photograph there. as the flags go out around 10:30 and fighting dies down, both sides are going to have a chance the pause and catch their
breath. mentally for the confederates this is the first time they've had to process things because think about a grueling week. i think we've all been in situations where you push yourself, you have several long days and you start to lose track of things. you start to make bad decisions. you're fatigued mentally and physically. that's the state these soldiers are in. when word comes out there's been a flag of troops and general lee is going to meet with general grant, it's a shock. it really shakes them to their foundation. it's really hard to accept. been fighting constantly and all of a sudden their war is going to be over very quickly. the surrender meeting takes place in the mcclain house, private home which was chosen for the occasion with about a dozen witnesses in a room, and,
of course, when you have a dozen or so witnesses you're going to get a dozen or so different stories. one of the frustrating things is that a lot of accounts don't agree. they agree on a lot of the general details but not necessarily the order of things and some accounts mention one thing. other accounts don't. in general we do understand the flow of the conversation and what the generals talked about. the terms that grant is going to offer to general lee were really inspired by president lincoln who wanted to end the war easily and quickly and in his words let the southerners go home. the confederate soldiers will be allowed to return to their homes. they have to turn over their military equipment. that means surrender their rifles, ammunition any military property like cannons wagons. government property or military property has to be turned over.
then they will be free to go. those terms are accepted and for most people that's what they think of when they think of appomattox. that's really just the beginning because now this whole thing has to be put into motion and the surrender will take place over the next couple of days. here we have the mcclain house, original photograph on the right. the house was torn down later on. talk about that and today the house that you see in the park is a reconstruction on the original location. one of the things that's going to happen is the confederate soldiers will be issued parole passes. these are very important because when lee surrenders most of you probably know this, the war
isn't over. it's just lee surrendering the army of northern virginia. as the confederate soldiers go home they're going to be entering other war zones, places where there's still active fighting. they need some sort of proof that they have surrendered and they have permission to go home. they need that to protect themts themselves from any union troops and any souldldiers that might pick them up. this is the pattern they used. it's called a check pattern. i think you can see why. the parole passes are important for a few other things too. general grant indicated that these passes can be used for transportation on union military railroads and on union navy ships. for a lot of the men who live near working railroads or who can get home by ship, the union
military will transport them and so, for example, a lot of men who lived in the deep south went to norfolk, got on ship, went around the gulf coast and got home that way. the parole passes will be very important for those reasons. they also allowed the soldiers to get food. they can stop at any union supply base and draw rations. they provide protection, rations and transportation if there's transportation where you're going to help them get home. like i said over the next three days the surrender will be put into motion. the first branch that's going to surrender is the cavalry on april 10th. if you're wondering why the cavalry goes first think about how much food a horse eats every day. think about the state of the these confederate horses and
think about appomattox is a small county and doesn't have a lot of resources. these horses are in bad shape and need to get out of there. the next day april 11th the confederate artillery will surrender their guns. that's a process of turning over the artillery to union officers. they had a good bid of artillery with them. probably the most famous part of the surrender of these three days would be the infantry which would surrender their weapons on april 12th. this is a six-hour process. took most of the day for one division at a time of confederate infantry to march into the village and stack their
rifles. lined up along the side of the road is a division of union infantry and this was carried out with great deal of formality and ceremony. the union officer of the day was general joshua chamberlain. the confederate officer of the day is general john gor dan. chamberlain order them to salute the men as as they came in by commanding them to shoulder arms. gordon will have the confederate return the salute shoulder arms as they march into the village. a south carolina unit recognized some troops from maine in front of them.
at the end of the day the union soldiers will have stacks of rifles. some units back in their camps hid their flags, tucked them you should their coats. some money cut the flags up and divided them as souvenirs. some units burned their flags. the third arkansas did something unique. their flag was on a captured union flag staff. when they turned over their flag
they left a note on it that said dear mr. yankee please return this flag staff to the 9th. it was captured in 1864. it was signed big rebel. for the most part this was done with respect on both sides and after the confederates returned to their camp they were issued parole passes and free to start the journey home. the journey home is fascinating topic onto itself. the total for appomattox. the latest total that we have is 28,231 28,231. as you're going to see that is the smallest of the major surrenders. what makes appomattox unique as we talk about the others is both
armies are in contact. we had this horrible ceremonies. we had a series of formal surrenders that take place over a couple of days. the two commanders meet face-to-face. they have one meeting to get everything settled right there. everything else is going to be entirely different as you're going to see. after the war, the mcclain house was dismantled in an attempt to move it and put it on display as a tourist attraction. unfortunately, the house was not moved. funds ran out and it's exposed to the weather and souvenir hunters so the mcclain house really disent grated in this condition.grated in this condition. the original house is gone.
while this is unfolding and some of these events overlap, president davis and his party are retreating south. they've gone to danville to try to set up temporary capital. they keep moving south though. they learn about lee surrender when in greensboro, north carolina. they will keep moving southwest. basically following interstate 85. if you know that route down from charlotte, down into upper south carolina. along the way various members of the confederate cabinet break off. we have just total breakdown. the cavalry escort a lot of that gets dismissed when they get into georgia and south carolina. davis will finally end up just being by himself in a very small escort rejoins his family in
georgia georgia. he's captured on may 10th. that's what's going on that's sort of the background amid these other events. i know you heard yesterday if you were here about the surrender in north carolina. that's going to be the next one that happens. just to cover that very briefly the confederate army in north carolina is the army of tennessee which fought most of its career in the west. the large mantles of shiloh stones river and so on. the army of tennessee is transferred to north carolina to defend the state from general cher sherman's invasion. they fight some small battles, well not small. it's after that in late march into early april that the army of tennessee is being
reorganized. the army commander general johnston will get news richmond has fallen and that lee wants to meet him and unit their forces somewhere near the virginia-north carolina border. the west and end up around greensboro which was a railroad depot and supply base. the army is going to spread out like you see on the map here various camps around greensboro. h is going to be a very different experience than the men of the army of northern virginia. in this case the union army is not in contact with them.
they're pursuing but not very aggressive aggressively. it's that point that sherman and johnston begin to negotiate and exchange communication. they will finally meet face-to-face at the bennett farm which is in durham. that's johnston, left. sherman on the right and in the middle the confederate secretary of war john brecken jjridge. they realize it's over. the confederacy cannot maintain armies in field. they can't produce anything. they can't transport anything. armies have penetrated every corner of the confederacy just about.
they're looking at the big picture and want to try to end this. again with lincoln's vision as quickly and easily as possible. they negotiate a surrender which goes a little bit above what sherman has the short to do. it touches on political matters. for example, it allowed the state governments in the southern states to keep functions as they were with their current governors and legislatures. confederate governments in tact. it went into those kind of things. by the time that sherman and johnston met something very important had happened this washington. lincoln's assassination. the northern congress is in no mood to negotiate. those terms are rejected. in the meantime news has filtered down that we're going to be surrender. we're going to get to go home like lee soldiers did.
that's a relief because lee soldiers have been passing through north carolina on their way home. they've been passing through the camps of the army of tennessee with their parole passes. then these soldiers are going to get the news, no, not yet. fighting is still on. they actually get orders to start to march and possibly engage the enemy. it's at that point that we have a lot of desertion break down in command. some whole units refuse to obey orders of their officers. several confederate officers wrote they never saw anything like it. sherman and johnston will meet again at the bennett farm. sherman is instructed to offer the identical terms that grant gave lee at appomattox. the con fedsfederates will have to turn over their military
equipment. they will get parole passes and they will be free to go. that news will filter down to the common soldiers at camps. unlike the men and women who with harassed for weeks time, fighting a final battle up to the last minute, the men of the tennessee had a very different more frustrating experience because all this uncertainty waiting, long periods of time this they get conflicting information. the war is off then it's on and off again. what we have over several days in mid-april is mass desertion. several thousands of men will desert the army of tennessee. they're taking their weapons with them. we're going to have armied men roaming the country side of north carolina. it's very chaotic and dangerous. here's the interior of the bennett farm. the house is also a
reconstruction. the original house burned down in the 20th century. accidental fire. it's a reconstruction on the original foundation. there is not much in greensboro but there is this nice marker right downtown that talks about the army of tennessee surrender surrendering there. the camps were spread all around the city. some of them have been built over by the city as it's grown. it summarizes the career. there was also a lot of chaos in downtown greensboro itself. warehouses were looted and stores broken into. soldier, drifters people who
have been displaced, refugees. right in downtown greensboro some of the last shots fired by confederate soldiers will be other confederate soldiers who were brought in to maintain law and order. the greensboro surrender is very chaotic. certainly doesn't have that spirit of unification that we think of with appomattox. now, general johnston commanded not just the army of tennessee but he commanded the department of the geographic region that included carolina and florida. he is surrendering 89,000 troops. it's the largest surrender of the civil war. some of the key differences is not there. they're not in physical contact with each other. the confederates are left to do this on their own, self-policing and the men are instructed to
stack their weapons in camp. their issued parole passes and then they are free to go. the parole passes will work the same for them as far as transportation and rations. it's a very different experience. some units will march home with weapons and flags flying in violation of the terms. in fact, johnston had gotten word from president davis who by this time is down near charlotte that he wanted johnston to not surrender to sherman and pull the army back and keep it in the field. johnston had a line of retreat. he could have moved away where as lee was surrounded. that's a key difference. johnston chose the disobey the orders of his commander and chief and negotiate a surrender.
and, of course, unlike appomattox there's no normal ceremony with troops marching in in front of waiting troops. in fact, eventually one regimen is sent in to oversee some of the equipment being turned in. just one, one regiment in the midst of these confederates. one of those officers said it was a very uneasy feeling being surrounded by 40,000 confederates, many of whom are getting drunk and disorderly at night. the next surrender that i want to move to is alabama. on the left here is general richard taylor who commands the department of alabama, mississippi and east louisiana. it embraces everything from the mississippi to the georgia state
line. taylor had gotten heard rumors about what's happening in virginia and north carolina and will finally get confirmation about the other surrenders. the union commander of this department and union department of mississippi is general edward candy on the right there. camby will be the only union general who oversees two surrenders. he's in charge of what happens here and what happens to the trans-mississippi. i want to point out few things on my map. down here is mobile. union army is going to assault the forks protecting mobile on april 9th. while things are happening in appom h appomattox, we have some things happening around mobile. confederates pull that up to
meridian, mississippi. in these towns up here in mississippi and alabama, the army will concentrate. they will capture mobile and start to move into the interior of alabama towards capital montgomery. in late april, having gotten word of what's happened to east, taylor and camby will start to communicate and they will agree to meet between their two armies. the meeting will happen at the big e farm. just like at appomattox in a private home. it was near the railroad tracks. that's why they chose it. they're going to get there in two different ways. general camby will come up with a 2,000-man cavalry escort.
he wants to make a very formal occasion. taylor is going to come down the railroad line with one aid on a railroad hand car being pushed by two slaves. they will meet at the house and very quickly agree to terms. this is the mcgee house. this is the only original surrender location anywhere. it's the only one that survived. it's the original house in the original location with the original furniture inside. those are the chairs and the table. it's a private home. it was open as a museum but didn't have enough visitation to keep open. i got to meet the owner and he took me inside. the problem that we have though
is just like we sherman and johnston, once news of lincoln's a assassination gets out, everything has to stop. the cease-fire will expire. taylor and camby will have to meet again. back to my map. the second meeting will take place just a little to the north in the town of citonelle which is also on the railroad line. this time they get there the opposite way. taylor comes down on train. camby leaves mobile on train but the tracks are broken up and they can't get any further. the confederate train will have to go down and pick them up. the union contention will arrive on a confederate train. this second meeting will take place at the surrender oak.
large oak tree with huge spreading branches. it's the only surrender meeting that takes place outside. this is what it looks like today. the oak tree was lost in a 1906 hurricane. for years it was a local landmark and it's still source of pride for the town. it's a little roadside stop with this historic marker. in this department, taylor has about 42,000 men and at this second meeting which takes place on may 4th taylor will agree to the same terms as at appomattox. the men are paroled and able to go home, turn over their military weapons and equipment. just like with the north carolina situation the confederate troops are camped up here. union army is down here in
mobile and is moving into montgomery. there's no union soldiers in sight when these men laid down their weapons in camp and began the journey home. to the north in upper mississippi, general nathan lee forest had his cavalry command part of this department and forest will disband his cavalry. again, there's no union troops in the vicinity but being under general taylor he's instructed to have his men turn their equipment in and get ready to go home. there's a nice monument here that marks where general forest was camped. that's may 4th. let's move a little more to the west, to the trans-mississippi. the largest geographic
department in the confedaeracy embraces there entire area, arkansas, texas, missouri and the indian territory which today is oklahoma. the commander of this department is general kirby smith. that's not his picture up there. see him later. this is going to be one of the more chaotic events that unfolds. by 1865 the bulk of the confederate army of the trans-mississippi is camped around shreveport louisiana. union forces are down here in port hudson, bayton rouge and new orleans. we're going to have a situation where the two armies are not in contact and the confederates will do what they want to do
without union troops in the vicinity to oversee things. general kirby smith does not want to surrender even though he's getting news about these other events that are going on. the situation is deteriorating rapidly because his men are starting to desert and become disorderly. the confederate troops are from four primary states; texas arkansas, louisiana and missouri. it's the louisiana troop who is are the ones just deserting in droves, large numbers every night because that's where they are and they can get home easily. it seems that the missouri troops are the most loyal or most reliable. on may 21st we're going to have large riot break out. troops will break into warehouses and civilians will
join in in plundering looting, a large amount of drinkenunkenness, very disorderly. what he wants to do is move his army further to the west where he can reorganize it and keep it out of use of union forces. smith wants to move his headquarters to marshall texas. it was an important supply line. it was the capital of the government in exile of arkansas and missouri which are both largely overrun by union forces. also in marshall you had the governors of texas and louisiana. all these governors are gathered there. the governors are actually going to have a meeting and they're
going to give instructions to smith to make as good of terms as he can and they want the terms to say that there will be no revenge or reprisals for anybody involved in the confederate government. they want the soldiers to be able to go home and they want the government officials to be free of any kind of reprisal. they just want to end the fighting like that. sort of have everything that they want. smith never really gets to consider that because as he's in the process of moving from shreveport to marshall things continue to get worse for the army in shreveport. his subordinate has been left in command of the army while he's temporarily away. they realize that they've got to
do something. buckner will move down to hudson to new orleans where he will meet with general camby's representative on the right. on may 26th buckner and osterhouse will negotiate the surrender the trans-mississippi. the meeting took place in the saint charles hotel which you see on the left here in new orleans. it was a city landmark. it's gone today. it's parking lot. there's not even a historic marker at the location. with we know very little about the meeting. we don't know what they talked about. we don't know the details of the conversation. it just wasn't recorded. they do agree that the
confederate forces will surrender. same terms as appomattox which means turning over hill tear equipment, getting parole passes an and getting everybody home. because this was done without the to commanding generals there's going to have to be another meeting. before i get to that just one interesting fact, general buckner, you might recall, surrendered earlier in the war at fort donaldson in tennessee. he has the honor of surrender confederate armies twice during the same war. well while that happens in new orleans, general smith arrives in marshall, texas and he learns what has happened. he's not happy. i just want to briefly read his
address to his soldiers. this is general smith's address to his troops. soldiers, i have left a commander without an army, a general without troops. you've made your choice. it was unwise and unpatriotic but it's final. i pray you may not live to regret it. you have voluntarily destroyed your own organization and thrown away all means of resistance. not much he can do because by this point as news filters back to the main camp around shreveport, a lot of them don't wait for parole pass. they just start going home. the final or second meeting of the trans-mississippi surrender is now going to take place in
galveston texas. down here on board a ship. the uss jackson. that's going be on june 2nd. now we're into early june. that's where general smith will sign the final paper work officially surrendering the department of trans-mississippi. i want to talk about this for a minute. on the left is general jeff thompson who commanded the troops in central arkansas. by 1865, these men have been largely cut off from support. they're part of the trans-mississippi department but they are very isolated. they can't get to the main army even if they wanted to. union forces are going to start to move into upper arkansas and
reach out to general thompson. at a place called chalk bluff which is river crossing there it is, on the arkansas-missouri border, thompson demands to know the exact terms that lee got at appomattox and he wants assurances that his men will get the same terms. he also wants assurances that union forces will not plunder the country side and harass civilians. once he's reassured of these things he's agreed to surrender. this takes place on may 11th. on the map there's chalk bluff upper corner of arkansas. the confederate troops are concentrated in this area northeast and it's in jackson
port, right there that about 5,000 confederate troops and they're all arkansas troops are going to stack their weapons and start to receive parole passes and rations. some union officers will move in and they'll meet with general thompson there. this is going to be about 7,000 total. the final events in jackson port take place on may 25th. again, thompson is not happy with the way things have unfolded. a lot of his troops had been deserting, not surprisingly and great deal of desertion and lack of discipline among his men. thompson will stand on board a steam ship as his troops are on the shore in jackson port.
this is his address to them. again, think about order number nine if you're familiar with that. many of the 8,000 men i now see around me very many you have have been skulking the last three years in the swamps. those of you who had arms with very few exceptions have left them at home. he goes onto berate them. he does tell them to be good citizens. i warn those of you who have been nothing but sneakingly cowardly, cut throat and thieves that a just retribution awaits you and i hope to god the federal authorities will hang you when ever and where ever they find you, and they'll do it sure.
so, that's general thompsons farewell speech. again, it's similar to the other sur surrenders in that the confederates are isolated. they are able to carry out the terms on their own. it's a very chaotic situation in arkansas. the last thing i want to talk about is indian territory of oklahoma. one thing really needs to be made clear the indiana nations do not surrender. they renegotiate because the indian nations saw themselves as independent nations who had renounced their treaties with the united states government and allied themselves with the confederate government. the word indian territory is very complex.
we could do a whole session just on that. there was a lot of division among the different tribes that wasn't unanimous. some tribes were very split. most of them will side with the confederacy. by 1865 a large part of the indian territory has been occupied by union forces and union indians loyal to the northern cause. eventually, as news comes out that the trans-mississippi department has been surrendered which does include this area, the different indian leaders will start to discuss among themselves internally within their tribes and amongst the other leaders of tribes and they will one by one approach union officers about cease-fires and ending the fighting. the first to do this is on june 19th is choctaw will announce
their aa allegiance. down here in lower corner of the indian territory is doksville. near by is fort townsend. it was a trading post. it has been occupied all through the war. we don't know any details. we don't know what they talked about. it wasn't recorded and there's nothing left of it today. the last one is going to be on july 14th. the chicasaw will renegotiate
terms of peace with the united states. the different indian groups will meet with united states representatives at fort smith, arkansas which is and again from the indian point of view, they renounced the confederate treaties and renegotiated treaties from the united states. the reason why we focus on that is he was a confederate general. he was the only native american to be general. he is also chief of the cherokee and he is one of many renegotiations and not even the last one. the fight has been brutal and
very bitter. asa matthews is a colonel who sees these indian leaders and doksville, oklahoma is gone. today it's a state historic site, an archaeological site. there a couple of markers. that's june and july that this is happening. there isolated incidents across the south and i will point out a few. one of the most famous units is the orphan brigade and kentucky troops. they are put off and they will march into augusta, georgia in may and spender to union troops
in tennessee. and all across the south, you will have small isolated commands learning about the larger events and finding their way to the nearest union forces to surrender. near weldon, an isolated artillery unit wandered around for a couple of weeks in late april and early may. one soldier wrote they were avoiding the soldier of an october pus. finally they realized they had nowhere to go and nothing else to do and they will make their way to surrender. as the kummer unfolds and they will occupy the south and all the fighting dies down whatku+ soldiers, former military leaders, civilians,
slaves, and union occupying forces all facing very uncertain futures. so many unanswered questions, so much lingering tension and bitterness. and that is a session for another time but think about the chaotic state of things and -- as things end. what happens at appomattox sets the tone for other surrenders but a lot of the details unfold the other but look at all the twists and turns. every other surrender had to have two negotiation some in lly fa two places. lots of scenarios played out. really fascinating, but it indicates this movement from wartime to peace is going to be
challenging. thank you very much. do we have time for questions? >> one or two quiet if you haven't done here the last ur nam couple oe f days, come down to the microphone in the aisle, state your name and your question. >> you cut me off. >> my name is darrell lange and along the rio grand the unoffic surrender was unofficial a gentlemen's agreement between kirby the north general and i think smith. i'm getting down to the battle.
on the night of the 12th and o 13th of may union colonel or nel -- general branson was up against southern colonel -- i can't ic remember his name. anyway, the latter gentlemen had que six cannons. that brings to bear my question that was a french goern region and forces involved in the battle.derales that's what the french foreign ed. legion had under the federales that were in mexico that were involved. the french is intervening while re inv the french were sdrablthed with confe the civil war.gettin
i don't think any troops were involved in the battle. i think that the confederates were getting supplies across the border immediately before but i am not an expert on how it is. >> that may have been to smith. i didn't know if it was going. thank you very much.genera >> thank you. >> ron wilson. as part of general grant's provisions in his tirms that general lee accepted, was it a duplicate role that all the soldiers be kept. 15 of the roles were later printed in volume 15 of the southern historical society parchs.dunkerly were there any roles kept in
greensboro or other surrenders. it did disburse and everyone is held together there and couldn't th physically get a wi.ey i don't think so. >> the army of the potomac and sherman's army they go through union the grand review and demobilevation is pretty organized. the union forces and the balance, is that as chaotic? you get the gist of my question. how organized are the
demobilization of the various armies spread throughout the regions you described. compared to say the two, the starts grand review and the subsequent demobilization that starts almost immediately. >> i haven't researched that, but what i do know is that they o occu had a process where there were forces left to occupy the know majority of the troops thatht willm be moving back to their home he states. i don't know the details, about but they had a system and it worked efficiently.rge perc i think by the end of the summer or the fall a large percentage was on the way home. i don't know the details of it. >> concerning the rest of they zley army in northern virginia, fits lee moved out from the area and mattox
up in lynch berg and john months bee with a small command who wascalvar formerly involved.ot with can you speak to the confederate cavalry and troops that were not with lee and how they managed to surrender? >> sure. >> i even got a photo that you can refer to. most of the cavalry in the campaign marched and got away from lynch berg. one of the local cavalry units came in on the fairgrounds and they arrived back four years later to disband in the same spot. almost four years to the day. once they learn about what happens, they disband.henandoa there is another isolated unit
in the shenandoah valley and southwest virginia that they ust di will gsbo to the nearest commanders and surrender or theymattox t will disband and go home. some go back to get parole passes because they want that piece of paper. a lot of different things. that's the particular route they take. >> why did the majority side with the confederacy? >> the majority of the indians . look at their history, they have been removed and trailed tears and the united states government and the military is their y can traditionalga enemy.ings d hoping they can gain more independence. it