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tv   Lectures in History  CSPAN  November 7, 2015 3:00pm-4:01pm EST

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others. fought through aircraft carriers, submarines, and aircraft. they will discover the special nature of fighting in the asiaes of asia, southeast and across the pacific islands. they will discover also the distinct nature of the japanese enemy we faced as we moved beyond guadalcanal to other places familiar to americans with world war ii history. they will discover the importance of the sino japanese and 1945t between 1937 and provided strategic context for our advanced. they will discover how the united states is going to have to take the philippines, liberating a former american colony. and how the war escalated in violence the closer we got to japan at iwo jima, okinawa.
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savidge, horrific violence will take place across different terrible environments ranging from jungles to coral reefs and seas. and of course, they will discover how the war ended in our last gallery which is going to see the nuclear age ushered in, completing the world war ii combat story. these galleries have taken us about 18 months to develop the exhibits. that ourle of thumb board of directors has established is that if you financially look at what cost to build one of these buildings, double the amount financially and that is what it costs to put these exhibits inside of them. did virtually cost as much as the building itself. if you think about putting the building and exhibits together,
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it is years. it will take probably two years to get the building envisioned to completion. and then you have to put the gallery in it. we are on an 18-month timetable with that. we have been collecting since the founding of the museum in the 1990's by late dr. stephen ambrose, a professor at the university of new orleans, and his good friend who is our current c.e.o., and so we have a tremendous collection. these exhibit pieces, some of them are already on display in our d-day in the pacific galleries. many of those pieces will migrate into these new exhibits and be joined i many new iconic artifacts we have. in this building, people will discover a p-40 war hawk hanging from the ceiling and other
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iconic pieces and exhibits i hope people take the time to come and see. melted flight logs, bottles from hiroshima and that the sake --nagasaki. we have all types of special pieces that will tell people the nature of the pacific war. >> stanford professor clayborne carson talks about martin luther king, jr.'s upbringing and chronicles his early career as a reverend. professor carson's place took place at ebenezer apis church in atlanta where martin luther engineer -- martin luther king, jr., like his father, was a pastor. it included field trips to visit historic sites. this is about one our. professor carson: who is martin
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luther king? one side of him is a famous individual. he was a 1964 winner of the nobel peace prize. he was the most influential leader of a great social movement. he is the only american who was honored with a national holiday in his name. there is the uniqueness that practically everybody in the world knows the name "martin luther king." the question i would like to address in this setting is who really was martin luther king? one of the advantages of using a setting like this is that we can really practice history to which -- the way it should be. it should not be about names and dates that you remember. it should be about the study of the things that survive from the past. that is why a site, a historical
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site, is so important. that is why the king papers project, when coretta scott king named me to edit his papers she , understood that in the long run, what would survive where -- were the papers that martin luther king produced during his lifetime. so, all of that is part of what i would call the legacy of martin luther king. if we want to get close to who he really was, that is the best window that we have into the past. martin luther king produced a lot of papers. one of the things that has kept me busy for the last 30 years is bringing together hundreds of thousands of documents. as any great person, you have so
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many materials to work with. all of these are important windows. that is why i feel that my life is well-served by doing this. it provides what will be the lasting memory of martin luther king. when we look at who he really was, we have to go back the on the best -- we have to go back beyond the myth, back beyond the kind of person honored by the national holiday. the importance of coming to a site like this is you begin to see evidence from michael king, the person who existed before the reverend martin luther king. that was the person who was born just up the street, a block up the street, at 501 auburn avenue.
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that was the person that i hope, as you saw that birth home, you had in mind what kind of would that historical building have on the making of martin luther king. fortunately, we not only have the birth home, but we have a few documents. not as many as when he becomes famous, thousands of letters that people wrote to him. all of those are part of the papers of martin luther king. when we look at when he was growin, his rmative years, we don't have a lot to work with. basically, what we have is a few documents and a lot of memories. some of the memories are not as reliable as the other memories.
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but just think of a document that most of you have, your birth certificate. we have that from martin luther king. it tells us some important things about him. it tells that he was born on january 15, 1929. we know that the birth took place in that second floor bedroom in that home. we know something about the other names that are on that birth certificate. who would be on that? the father and the mother. that time, the person who becomes martin luther sr., is also living in that house. and alberta king is living there.
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something else that you begin to understand as you look at the other major document from that p eriod, the autobiography of martin luther king that he writes at seminary, he writes his own autobiography sketch. it is only 14 pages. he does it as an assignment for a class. we can learn a number of things about him from that document. the third document that is very of daddy is the memoir king. that provides a lot of life to it. in historical terms, historians as a primary document because he was a witness, but it is long after the fact so it becomes less valuable in some ways. but it is personal, so it is valuable in other ways.
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let's look at these documents. is,of the things we find how was he born? one of the things that the birth certificate indicates is that there was a midwife and a doctor. the doctor also lived on auburn avenue. what does that tell us about martin luther king? this neighborhood was diverse. a doctor could live in this neighborhood, but there were also working class people in this neighborhood. but also the fact that there was a midwife at the birth, which indicates that we are still his family was somewhat privileged. there was also a doctor attending. we can see from that that martin king's early upbringing
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was a mixture of the, i guess what i would call the striving for middle-class status, and the people who were predominant in this neighborhood, working-class families. we can also see from this document that, at the time, his father is a preacher. where? right here. we can see that there is another person in his household. who is that? that is, at the time of his birth, both of the grandparents, who are still alive. his grandfather is also the minister of ebenezer church. a lot of these things that we can find by looking at both the birth certificate, the autobiography of religious
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, we canent, data king see that these were the forces that shaped him. growing up in this home, a middle-class victorian home, two stories, six bedrooms, that was unusual. it gave him a certain amount of privilege. we can also see that he is connected to the past. what does he say in the autobiography? he refers to his saintly aboutother who told him times going back before -- to slavery. he grows up with a great attachment. his grandmother sees him as her favorite grandson. that is probably because he is the oldest, the one that comes along first. tells him all these stories.
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that is part of what he gets. the great influence on his life is going to be his father. what happens to his grandfather? he dies before martin luther king gets to know him. he dies when he is only about two years old. who replaces him at ebenezer? his father. how does that happen? in the memoir, we can tell a little bit about that story. the fact that his mother-in-law is the widow of the person that -- who almost founded this church gave him a great advantage. actually, at the time, the reverend michael king was skeptical about becoming the minister of ebenezer. why would that be? part of it was that he wanted to
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have his own church. if he had come to this church, what he have gotten the position because he was the son-in-law or because this is something he earned on his own? he was somewhat skeptical about that. from his point of view, this was something that he would always be in the shadow of his father -in-law. it took him a while before he makes that decision to come in -- and be pastor here. reverend williams was a very successful person in his own time. when martin comes to atlanta in the years after world war i, he comes from a very humble background. his father had been a sharecropper. he sees rural poverty.
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he grows up in the situation of trying to make it in the rural south not that far from atlanta. he is the type of person who is very ambitious. that is what leads him into the ministry. he wants to have a better life than plowing the fields. he teaches himself the rudiments of preaching. he has only a third grade education. he's barely literate, but he learns enough to read bible verses, memorizes lots of them. decides in the years after world war i on coming to atlanta. his sister, woody, is a boarder. the bedroom closest to the street was the place where they put boarders.
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she is living there. he comes to visit her. who does he see on the porch? alberta, the daughter of reverend williams. he decides almost from the first time he sees her that she is going to be my wife. he also decides, "i am going to aspire to be a minister like reverend williams." he comes there and he knows that a half-literate, itinerant preacher who just arrived in atlanta is not going to marry the daughter of a successful preacher. this is despite the fact that reverend williams comes from an almost identical background. but he had come 20 years earlier. by the time reverend king comes, he is already successful. he sees this woman sitting on someorch, and he decides
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she is going to marry me. but i know i have to get educated first. i have to go to grammar school. he studies, finally gets out of decidesschool, and then , "now i need to go to morehouse college." the jump from grammar school to morehouse college was a bit of a jump. but he goes and the president is john hope. with a little bit of encouragement, because reverend williams saw what was happening, saw that this guy had the same drive and ambition he had as a young man, so he puts in a good word with john hope. if they had sat scores at the time, he would have never gotten in. fortunately, he could say this person does not have much of an education but he will work as hard as he can to get through.
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so, at the time, when martin luther king moves into the williams' home, it is because he is a student. he gets married in the 1920's to alberta after a long courtship. it takes about five years before they finally get married. he decides he is going to go and get into morehouse. he gets an kind of on probation. he is going to work really hard. these three children, the first two, christine is born in 1927. he is still an undergraduate at morehouse. michael junior is born in 1929. this is not martin yet.
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he is still finishing up. when the next is born in 1930, he is finishing up ministerial studies at morehouse. all of this is taking place as he is trying to gain his own stature. once reverend williams dies in 1931 and he becomes the preacher, the pastor of this church, what we see is that he has this drive. he wants to not only achieve what reverend williams has achieved, but he wants to achieve even more. he wants to go out and create his own legacy. he comes to the ministry during the depression at a time when it is very difficult to bring in new members, especially members who could provide donations to help the church along.
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he brings the church through the 30's by providing services to the people. food. help with housing. the church became a social service agency as well as a place for religious guidance, the kinds of things we later refer to as the "social gospel." this is the environment that martin grows up in. but again, at that point, he is still michael king. how does he become martin king? that happens as part of that drive by his father to achieve respectability. he changes his name. he later explains that he changes his name because his father had had a brother named martin and another named luther.
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but he understood the symbolism of martin luther. he had just been to germany, berlin, in 1934, for the world congress of baptists. this is the first time, 100 ofrs after the founding modern baptism as a congregation and they have a world , conference. here is reverend king, one of perhaps a dozen black ministers who make it to berlin in 1934 to attend this wonderful meeting. he comes back, and by that time, this is the symbol of what he has achieved. he makes the decision, i'm going to change my name. of course, that changes his son, because he is junior. reverendbecome the
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martin luther king senior and martin luther king, jr.. i'm giving you this background because i think that this helps to explain why this place is so important. why the birth home is such an important place. this is where, literally, martin luther king junior achieves his identity. this is the place where he has his early experiences. this is the important thing that comes through in that wonderful document, the autobiography of religious development. that is something that he writes during his first year at theological seminary. he writes this 14-page handwritten paper. i would love to show you it, just to see the way in which he kind of sketches out his life. he says, "i was born in 1929 on the eve of the great depression,
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which spread its disastrous arms throughout the nation." that is how he comes to his anti-capitalist view of the world. that's all in the first paragraph. have you ever read a document that reveals so much more than that? just from its beginning? those of you in this class understand that beginning, because it is the beginning of the autobiography. theeemed like that was perfect place to begin his story. what i would like to emphasize is that in so many other ways, influenced the person who we honor today. because, he also talks about the influence of his father. he does not spend as much time with his mother. he says she is behind the scenes, taking care of those essential things that you need
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in life. he talks about his grandmother, who he seems to have this special attachment to. she is described as his saintly grandmother, who told him these wonderful stories about the origins of the family. what else does he look at? i think what it does is it allows us to understand the most important decision he makes during the first 20 years of his life. that is the decision to become a minister. you might assume is that because his grandfather is a minister, his father is a minister, well of course he is going to become a minister. but actually, for exactly those reasons, he decided, no, i am not going to become a minister. that's not what i want to do. why was that?
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just usefuls rebelliousness of not wanting to follow the lead of the parent. part of this comes out in his autobiography, his early religious doubts. we are in ebenezer church. we were just in the basement of the church where they had sunday school. what happens in sunday school that shapes him? well, he begins to learn things in sunday school. maybe some of you have the same experience. as you get older, you begin to doubt some of those things. in this sanctuary, an incident happens when he was, it says in there about six. i think we have dated it at seven years old when it happens. there is a religious revival that takes place here. a visiting minister, one of the
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ways in which ministers built their congregation is they would invite a revivalist to come in. usually, it's some spellbinding person who can get to the emotions of people. what happens in a service at a certain point? people are asked to come forward . you just saw that earlier. and testify about accepting jesus as their savior. well, what does martin luther king experience doing that? he is sitting in the church. just imagine this. he is sitting there. he is the preacher's son. his sister, his older sister comes up. he is sitting there. ok, do i go up or do i not go up? he decides to come forward. later, he says he felt bad about that.
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why? because he was not doing this out of inner conviction, he was doing this to keep up with his sister. that becomes one of the shaping things that he talks about in shapedobiography that his religious views. then, what happens later? he gets to about 13. he's in the basement, in the sunday school class. he starts to question the bodily resurrection of jesus. that doesn't sound right. he questions whether to take that literally or just figuratively. a 13-year-old is not supposed to be doing that. but martin luther king starts to question. and he says, "to these doubts doubts began to come
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forth unrelentingly, once i began to question." of course, he is not going to make the decision to follow his father into the ministry as long as he has these doubts. so, the theme of the autobiography is that struggle to overcome these doubts. so, in the process of the 14 - page document, you can trace the beginning of his consciousness as a religious person. he has to overcome these doubts or else he cannot make this -- that decision to become a minister. how does he overcome that? well, it happens at morehouse college. he goes to morehouse college. he takes the only course at morehouse for which he gets an a.
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that should give some hope to you. you can achieve great things without a wonderful gpa. [laughter] professor carson: what happens is that this is only class on religion that he takes at morehouse. it is taught by a man named professor george kelsey. i had the privilege of meeting george kelsey. he was a wonderful, well educated person who i could see a martin would see as a role model. because, from his own father, he gets this kind of religion that is what i would call "old-time religion." a lot of emotion, not too much emphasis on theology and reason and things like that. from george kelsey, what he gets is that you have to get behind the myth of the bible.
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a lot of the stories, you have to understand what is their deeper meaning. george kelsey is a well-educated person who had studied the bible, understood a lot of the practicingcontext, what we would call today it asical context, seeing a historical document, something that you could go back and question, "why did they write this the way that they did?" what you find from that is that here he is, doing this when probably most of us are not questing the way he did. the way that he is really striking is that he is doing to
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the mesh doing this at 13 years old, 14 years old, 15 years old, at a time when most of us except -- accept things without much deeper thought. he goes to this period of questioning. kelsey teaches him the rudiments of how you look at the bible as a historical document, something that he really is drawn to. later, when he goes off to seminary, he goes to crozier theological seminary. he finds by going to this liberal, what i mean by liberal is that within the spectrum of theological seminaries, there are those that teach the bible as the word of god, don't question even a single word, to the other extreme of saying that this is something that you could question just like any other
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historical document. in fact one of the things that you will remember from reading taylor branch's account is that they spend the first year breaking down all the leaks you -- all the beliefs you think you have before you start building up those that can be capable of withstanding criticism. by the time he leaves high morehouse, heers is 17, he is still a very young person. he begins to see from kelsey's class a way of reconciling the admiration he has for his father. that comes through in the autobiography. he admires his father's commitment to change society, to bring justice. his father has the basis of the
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social gospel, but he also has a more fundamentalist view of the bible. so, what young martin wants to do is to take that commitment that he sees in his father and combine it with the intellectualism of george kelsey and of course benjamin mays, who is the great influence. benjamin mays and george kelsey. these are highly educated ministers, passionate in their religious beliefs, but also intellectuals. so, i think that what we get from understanding the importance of being here is that this is where it all happened.
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i mean, within two blocks of here, the important events of martin luther king's life occurred. this is what shaped him into the person that we know. we can trace that through his own writings, from other documents we have from this period. what we have that is a very essential part of the papers of martin luther king that we have edited is that so many of those papers are religious papers. he had to work things out in terms of his religious beliefs. that was the fundamental basis of martin luther king. to conclude, i would say that if we look closely at those papers, what we find is that he is
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defining his mission as a minister. in one of the early papers that he does at the seminary in his first year, he is asked by , "what is going to guide you are ministry?" he says, "i'm going to deal with unemployment, economic insecurity." civil rights is not on the list. what is he doing 20 years later? this was 1948, what is he doing in 1968? what issues is he dealing within the poor people's campaign? slums, unemployment, economic insecurity. would i suggest to you is that when we look at the martin luther king who had his formative experiences at
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ebenezer and the home up the thist, is that we can see is the essential martin luther king, the inner martin luther king. a lot of the other things we think we know about him are what i would call the external martin luther king. sometimes they call it the king myth. when we look at it from the point of view of the person who emerged from this experience, we see he was shaped in a way that was not fundamentally changed when he went to montgomery and rosa parks turned a social gospel preacher into a civil rights leader. i think most of us would agree for the next 10 years he did a pretty good job as a civil rights leader. all those changes that took
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place from the montgomery bus boycott to the voting rights act 50 years ago, he could have said, i did not ask for this job , i was kind of asked to take this job of being a civil rights leader, but i did a pretty good job. please let me go home and rest. theve kind of accomplished voting rights as the last major piece of civil rights legislation. but if you see his life in this sweep of the direct line from the expenses that occurred on this block and in this 1968, what you see is that he would reach that crucial time 1965 and say my work is not done.
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that was not my mission, my mission was much deeper than that. that explains why the person who helped pass the voting up a year later in chicago, working in one of the poorest areas of chicago. and later than that, launching the poor people's campaign and ending up in memphis. so, we are here. i think one of the things that would be so good, that is so good about being here, is not simply being in the building, but we also have some of the witnesses. at least one of the great witnesses of martin luther king's life is the reverend ct williams, who is someone who shared that social gospel notion of christianity, and someone
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who knew martin luther king during the main years of his life. we are very privileged to be in this wonderful setting and have one of the witnesses, one of the persons whose memory is still very much alive. as an to refer to you historical artifact, but we can learn so much. [laughter] professor carson: you're not finished yet. you are not finished making history. thank you so much. i want to open it up for any questions you might have. this is the place to ask. please. let's see. >> did dr. king's experiences
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growing up in the church, being a preacher, influence his leadership style in the movement? professor carson: the question is what influence did this experience have on his leadership style and the movement. one of the documents is that when he takes his first pulpit -- here, he was under his father sometimes, sometimes he would come back in the summer to serve as minister and give his father time to take a vacation. when he went to dexter avenue baptist church and took the pastor ship of that church his , father gave him advice based on his knowledge of how you run a church. remember, the baptist church is
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somewhat unique in the sense that they can hire but also fire a minister. ok? there is this balance. reverend king, who knew this, told his son you have to have a firm hand. wheree this document martin is talking about, giving one of his first sermons to the congregation and says that, "in the church, authority comes on -- from the pulpit to the pew, not the pew to the pulpit." why was that? because the minister represented an understanding of the word of god. if you do not accept that authority, get another minister.
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now, there was that aspect of somen luther king which people didn't really get along that well with that idea, that in the civil rights world , authority comes from the pulpit to the pews. there was that since -- sense that we are a grassroots organization and some of that authority has to come from the grassroots up to the leaders. that was a tension. it did really affect the way in which he viewed his goals and it did really affect the way in which he viewed his role in the movement. yes? >> at what point in your life did you decide studying m.l.k. and his legacy was the right
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path for you? : in some ways,n i think i was almost destined to do it. when i look back, everything seems to fit. i was at the march on washington. i met mrs. king when i was book.research on my john hope franklin, the great historian of his time, recommended me to her. having said all that, there's just the serendipity of, i was -- at that time i really believe more in the view of bottom-up. one of the things about my first is that it is the story of the movement from the grassroots up. it is not from king's perspective.
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that was my thrust. why shelways wondered entrusted me with that mission. she knew that i'd written a book, and i suspect that she had read it. i think she understood that even the liking to it with that perspective, i would come with a sympathy for the movement but also that i would learn over time. i remember the first paper i gave after becoming editor of martin luther king's paper, this was at a conference at the capital on martin luther king. it was one of the first conferences after the national holiday. i'm invited to give this very public speech that is now in all the papers given at the
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conference. who is in the front row? mrs. king, but also bob moses, the main organizer from sncc. here i am as a sncc person but giving a talk as the editor of martin luther king's papers. i gave this talk, and the conclusion of it was that the movement would have happened even if martin luther king had not been born. i firmly believe that. i looked out, and here is corona scott king the mesh corona scott king -- i looked out and here is scott kingoretta
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kind of frowning. i think maybe i'm not going to be lasting long in this job. [laughter] it also forced me to rethink my own attitude. every time i applied for a grant to do the king papers, i had to say, why is this important? why is it important if the movement would have ha happened even if king had never been born. what did king provide to the movement? one way of understanding the last 30 years of my life is answering that question. i have to answer that question every day, every year. each year, i hope my answer becomes more sophisticated, that i understand that there was something essential. what i think was essential is that he was a visionary. there were a lot of people who were good at mobilizing people. there were organizers. there were people like bob moses, who were essential to the movement. even in montgomery.
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is joann robinson less important in terms of mobilizing that than martin luther king? i think she is more important in mobilizing the bus boycott. martin luther king did not become the leader of the bus boycott until the afternoon of the first day of the boycott, which was 100% successful, just about. how did that happen? how did you have a successful boycott without martin luther king? he is selected to lead. isn't it wonderful, as a leader, that someone says we already have a successful movement, we just want you to keep it going? we want you to make it to the second day, the third day? on the one hand, that fits my bottom-up view of movements. but if you ask yourself, you get to the 200th day of the boycott,
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and things are not changing. who is going to provide the inspiration about what are the visionary goals? if you think about it, most movements do not make sense. how can you have a strike, or any kind of movement, a boycott? you put yourself through suffering. 381 days of people having to walk to work. some of them having to find ways of getting there. these are maids. they cannot just say, "ok, i'm going to drive to work today." from that point of view, you could look at it and say rationally, by the 200th day, they might say, "maybe i should
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ride on the bus. it's raining outside. it's cold." that makes perfect sense. listening toou are the montgomery improvement night,tion rally that and martin luther king is saying this is not about getting a better seat on the bus, this is about something that is going to affect your sense of dignity as a person, this is something that is about the sermon on the mount, this is something about the declaration of independence, this is about certain kinds of transcendent values that even when you have to walk to work in the rain you do not want to go back and sit on that bus. i think that is kind of the way i would balance it now.
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understanding that each of them had their roles. it was a complex movement. lots of people were in it who played perhaps the most important role they would play during their lifetime. that is what makes a great movement. martin luther king played his role and that is what led him to be the great leader that we know. maybe one final question? ok. >> you mentioned before in class that martin luther king believed communism did what christianity ought to do. is there any evidence that that's what he continued to believe later?
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professor carson: the question about whether he believed that sermon, communism's challenge to christiana. the best christianity. he gives that before the montgomery bus boycott. are you familiar with that? >> you are in a situation in a capitalistic country. we have to find where one starts. this is why religion works so well with it. we are talking about who, where are your values? are they really from the politics of your nation, or they -- are they from the deeper spirit of your nation? so, the ministry works
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perfectly here because the two are tied together there. you can have one without the other, but you cannot -- but it takes both of them to keep a capitalistic country going. professor carson: one of the things i would also add to the reverend's statement is part of the idea that king had about the social gospel is that he said, at one point in his life, i didn't need to read karl marx to know that we should care about the poor and do justice for those were less fortunate. that comes from the sermon on the mount. any christian should know that. part of what he was trying to get across was that if
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christianity -- if christians understood the message that goes back even before jesus, back to amos, isaiah, the great prophets, what was the message they were bringing to the jewish people? the message was that you have an obligation, a religious obligation to do this. god demands it of you. if you fail in that demand, that is going to bring bad things to the jewish people. well, maybe by looking at it in that perspective, martin luther king would conclude that communism answers the right question but with the wrong answer. that the right question is, "how do we build a just society?" the difference would be that a
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communist would say, "by any means necessary." the idea that the ends justify the means. he is saying that the means that you used to get to that end, that determines what you get in the end. if you use force to get to the end, you have to maintain yourself using force. because whoever is on the other side is not going to suddenly give up. you have people who are going to be trying to overturn the revolution. you have a counterrevolution. you have another revolution. the cycle of violence goes on. his deal was the only way you overcome that cycle is to understand that the means have to be humane. have to be consistent with your moral principles.
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in that way, you build the possibility of a reconciled society, what he would call the "blood community." that you would have a society -- he would point to the differences between countries that achieved independence nonviolently predominantly and those who had to go through revolutionary violence. he said, "look at the end result." you don't find in india today indians still fighting over the same things they were fighting over 100 years ago. they can understand that they can be reconciled with their former colonizers. that is an interesting way of looking at it. i think that he understood that
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one of the things about that sermon is that, i have looked at that sermon very carefully, and a lot of the basic ideas come up from the sermon that his father gave more than a decade earlier. he gives the sermon in 1953, but he also gives a very similar sermon in 1963. you have 20 years from his father to the son where they are basically making the same argument. it's not that surprising. they go back to the same biblical sources, the prophets. -- one of the say things that i think becomes clear after reading martin luther king is that it helps us to understand a lot of the current debates going on about the world of religion where there's a lot of emphasis on
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whether leviticus has these passages against homosexuality, all of these things that are part of the bible. people have to decide, what am i going to emphasize as the essential teachings of my religion? if you just do a search on doing justice to the poor, the idea that that is an essential characteristic of any christian, you find that there is hundreds of mentions. it certainly is the most commonly mentioned theme. and yet, what happens in some churches? you focus on the one passage and you miss the hundred other mentions of doing justice to those less fortunate.
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what do you take as the basic message? wouldk martin luther king come to it with the notion that religion is about changing the world as well as changing the soul. he talked about that in the terms of the "dual mission of christianity." some ministers say that it does not matter what is happening in the world, all we should these concerned about is your soul. there are others who would say you have got to deal with both. why? because he says in one of these early papers it is a dual process. you have to be concerned about the soul as well as the society in which the soul exists. unless you're concerned about
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both sides of that equation, you cannot service the needs of your congregation. that's it. [applause] >> you are watching american history tv, 48 hours eight hours of programming on american history every weekend on cspan3. follow us on twitter for information on our c-span has coverage of the road to the white house, 2016. we will have your questions. this year, we take the road to the white house into the classrooms across the country. we give students the opportunity to discuss what important issues they want to hear the most from the candidates.
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policy spends a student cam contest on tv, the radio, and online. history bookshelf features popular american history writers and airs every weekend at this time. dolinauthor eric jay discusses the american fur trade in his book "for, fortune, and empire." he highlights key players in such as john jacob astor and thomas jefferson. i remember very clearly the moment at which the idea for this book came to me. ofwas back in the spring 2007. i was reading "the founding of new england."


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