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tv   American Artifacts  CSPAN  November 6, 2016 6:00pm-7:01pm EST

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five-star general, who commanded allied forces in the pacific during world war ii. at the macarthur memorial in norfolk, virginia, we learn about his role during the war, the occupation of and his life after serving in the military. this is the second of a two-part program. mr. kolakowski: hello and welcome. my name is christopher kolakowski. it is my honor to be the director here. we are a museum, and research center, dedicated to the life and times of douglas macarthur. we will look at some of the treasures in our collection from world war ii, the occupation of japan to the end of his life. with that, let us take a look at our first item. in 1935 wasrthur offered the job of military advisor of the commonwealth of the philippines. they were on their way for
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of 19 46nce in july and they needed a military advisor to create the philippine military. douglas macarthur at this point brings an impressive resume to that task. decoratedmost highly american officer in the first world war. he had been superintendent at west point. he had been one of the outstanding graduate from there. was known in the philippines perry had served there many times i had a lot of friends including in the current philippine government. had been chief of staff from 1930 until 1935 and after that, except for the post -- accepted the post of military advisor. he moved out there taking his ailing mother with him and they booked passage on the liner hoover. macarthur, being a major general in the army, having reverted to that rank, was seated at the captains table.
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that is what this program here is from. from october 1935 on their way across the pacific. while there, he meets a vivacious tennessee woman. jean faircloth. on the first leg of an asian tour with friends. on her way over, and we have the correspondence in our archive, on the way over she strikes out conversations with this general. they become fascinated with each other. douglas macarthur is torrent between this vivacious woman that he loves to talk to and spend time and his ailing mother who is clearly close to death. he says mom, what should i do and she says -- i will be fine. they get to manila, and jean cancels the rest of her trip. of 1937, she becomes the second mrs. douglas
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macarthur. they come back to the u.s. for some time in the spring of 1937. 'mother had died. is buried in the arlington cemetery next to her husband. on the last day of april, in new york city, they get married. they returned to the philippines. as he is concerned, he is not going back to the u.s. manila is home. he has a penthouse there. he is working for his good friends. working for the president of the philippine government. in february 1938, the couple has a child. douglas macarthur the fifth. born february 20th, 1938. his godparents are the president of the philippines and his wife. if you think about that in the late 1930's, to have ethnic godparents for an american child
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was quite a statement about where arthur is on racial issues. macarthur moves everything to manila. library, father's library, fathers uniforms and metals. -- and medals. he is not going back but the state intervenes. the japanese are activating and becoming more expand -- more expansionist. with the fall of france in 1940, there is some weakness among the colonial powers. start.ecides to and so begins to move south against the dutch east indies, today's indonesia and against the french colonies into china. of this concern, in july of 1941, 75 years ago, this july, douglas macarthur is recalled and named commander in in the fare forces
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east. charged with defending the philippine islands. this is not complete when the japanese attack will harbor and attack the philippines december 7 and eighth of 1940 one. honolulu, 755 a.m. when the japanese strike pearl harbor, a cousin of the time difference, 3:00 a.m. in manila. macarthur loses most of his air force to a japanese bombing raid on the first day of the work. the japanese invade a few weeks later and macarthur tries to fight him on the -- tries to fight them on the beaches. macarthur decides he will need to abandon manila and fall back to the raton peninsula -- to the an peninsula. he sends word to the manila hotel, to his wife and done, and on four hours notice on christmas eve 1941, jean macarthur packs two suitcases,
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packs her son, her son takes a tricycle and a stuffed animal, and they prepare to leave. why do i tell you that story? it is why we have these two objects right here. metals, andiniature the field marshal baton. macarthur is the only american officer to hold a rank as field marshal. he was field marshal of the philippine army. to date, he remains the only field marshal the philippine army has ever had. this is his field marshal baton. it is one-of-a-kind. no other one like it in the world. an american by eagle and has the philippine seal. as mrs. macarthur is walking out of the penthouse, she stops and these these in the glass case and realizes she doesn't want to leave these for the japanese. she takes them and put them in a manila hotel towel and throws them into her suitcase and leaves.
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a couple of months later, the macarthur's are doing there will and their birth certificates and personal papers and cash -- they are sent out via submarine. it includes these items. today. how we have them in 1945, the japanese captured the penthouse, inventoried the contents and in 1945, the manila hotel was a strong point. in the fighting, it was destroyed. the macarthur's lost virtually everything. ,f it was not saved in 1941 chances are it was completely lost. holes in ourreates ability to interpret his life before because of the loss of personal correspondence and artifacts and the story. macarthur's father's medal of honor that he learned -- that he earned under fire was gone.
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his library, mostly gone. it is a real tragedy and a high personal price to pay among the senior leaders in the united states army in world war ii and something not a lot of people know about, the destruction of the manila hotel and macarthur apartment but that is white we had these -- but that is why we have these items here. christmas eve -- this is the only place they stopped the japanese advance southward. the french and dutch are not able to hold. elsewhere, they are not able to hold for very long and spent -- except on bataan. but they are becoming increasingly isolated. macarthur and his wife are absolutely convinced that they are going to die in the philippines. they have seen the rising sun rise over the manila hotel. as far as they are concerned,
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this is it. when they send out that trunk by submarine, they are making their will. not onlyacarthur is the senior american officer in the far east, and in the the physicaland embodiment of the united states in many ways to the average filipino, he is also husband and father because his wife and son who turns four during the him as well.ith not only does he have the pressure of command, but he has to be a father and a husband as well and to be strong for his family because they are taking his cue. there are a couple of objects here that illustrate some of the themes that i talked about. cap., this small khaki this was given to arthur macarthur on his fourth birth day. it was handmade by one of the tailors on corregidor. they also gave a little cigarette holder.
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wearingacarthur loved his hat and walking around smoking his invisible cigarette using his holder. one of the sergeants saw him a wearing this and called him general and arthur macarthur indignantly stopped him and said -- i am not a general. i am a sergeant. why is that? sergeants drive cars. such is the view of a four-year-old. the other item in here of -- most people gloss over it but it speaks a great deal about how macarthur was viewed in the philippines -- the signet ring on display in this case as well. is evacuated. macarthur accompanies him to the take a boat out to a summary. of tuberculosis and will die in exile. both men think they will never
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see each other again. off and puts it on his finger and say when they find your body, i want them to know that you fought for my country. and then they part. this is a small object. of it carries a great weight a motion for the men that share it in february of 1942. a couple of days later, macarthur is granted a reprieve because franklin roosevelt, the u.s. president, under pressure from both his allies including a request from the australian government for a senior american general to take command, pressure from the u.s., from the press and political opponents, realizes he cannot leave macarthur to the japanese. he orders general macarthur to leave the philippines and macarthur who tries to duck this because he does not want to leave, doesn't want to leave his men and his home, he tries to duck this but his staff talked
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him out of resigning. they say that he is the only man that can lead back this expedition. he accepts the order. on march 11, 19 42, he, his family, and 19 other officers, staff officers primarily, to bite -- depart on four pt boats. oakley is on board. they go 500 60 miles through japanese waters, through the philippines from the northern part of the philippines down to the southern philippine islands where they meet up with some b-17's and on the night of b-6 they flight 1500 miles through japanese airspace. they make it without loss. evidence that the
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japanese new they were flying at that particular time but they made it. macarthur later said the escape of a commander in chief and his party through a situation like this is unique in the annals of american history. and i agree. one of the great adventure stories in the history of the united dates military. macarthur gets to australia. he issues a statement which has made him -- it was one of the more famous once you made. the president of the united states ordered me to break through the japanese lines for the purpose of organizing the american offensive against japan. primary objective of which is the relief of the philippines. i came through. and i shall return. that promise, to go back and liberate the philippines, would drive much of the war in the pacific. the war in the pacific, particularly in the southwest the civic was unusual. unlike just about any other
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conflict the u.s. had fought him before for two main reasons. first, the geography of the area buthe vast space of it particularly the island of new guinea. it is one of the least developed. infrastructuree like there is in europe where you can find ports and roads and accessible terrain to be able to operate. in new guinea, whatever you need to fight, you will probably have to take with you. the land does not provide it. and so, that creates an engineering and supply problem that is unlike just about anything we've seen before. that is the first part. the second part is that for general macarthur to get where he needs to go, from eastern new ,uinea back to the philippines he needs help. it cannot just be the army. it has to be the army, navy, and the air corps, now the air force, working together. no one service can win the war
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in the pacific. that is one of the things that this panel really shows us and develops these themes. the first is the airpower piece. that is why we have the air force patch. force, the fifth air force in particular develops a great reputation for being able to support ground operations and to be a great menace to japanese shipping. one example. in battle of the bismarck 1943. japanese reinforcement convoys coming from new britain to new guinea across the straits was almost completely watched -- washed out by the fifth air force. they lost their ships and had disruption of their division headquarters. the general did get on shore. it was disorganized. were of did get ashore limited value for a while to the japanese commander. that is the effect of airpower.
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macarthur never jumped very far beyond his air umbrella. if he had to, he stayed within the umbrella of his airpower because he knew how important he was to the success of what he was trying to do. that is what you see from some of these photos and the air attacks. that points out the other thing about macarthur. this is true of any general or organization or ceo, he needed a good team to get to where you need to go. macarthur had a great team. he had some extremely good engineers, good supply officers. at the heart were the three k's. the ground commander, admiral thomas kinkade, the navy commander, and general george kenney, who was an airpower dearest, one of the more innovative american airmen at the time.
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he was commanding the fifth air force. those three working together, they were able to come more -- coordinate, communicate, and collaborate. well. when macarthur said i want to leapfrog down the new guinea coast and this is the objective, help me get there. he would give it to those guys. they and their staffs would figure it out. by the time they got to the philippines, they had the process of an amphibious landing down very well. on several occasions, they were managing three or four separate -- three or four amphibious landings several hundred miles apart and they were all successful. that is a great team at work. when you think about macarthur's campaign and his press relations often focused on macarthur's campaign, even macarthur understood that he had good people working under him and working as an effective team. these guys were contemporaries of him. he knew them and trusted them.
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and perhaps most importantly, unlike what would get him into trouble later in korea, macarthur's people would be able to tell him no. it was very free discussion. a great team working together at often does not get the credit that it deserved. looming over all of this, for all of the successes in new guinea, there is still the question -- when and if going back to the philippines. mcarthur got his answer in the summer of 1944, one of the great moments of the pacific war. right after the democratic national convention had nominated franklin resolute -- franklin roosevelt for a fourth term, he flew to pearl harbor to chesterh admiral nimitz, general douglas macarthur, at pearl harbor. and as fdr said, where next?
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they were nearing the china coast and nearing formosa, and taiwan -- where do we go? fortz presented a case formosa. which was very much what the navy department in washington wanted to do but macarthur made the case for the philippines. he said mr. president, we have to go there. there were several reasons. first, strategic. the philippines were in a tremendous strategic position with the best harbor in the far east. a chance to use it as their base for operations against japan and other japanese held positions. another reason -- you promised. -- americans have made a promise to the philippines. we promise to independent but we also promised to redeem. franklin roosevelt even said
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that. he said -- i pledge the full resources of the united states thatand behind the pledge the independence of the philippines will be redeemed and protected. dwight eisenhower said in 1941, the philippines, asia is watching what we do in the philippines and will excuse excusethat they will not and abandonment. not sure if macarthur ever read that statement that is something he felt in his heart. president, wer. have made a promise and we have to go back. ameer -- a moral imperative. and there are 17 million filipinos on the brink of starvation and there are over 10,000 american prisoners of war that are dying and languishing in prisoner of war camps. we have to go back, we owe it to them. ultimately, what turned the debate was logistics. -- can you do the
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philippines with the resources in the theater it that we have including the ships and the men? macarthur said yes. that is -- when asked the same question about the foremost operation, nimitz said i need reinforcements from europe. 26, 1944. the same time the normandy breakout is happening. the french campaign. consider the global priority among the allies. it is heating up and advancing towards the german order. there is no way nimitz is getting reinforcements from europe. that decides the decision. macarthur would go back to the philippines. the fact that the united states, alone among the colonial powers, kept that promise, influences the u.s. position in asia today and to some ways understand the toition in asia, you have understand this history of world war ii and understand the role
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of douglas macarthur. that brings us to one of the iconic pictures of one of the iconic moments in the pacific war -- the return of douglas macarthur to the philippines. here he is waiting ashore -- wading ashore. to his right is the successor of the president of the philippines commonwealth. that is some strategic communication. he is coming ashore with the philippine commonwealth president on his right. morning,ashore that october 20, 1944. the picture below, he broadcasts a message to the philippine people. people of the philippines, i have returned. sets up ater, he philippine commonwealth government. that handset is the one he is using to broadcast his return to the philippines. douglas macarthur, achieves personal success here that it is not one that is finished until
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the end of the war. he spends the rest of the war devoting the large part of his energy and the forces under his command to liberating the philippine islands. a task not complete until august 15, i do five when japan surrenders. war, they arethe planning the invasion of japan which purports to be one of the great battles in the history of the world and one of the bloodiest in the history of the world. the atomic bombs of hiroshima and nagasaki resulted in the invasion not needing to be done. they needed a supreme commander of the allied powers to rule japan on behalf of the allies and that job goes to general macarthur. this is an example of him understanding japan, he studied japan and the far east and had lived in asia for a while but it also shows his ability to understand the value of
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symbolism and stage management. this brings me to this display behind me. another one of the murals which shows the japanese signing the surrender of japan on the deck of the uss missouri, september 2, 1945. you can see some of the principles -- general macarthur presiding. dr. -- general richard sutherland. the man wearing the cap is william holley. behind macarthur are some of the international delegates representing some of the other countries at war with japan. notable people here -- representative from the soviet ,nion, australia, the french the liberator of paris in 1944,
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and you can see some of the others including australia, new zealand, canada, and great britain as well. this is the japanese foreign minister. signing. and the chairman of the joint chiefs for them will sign as well. sign andmacarthur will that each of the nation following will sign as well. this is an amazing moment in the history of the world. because macarthur, first of all stage manages the symbolism here. anchored in the same spot that comet or william. anchored his ships when he world inpan to the 1853. the flag which was there at the time and represented in this picture is. -- is perry's flag. thejapanese did not miss symbolism of that. the other thing macarthur does
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is he makes sure the sarah money is broadcast to the world through video, and through audio. he makes comments about how -- we are not meeting here in a spirit of hatred or malice. we have two ideals that met on the battlefield. the japanese burglary. we were not beaten just on the of aefield but by dint superior idea. macarthur also says -- we have had a last chance. we do not now find a better or more equitable way to resolve disputes. armageddon will be at our door. he is advocating for the abolition of war and the abolition of nuclear weapons. what other general, and one of the great triumphs of his life, would make a statement like that? he also says the right tone talking about the defeat of japan and he gives the japanese an idea of what is to come.
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this air money itself which only takes 20 minutes includes a massive flyover of allied aircraft. symbols oflast great allied power at the end. it is worth pointing out, the war in the pacific is very much american theater. there are significant australians, and canadians involved. this is the first and the canadians are involved and ground forces see action in world war ii. british and indians are involved in burma and they are always -- they are all represented here on the deck. war.ceremony ends the macarthur has also used it to start the peace and set the right tone for peace. what will come is one of the great stories of reconstruction and occupation in our history. this corridor for that focuses
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on the occupation of japan. and macarthur's time in 1945 until his relief in 1951. he was to factor the chief of state of japan during that time. he was given incredibly broad powers. when visiting ambassadors would come to tokyo, to reopen embassies, they would present their credentials not to the japanese government, but they would calm and present them to general macarthur. he set up his shop in the insurance building in downtown tokyo. his office overlooked the square when in 1942, radio tokyo announced they were going to hang douglas macarthur as a war criminal. the symbolism of that escaped nobody. one of the first moments that tonethur has to set the for the occupation of japan is how he chooses to treat the
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emperor. it is important to keep in mind that japanese society in 1945 had far more in common with medieval europe in terms of being a feudal society, and how they treated classes and social structure. to what it does today. the japanese also believed their emperor was a living god and japanese believe that if you look the emperor in the eye, you went blind. this is how he treats the emperor. it will make or break what happens. calltaff is convinced -- on the emperor and show power and strength but he says no. he says if i do that it will debase him in the eyes of his people. willatients of the east serve our purpose. and it worked. 1945, the emperor requested an appointment and macarthur met him -- this is a picture, in the u.s. embassy where they sat and talked for a few minutes.
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this photograph was taken by the press before the meeting happened. it's a very important photograph because both men use it to send messages to their people about how they are supposed to regard the other side and the occupation. this is an example of macarthur in theble to manage him optics situation. he's wearing his uniform, normally he wears it every day. kind of relaxing. certainly an expression of power and american superiority. hirohito is -- dressed to the nine.
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he is, standing at attention. he is obviously uncomfortable. as a signse view this of respect and deference for the americans. the emperor uses this as a way to show how we should treat the americans. the treat them with deference and respect and we will get through this process and be able to move forward again. it is one of the more famous pictures of the occupation, and extremely significant moment. tell --r and hero he signed three copies of this picture. two of them are here and one in the imperial palace. later said the success of the occupation was in large part -- was in large part to the attitude of hero he tell.
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japanese people are fascinated by their new show gun, by their new ruler. what this little panel shows here. tribute artwork you would find with general mac arthur. you notice how destroyed japan is. japan faces a famine in the winter of 1946. this is an variance with all previous occupation policies in asia and endears the japanese forever. they start to century beads to macarthur. tribute sketches and artwork. an editorial cartoon and what he is doing to educate the japanese. this is just a very small tip of the iceberg type look.
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you a few more here in a few minutes. one of the big things macarthur freedomhe has plenty of and action to do what he needs to do. very early on macarthur decides we will release all political prisons and disband the secret police. we are going to enfranchise the women, going to educate people, going to break the peasantry in and basicallyem remake japan into a democratic nation and bring it forward to a democratic republic. that ishe ways they do through the japanese constitution. mac arthur and his staff wrote that constitution and enshrines those values in the japanese constitution. the japanese viewed this as so
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important. they presented it to general macarthur as a token of thanks. this has ramifications today. article nine, which the macarthur institution contains. forever renounce as a mean of disputing settlements with other nation. the nations of land, sea, and other forces will never be authorized. the fact the japanese have been reinterpreting this to mean collective defense against some of the geopolitical issues in asia these days has become something of a political issue it raises these specter of japanese soldiers, operating inairmen
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areas they haven't operated in since world war ii. this remains a geopolitical issue to this day, directly tied to the occupation and to douglas macarthur. continued ton work. they reformed it culturally and a lot of different ways. these items show a little more about how the effect has. she was something of the first lady of japan. andwould travel the country was a tremendous goodwill ambassador. here she is on one of her taurus.
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this is general mac arthur going to his limo. the japanese try to get a glimpse of the great general mac arthur. on macarthur's birthday there would be a group of japanese that would sing happy birthday and raise flags. if you think about it it was probably unthinkable, what it says something about how the country converted and really the success of the occupation. macarthur reintroduced baseball to the islands. thaty popular game baseball is now in japan. this gives you a sense of mac macarthur in japan. the connection there remains
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here remain strong. what i am going to show you illustrates exactly what i am talking about. one of the things that keeps in a tribute thats cements relationships. with thees here amazing asian art, the 15,000 objects. 4000 or more are asian objects. some handmade themselves. giving objects a great value. here pieces, which you see to everything else was a perfect
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example of the steam in which douglas macarthur was held. objects of sentimental value, objects of monetary value. in many ways it is still regarded in that part of the world. the occupation of japan is not it. unfortunately was not the end of conflict in the world. that's the next story here. at the end of world war ii the korean peninsula had been administratively divided between the soviet union and the 39th -- and the parallel. samemericans would do the in the southern part of the peninsula.
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the 38th parallel soon hardened into an international divide. the democratic people's republic of korea invaded south korea. both of these countries had been created in 1948. and that started the korean war. the korean war is very much a watershed. mainly because it is the first united nations war. the united nations security council needs votes to help the republic of korea. and asked its members to continue forces under the overall command of an american officer. creates a u.n. command. 1950, macarthur raises the u.n. flag.
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this is the first u.n. war, this is the first real mission for the security council. it makes it something of a watershed. by the time the korean war is over, and armistice was signed. australia, new zealand, turkey, france, greece, belgium, the , if you are, south italy, italy, denmark, norway, and sweden. today south korea come if you count the nations that rebuild it, south korea holds the record of nations that holds sustained independence but rebuilds it after the war. the korean people every year do a display of flags.
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one of the things that needs to be noted is the curry and people could have chosen and the south koreans could have knuckled under. instead they chose to fight. they committed themselves to the defense of korea. will see, the commitment remains intact to this day. we set up the korean war. war, talk about the korean 1950 to 1953. the 38th parallel runs right here. those in the united states, charlottesville virginia is just north of the 38th parallel. this is to give you an idea of how it fits in geographically on a map of the united states.
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here's the south korean capital of soul. china is here. japan is barely on the map right here. very quickly push the south koreans. in the area here 100 miles long. just six weeks after the war starts. in one of the great defensive stance in the united states hold off all north korean attacks and hold the perimeter. some incredibly desperate fighting. absolutely incredible, incredible stand by the americans.
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try to figure out what to do. he looks at the map and realizes a lands end supportive in john. -- koreanorth koreans supply line. the problem is they have some of the highest tides in the world. it can only be landed on a couple of days per month. the port back at washington is convinced this is not a good idea. the fact the north koreans are means it was at great idea. landirst marine division here september 15, 1950. meanwhile a breakout from the perimeter and destroyed the bulk of the north korean army right here.
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--hed back to the 48th 10 48th parallel. korea, passes a new resolution. if you can come a the korean peninsula. push north and north korea. china, which had gone communist the year before says it doesn't have relations with united states were diplomatic relations with a lot of countries in command. river youroach the will be forced to act. arthur meets with truman in the wake island's. the eighth army in this area, operating in this area over here, find some chinese volunteers.
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to be home by christmas right before thanksgiving 1950. fighting a very desperate battle this year on the river. u.s. marines are surrounded by the chinese. it is not retreat, it is an attack on another direction. here,venth division right turn around, retreat back, and i'm 105,000 americans and koreans pullout september 12 through 24. there were 100,000 korean refugees that has lived in the north and doesn't want to say.
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a controversial figure, but i do have to say this, whatever spare shipping space there is i want you to take refugee. 98,000 people get out and evacuate. five children are born at sea. this has such a profound impact. there are a lot of people that say this cemented our relationship with the korean people. this remains a big moment in our relationship with the republic of korea. that doesn't disguise the fact that the chinese have pushed these forces south. and the longest retreat in the history of the united states army back down the vicinity.
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the chinese launched another attack and pushed the u.n. forces south. walton walker having died in a traffic accident. finallyis way back into lays waste to the peninsula. macarthur and truman have gone back and forth on policy. there is no substitute. the soviet union is right here. the soviet union has a mutual defense pact with the chinese. wrong war, wrong time, wrong place. this dispute becomes public.
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the negotiations open for an armistice, takes two years to hammer out an agreement. battle lines don't move significantly from where they stopped the summer of 1951. and in july 27, 1953 the armistice takes effect. technically the two koreas remain at war. one of the negotiating points about the nuclear armaments is give us a piece treatment, give us to dramatic recognition. so it remains a geopolitical issue today. how we handle his firing here on this side is his account of the issue at hand and what happened. behind me is truman's account.
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there is something to keep in mind. truman was right. wrong place, wrong time. a third world war was definitely avoided. but there is no substitute for victory. this is still the most heavily militarized border in the world. just like it was in 1951, 52, 53. he came home and addressed congress in 1951. one of the lines was old soldiers never dad -- never die. he, his wife, and their son
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became a fixture. face --r was an avid avid baseball fan. loved watching sports. very interested in what is going on on the athletic field. macarthur wrote his reminiscences. hendrickhe entire manuscript. mcarthur had a very sharp mind. he was known to have a photographic memory. it seems the thoughts came out of his head fully formed. it is absolutely an amazing manuscript when you flip through the pages.
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became something of an elder statesman. johnsonere with lyndon just a few weeks before his death. in both cases he told them to stay out of a country called vietnam. macarthur between old age and level problems begins to fade shortly after his 41st birthday and he dies at walter reed. a seven regiment armory. of thee in the rotunda macarthur memorial. mcarthur said i would be at the dedication, which was originally scheduled to the -- he said i will be there alive or dead.
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it was considered the de facto dedication of the mcmartin are -- macarthur memorial. macarthur always felt this place was not always just about him. his dedication speech which he never gave. he always felt very strongly about the millions of men and women who fought the world wars. we are about the men and women with whom he served, telling their stories as well. we certainly hope you will come and explore that. this is the flag. they are folding it in this picture. as far as i'm concerned it will never be unfolded.
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and the presidential proclamation from general johnson. marking the passing of general douglas macarthur. our next stop will show you the general metals and iconic items, give you a sense of the man, who she was, and what he did. this is our concluding gallery. in many ways it is the essence of macarthur. the first thing i want to show you his three of the absolute iconic pieces. all through the occupation of japan, all through korea, all of those pictures, those iconic pictures, that is the hat he is wearing. one of 95 types in our
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collections that macarthur had. general macarthur's ray-ban sunglasses. of anare iconic symbols iconic american general. we have two cases. the first is foreign decorations to the left. we have a reconstruction of general macarthur's uniform. general macarthur is one of the most highly better catered soldiers in history. items are extremely evocative. the first is general macarthur's middle of honor. macarthur himself always understood.
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on behalf of the men and women, it was my honor and privilege to command. was always ambivalent about this because it reminded wasabout the time, he never photographed or had a public ceremony. he mentioned it only once in his memoir. this was also a personal milestone. his father had earned the medal of honor for the battle of chattanooga. he became the first medal of honors father-son combination. to earn the medal of honor and do something his father had done was personally very gratifying.
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the circumstances in which it was awarded undoubtedly added a shear of the near and emotion that otherwise might not have been there. the second one i want to show you is the purple heart. it fell into disuse. while chiefs of staff of the army reinstituted the purple macarthur having been gassed twice in world war i was entitled to two herbal hearts he made it retroactive. these are the purple heart's you see here. they used to be serial numbered. this is purple heart number one here.
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is a bunch of george washington around. that's because this was in the manila hotel when the macarthur penthouse was destroyed. this was one of the very few survivors. so we have it on display here. it also tells the story of invival and the destruction 1945. the last piece that gives you the essence of macarthur and what i want to leave you with is our rotunda, which is the final resting place. we will conclude over there. this is our rotunda. it contains the last resting macarthur andal
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also flags both his personal flags and the units that fell under his command. the other room that gives you the essence of macarthur, who he was and what he stood for. we hope you enjoy this tour of some great history. we invite you to come on down and visit us in downtown norfolk. >> you can watch this and other american artifacts programs on our website. >> as the nation elects a new itsident, will america have first foreign-born first lady since luisa adams or a former president as gentleman?
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now available on paperback. the personal lives and impact of every first lady in american history. it is a companion to c-span's well-regarded biography series, and features interviews with leading historians. biographies offers of 45 spouses. published by public affairs. available at your favorite bookseller and as an e-book. >> up next on american history tv, a debate focused on the question was john quincy adams a realist? withring on stage columnist robin kagan to discuss the legacy of the sixth president.
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>> thanks very much. tonight bob and i are having a , but it won't be that kind of debate. to tell you not to publish your tax returns if you ask me not to publish my e-mails. >> and i won't deny things i said in the past. i will admit everything i said. >> we will try to work our way towards shedding light on something we both think about and write about and talk about a lot. i'm going to take the privilege, since it is my book of going first and saying a few things and bob will tell you why what i


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