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tv   American History TV  CSPAN  June 7, 2015 3:08pm-4:01pm EDT

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had on this country -- i think very few people understanding impact he had on the democratic party and also policy in general. when he came on the scene, the democratic party was the more conservative party. bryan was very conservative in his religion, but liberal in his politics. he turned the party on his head and has never come back. he was a predecessor to franklin roosevelt, the new deal, and president johnson's great society and the wall street journal, they had a feature article comparing obama to bryan . >> throughout the weekend american history tv is featuring lincoln, nebraska. the city's tour staff recently traveled there to learn more about it rich history.
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learn more about lincoln and other stops on our cities tour at you're watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3. >> coming up next on american history tv cumberland university history professor mark cheetham talks about andrew jackson seven or. he says that his strong upbringing the south and cisapride are more in line with an elite -- and since of pride or more in line with an elite southern gentleman. this was sponsored by the library of congress. >> as mentioned, my name is jeff flanery and i would like to welcome you to the library of congress. we are host to nearly 63 million
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primary source documents. among those, the papers all the u.s. presidents and other well-known americans including the poet walt whitman, or hole in wilber writes, crawl sagan -- orville and wilbur rwright and carl sagan. 100 years after his death andrew jackson dominates the. from the end of the civil war -- during the age of jackson one can trace the development of modern political parties and witness a wave of political partisanship that would not look unfamiliar to modern audiences. it is here that the papers of leading figure shed light on their motivations strategies
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hopes, and ambitions. the division not only holds the most significant collection of papers from jackson himself, but also those of his associates and rivals. the primary source collections are amply comes amid by the library's collections of maps, prints, political cartoons. researchers studying the age of jackson will be astounded by the wealth of material here at the library of congress. we are fortunate today to have as one of our -- as a speaker one of the finest young scholars in the area of jacksonians study. dr. markcheathem earned his ean history -- he taught at the
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mississippi state university and 70 and university before returning in 2008 to his undergraduate all my matter where he is the associate professor of history. i can readily attest, mark has proven to be a determine and resolute researcher whose devotion to pursuing documentation in the era is second to none. he is the author or editor of five books, including andrew jackson and the rise of the democrats and is currently working on a new book called the log cabin campaign of 1840 -- politics as entertained in antebellum america. he is here today to speak about "andrew jackson, sevenotherner," which won the 2008 tennessee book award. please welcome dr. mark
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cheathem. dr. cheathem: thank you for the introduction jeff. think you for coming out. i noticed lunch. i'm used to that. you teach them before lunch, they are hungry. you teach them after lunch, they are asleep. if you follow sleep, it will not bother me. it's a privilege to speak here. i was telling my wife before i came, this will probably be the height of my professional speaking career, to speak at the library of congress, so i really do appreciate the opportunity. i'm going to talk about andrew jackson as a southerner today but first i'm going to talk little bit about how i came to study andrew jackson. i think it's always important for listeners in the audience to understand where someone is coming from. when i was an undergraduate at cumberland university, i had a history professor by the name of monte pope who told me when i
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was entering my senior year, mark, you need to go work with -- he was a jackson expert. i went and worked at the hermitage. he did not tell me i had to dress in period costume, and i will be honest with you, and hot, humid tennessee summers dressing in costume with multiple layers was not exactly the most pleasant thing and it certainly was not the coolest thing is a 20, 21-year-old college student. but that is where i became and am third -- and enamored of andrew jackson, learning about him, learning about his friends, his relatives, the community and come to realize that this was a man that was very instrumental in american history. i wrote my presentation on one of andrew jackson from nephews
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andrew jackson donaldson. he actually ran for vice president in 1856. when i finished that book, i was looking for a new topic in my graduate mentor, who has worked on william tecumseh sherman and is now the editor of the grant papers i threw some ideas out to him and he said, why don't you tackle jackson? asset, -- i said, i could do that. little did i know that a man named john meacham was working on a biography that won the pulitzer prize and had i known that, i probably would not have started on this path, but i didn't know and so i did. and "andrew jackson, southerner" came out in 2013 and has been a mild success, i guess, you could say in some terms. so, let me give you the premise of the book and then i will talk about some of the aspects i interpret andrew jackson as a
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southerner. in the short time we have, i can go into everything, but certainly during the queue and arf towards i will be more than happy to talk to you about this. so historians have looked a jackson a number of different ways and one of the ways, one of the most significant ways they looked at jackson is they look to him as a westerner. they look at his progress from the carolinas to nashville tennessee -- which was considered the west in the late 1700s and they see jackson almost like an early form of a cowboy. he waltzes into town and if you have ever seen the charlton heston movie "the general's -- i'm sorry "the president's lady" -- my students do not even know who charlton astin is -- heston is. some of you may know. he comes across as this roughhewn cowboy. historians have treated jackson that way.
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fred drew jackson turner depicts him as the embodiment of the frontier. other historians have played along with that. but if you look at where jackson came from, if you look at when he arrived in nashville and what he did, to me it seems fairly clear, yes, if that was the west but jackson is not a westerner per se. he has western characteristics and considered himself a westerner. but he is also a southerner and his life exudes that identity. i'm going to walk you through some of the characteristics of jackson's southern identity. in case you don't know, andrew jackson was born in the waxhaw's region of the north carolina -south carolina border. this is an area where if you are familiar where charlotte, north carolina is, it is about 70
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miles-southeast of charlotte. there is some dispute whether jackson was born in north carolina or south carolina because his family and his relatives lived all along the border back-and-forth. jackson believed he was born in south carolina and that is what he always said. i have tended to follow him in that. regardless, this area was the backcountry. this was frontier area. it wasn't area that had been occupied by native americans. white southerners had moved from the east coast into the area, had pushed out the natives living there, and had established a small settlement. jackson's parents moved from ireland to the region about two years before jackson was born. he had teed up older brothers and of course his parents. -- he had teed up older brothers and of course his parents. his parents were not well off but he had two uncles who were.
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and by well off i mean they had a substantial plantation and they owned slaves. and slave property was an investment a capital investment. to invest in one slave, much less multiple slaves was an indication you had some money. even though this was considered the frontier, it was connected to charleston and if you know anything about charleston during this time, you know charleston was a port city connected to not just the rest of the colonies, but the rest of the transatlantic world. it was connected to europe, to africa, to the caribbean, and of course the other colonies. i make that point because it's important to understand the waxhaw's region was a region in the backcountry, but people moved back-and-forth from charleston to waxhaw. to think about this community as
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being isolated and backwards does not give a good testament to how connected it is to charleston. it's important to understand to be attuned to what is happening in charleston. during the revolution, jackson loses much of his family. he loses in older brother during a battle during the revolutionary war and his other brother and mother died from disease. by the time jackson is an early adolescent, jackson does not have any immediate family. he has ants, uncles, cousins. he decides he is going to leave the waxhaws for self carolina to try to make it there. only think about jackson, the thing to understand is he is not oriented westward. he is not looking westward to read he is looking toward
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charleston. he is oriented towards the coast. once jackson is in charleston, he does not stay there very long. he gets involved in gambling dispute century caner and we will not mention. he leaves charleston and moves north to the charlotte, north carolina area and that is where he begins to change his life. he falls in with a group of young men who are well-connected locally statewide, and nationally with dominant political leaders. many of them were sons of these political leaders. jackson falls in with this group probably first through drinking and gambling and other things, but they decide he wants to become a lawyer. he realized that entering the legal profession is one way to move upward and the world. jackson studies the law becomes a lawyer, and then as a result of his connections with these other young men, he is given the opportunity to move to nashville, which had been
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settled in the late 1870's -- 1770's, 1780's. by the time jackson makes it to nashville, he is a 20-year-old southern lawyer and that makes a difference when you think about where we are at our development at 21 years of age. i teach primarily 18 to 21-year-old students. 21 is not white as mature as they think it is or is i thought it was, but it's -- is not quite as mature as they think it is or is i thought it was, but it certainly more mature than 14 or 18. we change and grow in a data -- and adapt, but i the time you're 21 years old, you have a pretty firm sense of who you are, the direction in life you were going. that is jackson when he arrives in nashville.
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on his way to nashville, jackson gets involved in a dispute, and if you know anything about jackson, you know he gets into these disputes periodically. speaking about his personality he has a very temperamental personality. jackson on his way to nashville stops in jonesboro tennessee near knoxville and he has to stop there because their native american attacks between not all in nashville. -- knoxville and nashville. while he is there he needs to make money subjects and practices law. he gets involved in a dispute with another lawyer, a man by the name of wake still avery. princeton educated, very prominent north carolina. the point of the dispute is not very clear. there was a court case. avery and jackson were on opposite sides.
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avery apparently said something that insulted jackson, so jackson wrote him a letter and challenged him to a duel, and the two men do go out to the dueling grounds and settle things and move on. actually -- let me explain a little something about dueling. dueling is something that certainly as we get closer to the civil war is associated very closely with southern men. it is associated very closely with elite, white, seven men. not so much during this time with the regional implication, but certainly upper class. jackson issued this challenge which said that he believed he was a member of the elite upper-class. ok? avery accepted the challenge, which indicated his belief that jackson was of the elite upper-class. why is that and why is it important?
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dueling was something that only occurred among elite, white southern men. you don't have slaves. you don't have women. you don't have the lower classes. who engage in dueling. and you certainly do not see duels happen between men of unequal rank, social rank. so jackson could have believed he was a member of the elite upper-class and issued the challenge and a favorite thought he was not on the same rank with him, avery would have ignored the challenge beaten jackson with a cane or whip or something else -- that was the response you had if you were challenged of someone not of your social rank. every does not do that. he accept the challenge. the point of dueling was not to kill each other, despite the
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cartoon imagery here. i will say little bit more about that in a second. the point of dueling, in fact, most of the time was to protect your public reputation, and the term used at that point was your honor. your public reputation. how people perceive do. particularly how men of your same social rank precedes you. -- perceived you. most of the time all you are doing is saying i am willing to go out willing to face my opponent and stare at him face-to-face -- it's usually how duels took place, not this stand back to back pace and whirl around and fire. that's not a good way to get an accurate shot. you have to be willing to face one another and face death, and in doing so you preserve your reputation. you show people you are a man. you are willing to die. so, jackson and avery fight this
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dual. they fire into the air. they go about their business and things are settled. you may think, well, that's a failure. but it's not. jackson has just proven to other people in his party who are traveling with him to people in jonesboro which was the center of power in tennessee at that point -- he has proven that jackson is accepted as one of their own. jackson, throughout the course of his life, will get involved in other duels. not as many as you read on the internet. you can't believe everything on the internet. i have seen some website say that jackson fought hundreds of duels or dozens of duels. he fights to and a half. he fights the one with avery. he has an encounter with john severe that is kind of supposed to be a duel, but turns out not to be. and i count that as a half. in 1806, he fights a duel with a man named john dickinson and he
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actually kills him. that is the only time jackson kills anyone in a duel, so do not believe anything you read on the internet. jackson will get involved in other violent encounters. there is a man who insults him jackson takes a whip or a cane to him, proving that he does not see him as a social equal. he gets involved in street brawls and downtown nashville in 1830, is up almost dying for that. milos is one of those things that is not just solely characteristic of southerners, but when you pair it with honor and where jackson is coming from, it indicates that he very much has a southern identity at this point. now your eyes glazed over just like my students' eyes do. we will not go through every person on here. i'm going to use this as an
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illustration of something. one of the key characteristics of southern life at this period, and certainly jackson for life is kinship. and there are different kinds of kinship. some have written extensively about this. there are essentially three types of kinship. you have blood can, people related to you genetically. you have marital kin people who marry into your family or whose family you marry and two. and there's a third kind called fictive kinship. this is the kind of kinship where you are not related genetically or merrily to someone, but you still consider them i will give you an illustration. we have three children. our two oldest are girls. when they were younger, there was a woman we knew who was like their grandmother. the girls called her grammy. she spoiled them.
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like grandparents tend to do. more sugar. and then sends them home. you know how that goes. this woman was not related to us in any way, but she was a member of our fictive and ship. she believed that we were family and we believed that she was family. i would venture to say that most people in this room probably have something like that or have had something like that in their lives. when you look at kinship in jackson's life, his blood ken, his immediate family was dead. his extended genetic family, he really doesn't have anything to do with once he leaves that region. later in life, some extended relatives right him but that is the extent of it. what becomes important for jackson are the marital kinship ties and the fictive kinship ties.
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let me talk about the marital kinship ties first. when jackson moves to nashville, he very soon after falls in love with a woman named rachel donelson. she was the daughter of one of the cofounders of nashville. john donelson had come from virginia. he was a prominent wealthy man from virginia. he had taken his family to nashville. he had died by this point. jackson moves to nashville falls in love with rachel donnelson. there is a slight problem. rachel is married. eventually, her husband left probably in part because of jackson. andrew and rachel traveled to get married. they come back and say they are married. it just a couple years later, it turns out that rachel had not divorced her first husband.
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there is a lot of controversy about this. by 1794, they are legally married. if you think about jackson as someone who is not a member of the elite class, because donelson was a leak. if he is not a member of the elite class, why would rachel donelson's brothers have accepted him given all of the questionable circumstances. if you have a young man come into your family, he starts to take up emotionally or physically with your married sister, brothers have away in the south of handling that. the donelson brothers do not. they do not reject jackson. they don't throw him out of town or take him out. they accept his and rachel's version of their relationship. part of the reason i think they are able to do that and are
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willing to do that is because they see jackson on an equal social rank with them. someone who is a much better choice for rachel and her first husband. again, there are a lot of circumstances there. part of jackson's success is that he moved to nashville coming from his connections with the donelson's. there are many donelson's. when i do genealogy, you have to wade through a lot of andrew jackson's and donelson's. it is very confusing. you have this donelson family network in nashville that helps jackson find legal cases to prosecute, jobs, helps him to speculate in land. the donelson's are very key to him advancing in tennessee. in terms of his political
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career, jackson depends not just on those family connections, but he also depends on this fictive connections. people he considers family. there are a couple of men who are part of a fictive kinship network that jackson utilizes to create advantage during his political career. those two men are william lewis, on the bottom right, and then his brother-in-law, john henry eaton. these two men are the men in tennessee most responsible for jackson running for the presidency and for him winning the presidency. john eaton becomes a notorious player because he marries a woman named margaret and that sets up a sex scandal early in jackson's presidency. before that, john eaton had served with jackson during the work of 1812.
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had supported jackson's political campaigns in 1824 and 1828. he had been jackson's unofficial campaign manager. coordinating a lot of the official correspondence and attacks and responses. william lewis was a g gordon liddy of his day. i like the washington crowd. my students say -- who? lewis was instrumental in a different way. he did a lot of the things that jackson and eaton and others did not want to do or could not do. he would dig up dirt on henry clay for example, or try to dig up dirt on john quincy adams. he did a lot of the dirty work. the behind the scenes work. btw men who were brothers-in-law are part of the kinship that jackson uses to advance himself politically.
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we won't talk about everyone but if you notice on one side, you have the stokes family. a very prominent, north carolina family that william lewis marries into after his first wife dies. the stokes family is very much involved in getting support for jackson in north carolina. on the other side, the claver and family is a prominent family in louisiana. this family was very strong in its support of jackson and the democrats. jackson utilizes this one kinship network politically and there are multiple kinship networks like this. this is not necessarily uncommon in the early republic. jackson who is not part of those virginia families, understands that this is something he needs to advance himself in his career. these fictive ties in particular very much become part of the southern network, and in some
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cases, they have stronger bonds in those communities than you would ever have even with your own family members as we see in jackson's case. one of the things that makes jackson successful, and this is one of the clearest markers of his southern identity is the fact that he owns other human beings. this is one of the most prominent ways that he acquires wealth and produces well. this graph gives you an indication of some of that wealth. these are not all of those that he was the master over. he owns plantations in mississippi and alabama that also have fleas. these are just the ones at the hermitage in middle tennessee. jackson starts out purchasing his first leave. a young woman by the name of
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nancy on his way to nashville from north carolina. he quickly understand that if he is going to advance economically, he will have to acquire more sleep very he does that for the rest of his life. at one point, he owns close to 200 slaves. in his lifetime, he probably owns well over 300. the hermitage has identified over 300 names of people living and serving. this is a very prominent piece of jackson's growing reputation a prominent part of him being of the upper class. when you consider that the most valuable slaves in terms of cost, if you think about this in economic terms, if you look at
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young, male field hands, if you look at their equivalent value today as being about $45,000 that gives you some sense of what it meant to invest in a slave property. if you own one slate, even if that slave is not a male field hand, let's say it is an older woman, even if it is $20,000 or $50,000, that is a fairly steep investment. if you multiply that i 10 or 100, then he is a multimillionaire. that doesn't include the property, the crops that are produced and sold. when you look it jackson and you try to understand him as a southerner, you have to understand that his slave ownership is very much a part of that identity.
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all of these things tied together. everything i've talked about ties together. the linchpin of all of this is slaveholding. without this, jackson does not advance to prominence and stay at that rank. as he does throw most of his life. one of the questions that i get, at least in tennessee, is what kind of slave owner was jackson? this goes to the other side of slavery. we have talked about the economic side and how it benefited jackson. there is the other side. what was it like for these enslaved people whom jackson owns? i can give you many examples. i will just say that jackson is a fairly typical slaveowner. there are times when he expresses sympathy or regret about things happening to his enslaved people. he also sometimes ordered them to be beaten or punished for things that they did. using that he is an example. he was a young girl when he
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purchased her and her mother. at this point, in 1867 post-civil war. you can tell she is an older woman at this point. this is the episode i want to talk about and it happens in 1821. jackson is in florida. he had gone to florida to meet the governor of the state. he takes with him rachel, his wife, some relatives, and he takes some members of their slave household. that he was one of those. she is in her 20's at this point. jackson is off doing the things that a politician does. he is governing the territory and working out the transfer from spain. rachel writes in a letter complaining about betty. complaining that betty is putting on airs. you can almost see jackson. here he is doing this important work, he expects his wife to handle these issues.
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you can almost see him roll his eyes with exasperation. he writes back. he writes back, not to rachel, but to some of the mail members of his household including his nephew. he told these men, tell betty, to stop putting on airs, and if she does not comply, take her out in public, and whip her. we do not know what happened. we don't know if she was whipped. what is interesting about this particular episode is that what rachel was complaining about was that betty was doing neighbors laundry. that was what rachel was upset about. whether that was a pattern of disobedience or is that he was expressing her independence, we do not know. rachel was concerned about her doing other people's laundry and that was what jackson ordered
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her punished for it. jackson could express concern and sympathy and he also could order a slave woman to be beaten for doing other people's laundry. and that is why i say he is typical. it is rare to find slaveowners who are sadistic. and it is rare to find slaveowners who are overly compassionate. what you usually find is something in the middle. jackson is probably most known today for removal. jackson like many white southerners believed that native americans were in the way. they would be better served becoming like white americans or by moving. during the were of 1812 and after and during his presidency, jackson try to accomplish that. he does that through violence
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during the war of 1812. he does that through treaty and chicanery and deception. after the word of 1812, and as president, he uses paternalism and eventually forced to remove native americans. in doing so, he provides one of the most important contributions that he could have made as a southerner. he opens up the deep south to white settlement. he has plenty of help in that regard including soldiers, other people working for the same goal. jackson is the driving force during and after the war of 1812 and during his presidency to remove these native americans from the southeast. in doing so, he opens up this territory for white settlement. those white settlers often bring with them slaves. the slaves are often working comp.
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when you look at the end he bellows the south that we think of, when you think of gone with the wind. when you think of the old south, jackson is not the only one, but he is a main instigator of that because of the removal of native americans and the land vacuum that opens up and filled with white settlers. this is something that jackson firmly believes in. he believes in manifest destiny and that the land belongs to white settlers and the nation. he believes that with native americans removed, the united states will be much better off in the end. this continues out west, in texas, he is very much involved in the annexation of texas with sam houston and others. he is someone that when you look at the map geographically, of the south, prior to the civil war, he is in large part responsible for what that map looks like. that is one of the main contributions that he made as a
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southerner and a reflection of how he viewed himself as a southerner. that is not a western phenomena. i could talk more and more about jackson. i would be happy to take questions if you have any. let me stop because i can't go on and on. i should stop. [applause] yes, sir. >> was jackson's view of native americans and africans similar to that of thomas jefferson? professor cheathem: first question was was jackson's view of the union similar to sam
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houston's in 1861? let me answer it this way. if jackson were alive in 1861, before fort sumter, i think he would have been like sam houston. i have thought about this. it seems to me that jackson had a strong support of the union that came from his military background. if he had been alive during the crisis, initially, he would have supported the union. once fort sumter happened, would jackson have gone with tennessee? that is a good question that i don't have an answer to. before fort sumter, he would have supported the union. the second question was -- was jackson's views of the native americans and african similar to
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thomas jefferson's? jefferson expresses it more eloquently. jackson doesn't have the same education. the two men are more similar than people like to recognize. jefferson talks about what happens if we free slaves. jefferson is very much involved with native americans. i would say that they are very similar or more similar than we would like to give them credit for. there are a couple of things that make jackson different. he didn't write the declaration. a lot of things are forgiven of jefferson because he wrote the declaration. jackson is much more blatant and open about what he is doing and he is also more successful about it. his success in that regard, the matter how we view it today, comes off as something that is a negative and not a positive. other questions.
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>> what would you say is the slave population and native american population around 1814 in the south? professor cheathem: a great question. i wish i had access to google. in the south, you are looking at, in terms of native americans, tens of thousands. from the 1800s until the 1840's, about 60,000 native americans are displaced from the southeast. tens of thousands. in terms of african-americans in the south at that point, there were 8 million in 1860, there were a little over half a million in 1790, you are looking at maybe between one and 2 million.
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that would be my best guess. >> i know this is one of those counterfactual. how do you think the jackson presidency would've been different if rachel was alive? professor cheathem: i don't know. rachel did not like politics. she didn't like washington. she considered it babylon. she is an interesting character because when she was younger she was very vivacious and flirtatious. she was the big girl. as she got older, she became religious and pious and dour and boring. it would have changed things. i think he would've reacted with much less emotion to the eaton scandal. in that regard, i think you would of thing that seemed
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things turn out differently. he was gone most of the time so how could she. other questions. >> what education did he achieve through his career? professor cheathem: jackson has some schooling. when he studies to become a lawyer, you read lots so you
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worked for a lawyer and you can't copy cases. after you did that for a certain amount of time, you would come before three lawyers and they would determine whether or not you could practice law. he did not have to go to law school. he did not have to get a license. he is a lifelong reader. he makes biblical references throughout his correspondence. he makes classical references to ancient rome and ancient greece and aged philosophers. he seems to us been a self educated man, for the most part. someone interested in growing his knowledge. he is not as illiterate as people think he is. he is certainly someone that did not have the advances or the education of jefferson or calhoun or henry clay. other questions.
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>> you said earlier, historically he is viewed as a westerner. when i studied american history, you get the sense that he is a southerner. is it a matter of geography? or are there other reasons that he is seen as a westerner. professor cheathem: you have frederick jackson turner who depicted jackson as a westerner. another historian depicted him as fighting against the moneyed interests. by the time the 1960's roll around, a lot of their study of
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jackson focuses on him in indian removal. it almost seemed like one of those questions about jackson that is obvious if you step back and look. if you look at where he comes from geographically. how he develops over the course of his early life before he moved to tennessee. it is an obvious question that i think historians have missed. part of that may be because jackson is easy to stereotype. if you stereotype him as a westerner, that explains why all of those people showed up in washington at his inauguration. it can't be because they were looking for jobs. it is easy to stereotype him into a black and white figure and not see the nuances of his identity. he was a westerner. i want to be clear.
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he did have western characteristics but if you look at his life, he makes more sense as a southerner. no one has asked me about the $20 bill so i will bring it up. thank you for that segue. sort of. a lot of the things that you read about jackson today in regards to the $20 bill, and i am agnostic about it. doesn't matter to me. a lot of the arguments that you read about why he should be removed, it could make the same arguments about jefferson or washington or grant. there are a lot of things, these are all flawed human beings. does that mean we have to keep them on the currency? is that a reason to kick them off? i don't know. i would rather have seen a different reason than that he was a mean guy and he hated native americans. that was typical of his time. if there is a reason to remove him to honor a woman, that make sense to me. to get rid of him because he
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killed native americans, you could say that about many people. >> i thought he didn't like national banks. professor cheathem: that is one reason people bring up. i think jackson would agree with that. he would not have wanted to be on the paper money. he probably would be happy if he was taken off. >> hamilton loved banks. jackson, who didn't like the national banks, you get them from the atm. >> the supreme court's decision -- [indiscernible]
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are the donelson's irish or scottish. professor cheathem: your second question. the donelson's are scots irish. which jackson was as well. your first question, i am not sure about the court case you are referencing, but jackson was very much opposed to the idea of a national bank. he was opposed to the idea of money, government money, eating used to influence political elections. he tried to destroy the national bank because he believed that the president had used government money to try to defeat jackson in 1828. jackson holds grudges. at that point, he is not holding tools, that he can hold grudges. that seems to be the impetus
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behind why he combats the bankrupt his presidency. we will do the quiz if there are no more questions. thank you. [applause] >> you are watching american history tv, 48 hours of rogue ramming on american history every weekend on c-span3. follow us on twitter for information on our schedule of upcoming programs and to keep up with the latest history news. let's we asked him why he feels the internet is not the answer. >> the internet is not the answer at the moment. not the answer in the sense that it is not working currently. is lending itself to undermining
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jobs and compounding the inequality of economic life and creating massive monopolies that were unimaginable in the 20th or 19th century and has created a data economy in which all internet users have been turned into products. you and i have been packaged up when we use google or facebook. it's like a big hitchcock movie. >> monday night on "the communicators" on c-span2. >> today, on c-span's road to the white house, a conversation with former virginia senator and likely democratic presidential candidate, jim webb. he discusses growing up in a military family and his service as a marine in vietnam, congress and what he likes about campaigning. senator webb: i enjoy the face-to-face campaigning
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talking to people and listening to what their thoughts are and being able to clarify mine. what i don't enjoy is campaign finance. to be very blunt about that. i said when i announced the exploratory committee that one thing i can say is i will never oh anything to anyone if i am elected, but it is a tough proposition to be able to raise enough funds to conduct a viable campaign and that's where the decision point is. >> that's today on "road to the white house 2016" on c-span. >> the new congressional directory is a handy guide to the 114th congress, with color photos of every senator and house number plus i/o and contact information and twitter handles. also, district map


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