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tv   American Artifacts  CSPAN  November 6, 2016 10:00pm-11:01pm EST

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american history. douglas macarthur was a five star general who commanded allied forces in the pacific during world war ii. at the macarthur memorial in norfolk, virginia, we learn about his role during the war. japan, the korean war and his life after serving in the military. this is the second of a two-part program. >> hello and welcome to the macarthur memorial. my honor and privilege to be the director here. we are a museum, archive and research we seem to advocate it to douglas -- dedicated to douglas macarthur. we will get treasures related to of roper for the period or two and beyond to the end of his life. was a look at our first item. take a look at our first item. douglas macarthur was offered the job of the military advisor in the the lapine's.
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we were slated -- in the philippines. they needed a military advisers to create the philippine military. douglas macarthur brings a very task.sive resume to that he is the most highly decorated american officer in the first world war, had been superintended at west point, a military academy. he was announced any graduate at west point. was known in the philippines and served in the philippines, had a lot of friends in the , had beens government chief of staff of the united states army from 1930-1935. immediately after that, he to be military advisor. he took his 88-year-old mother with him and they put passage on .he liner hoover macarthur being a major general in the army reverted to that link after becoming chief of staff was seated at the captain stable.
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-- captain's table. this program is from october of 1935 on their way across the pacific. while there he meets a 37-year-old jean faircloth. jean is on the first leg of an asian tour. and we actually have the correspondence in our archives, on the way over she sparks a conversation with the general and becomes fascinated and they meet for breakfast every morning. douglas macarthur is torn between her and he loves to spend time with her and his ailing mother who is close to death. he said mom, what should i do? she says, i will be fine, go spend time with jean. they get to him a militant cancels the rest of the trip to -- they come 1947
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back in the spring of 1937. i this point his mother has died. he keeps her body preserved in the philippines, brings her back and laser next to his father at the arlington national cemetery, where she is buried today. and douglas jean get married on the newark city hall. the philippines, as far as douglas macarthur is hefirmed he is -- concerned is not going back to the united states. yes a penthouse in the manila hotel. he is working for his good friend, the president of the philippine government. in february of 1938, they have a child. arthur macarthur the fifth. born february 28, 1938. his godparents at the president of the philippines. theou think about it, in late 1930's to have ethnic.
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parents for an american child is quite a statement about where macarthur is on racial issues. macarthur moves everything to manila, library, father's library, fathers metals, everything. he is not going back to the united states. the states intervene. the japanese get active with the outbreak of the second world war in september of 1939. with the fall of france in 1940, a creates a weakness among the colonial powers. japan decides to strike. the big and to move against the dutch each indies and the french isonies and into china which laos, vietnam and cambodia. because of this concern, in july of 1941, 75 years ago, this july, general macarthur's recall to the colors and is named the commander of chief in the united
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states army. charged with defending the philippine army and receives massive reinforcement. this is not complete when the japanese attacked pearl harbor and the philippines december 7 and eighth of 1941. morning, 7:55 in the when the japanese strike pearl harbor, 3:00 a.m. in manila. very quickly loses most of his air force to a japanese bombing. japanese invade a few weeks later paired macarthur tries to fight them on the beaches, his men are unable to hold. macarthur realizes he needs to abandon manila, have a plan and fall back to the mad -- mouth of the manila bay. to hold out there as long as possible. he sends word to the manila hotel to his wife and son. on four hours notice on christmas eve, 1941, jean
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macarthur packs two suitcases and her son and prepares to leave. why do i tell you that story? it is because this is how we have these two objects. dals owned by general macarthur. macarthur is the only officer to hold the rank of field marshal. he was given that ring to enhance the status of military advisor. he remains the only field marshal the philippines army has ever had. this is his field marshals baton, it is one of a kind. no other one like it bears the steel. as mrs. macarthur is walking out of the penthouse, she stops and sees these and a glass case and realizes i do not want to leave these for the japanese. she quickly takes them, puts them in a towel and throws them in the suitcase, then leaves.
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a couple of months later when the macarthur's are doing their out by a submarine is a trunk of their valuables. it includes these items. that is how we have them today. in 1940 five, the japanese captured the penthouse inventory the content, in 1945 the manila strong point. in the fighting, it was completely destroyed. the macarthur's lost virtually everything. if it was not saved in 1941, chances were that it was completely lost. in oureates holes ability to interpret its macarthur's life before because of artifacts and cases of loss of the story. macarthur's father's medal of from the civil war.
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macarthur's father's library, mostly gone. it is a real tragedy and a high personal price to pay among the senior leaders of the united states army in world war ii. something not a lot of people know about, especially with the manila hotel. that is why we have these items here. christmas eve to new year's eve was when the army retreat the baton. they actually stopped, it is the only place where they stop the japanese advances southward. british and able to hold, dutch are not able to hold, other places are not able to hold for very long, except on baton. the problem is they are becoming increasingly isolated outposts as the japanese invent southward -- advanced southward. macarthur and his wife are absolutely convinced that they are going to die in the philippines. they have seen the rising sun rise over manila, rise over the
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manila hotel. they think this is it. out, theynd the trunk are making their will. that was macarthur is not only the senior officer in the philippines, not only is he the physical embodiment of the united states in many ways to the average filipino, he is also , because and father his wife and son who turns for during the battle are with him as well. not only does he have the pressure of command, but he has to be a father and a husband, and to be strong for his family because they are taking his view. there are a couple of objects that illustrate some of the teams i have talked about. tacky cap,is small which was given to him on his birthday. it was handmade by one of the taylor's. they gave him a little cigarette holder they were able to salvage
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from the ruins of the post exchange. arthur mcarthur loved wearing his hat and walking around, smoking his invisible cigarette, using his cigarette holder. one of the sergeant saw him called hims and general. arthur macarthur indignantly stopped and that i am not a general, i am a sergeant. why is that? because sergeants drive cars. the other item in here of interest, most people gloss over it, but it speaks a great deal about how macarthur was viewed in the philippines. it is the ring that is on display in this case as well. he is evacuated from the philippines in 1942. macarthur accompanies him to the dock. there is a blow that takes them out to the submarine. as today's on, who is dying of tuberculosis will actually die in an file.
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both men think they will never die inie in exile -- exile. when they find your body, i want them to know you thought for this country. this is a small object, but it carries a great weight of emotional for the men who were it in 1942. a couple of days later he is granted a reprieve. under pressure from his allies and from pressure from the australian allies, pressure from the united states, from the press, from political opponents, realizes they cannot leave macarthur to the japanese. toy urge general macarthur leave the philippines. macarthur who tries to duck this , because he does not want to leave his men, his home,
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macarthur tries to duck it but says you are the only man that can lead this exposition. macarthur accepts the order. on march 11, 19 42, he, his family, and 19 other officers primarily depart on for pt boats . admiral namede john bulkley. they go 560 miles from japanese territory, from japanese waters, through the philippines to the northern part of the philippines, down the southern philippine i miss. on the night of march 16, landed on the morning of the 17. 1500 miles through japanese airspace. it without loss, there
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is not a whole lot of evidence he japanese knew they were flying, but they made it. the mistake of getting through a situation like that is unique in american history. i agree it one of the great adventure stories in the history of the united states military. hearthur gets to australia, issues a statement, which has made him one of the most famous statements. president of the united states ordered me to break through the japanese winds for the purpose of organizing it offends against japan. the primary object of which is the release of the philippines. i came through, and i shall return. that promise to go back and liberate the philippines will drive much of the war in the pacific. pacific, it was
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unlike any other conflict the united states had fought in. the geography of the area, the vast space. which securely the island of new guinea. not only it is the second-largest in the world, it is one of the least developed. it just isn't the infrastructure , wherein places you can count on ports and roads. new guinea, whatever you need to fight, you are probably going to have to take with you as the land does not provide it. that creates in engineering and a supply problem that is unlike anything that we have seen before. that is the first part. the second part is, for general macarthur to get to where he needs to go, from eastern new guinea to australia, back to the philippines, he needs help. it cannot be the army, has to be forcemy, navy and the air
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working together. no one service can win the war of the pacific. one service can lose it. that is one of the things that this panel shows us and develops these things a little bit. that is why we have this air force patch here. acarthur's air force develops great reputation for being able to support ground operations, but also to be a great menace to japanese shipping. battle in bismarck sea in the spring of 1943, the japanese convoys coming from new britain to new guinea across the streets was almost completely wiped out by air forces. the japanese lost almost all of the troops on the convoy, including having disruption of division headquarters. although the division general, most of his headquarters was in, it was disorganized. what men did get across were of limited value for a while to the
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japanese commander. that is the affective airpark -- airpower. macarthur never jumped very far. if he had to, he always stayed within the umbrella of his airpower. was to how important it the success of what he was trying to do. that is what you see in some of these photos. that points out the other thing about mcarthur. -- of anyue of that general and ceo. you'd need a good team to get to where you need to go, and to where you want to go. macarthur had a great team. he had extremely good engineers, extremely good supply officers, but at the heart were the three. , the navyomas kincaid commander and general george kenney who was in airpower theorist, one of the more innovative american airmen at the time, later the first
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supreme commander after the war. , the navy commander and general george he was commanding the air element. with those three working together, they were able to communicate, coordinate and collaborate extremely well where macarthur could say i want to go here and go down the new guinea coast, this is the objective, help me get there. how do we get there? he would give it to those guys, they and their staff would figure it out. by the time they got to the philippines they had the process of the amphibious land down well. in new guinea, they are managing three or four amphibious landings from several hundred miles apart, every single one of them successful. that is a great team. whenever you think about mcarthur's campaign, and macarthur's press relations, often focused on macarthur's campaigns. even macarthur understood he had good people working under him, working as an effective team. these guys were contemporaries to macarthur or did they knew
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each other, macarthur trusted them. the house most importantly, unlike what would get him into trouble in north korea, macarthur's people would be able to tell him no. it was a great team working together. it often sometimes is not to the credit it deserves. for all of the successes in new guinea, there is still the question, when and if we are going back to the philippines. macarthur got his answer in the summer of 1944. one of the great moment, which was the pearl harbor counts. the democratic national convention had nominated franklin roosevelt for a fourth term, he flew to pearl harbor to meet with his two top commanders. general douglas macarthur at pearl harbor. as franklin roosevelt said, we are next. because of the two pacific
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drives and the southwest pacific nearing the china coast and near taiwan and the philippines, where do we go? nimitz presented a case, which is what the navy department in washington wanted to do. macarthur made the case for the philippines. go,president we have to then moves on. there were several reasons for it. first, strategic. teachinges is finished position. we have a chance to use this as our base for further operations against japan. further operations against the japanese held areas. with ace -- for a strategic purpose it is important. he promised, i shall return. americans have made a promise to the philippines. inpromised the dependence 1946, but they also promise to redeem back in december of 1941.
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franklin roosevelt said i pledged that full resources and the united states, stand behind the pledge that independence of the philistines will be -- philippines will be redeemed and protected. said the philippines are watching what we do. defeat.excuse macarthur read that statement, but it is something he felt in his heart. he argued, mr. president we made a promise. we have to go back. for 17 million filipinos on the brink of starvation, there are thousands -- over 10,000 american prisoners of war that in prisoner of war camps. we have to go back, we owe it to them. ultimately what turned the debate was logistics. can you do the
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philippines with the resources that we have, with the men and supplies with what we have in the pacific's, can you do it? macarthur said yes. nimitz said i need reinforcement. 26 1940ook at july four. that is the same time the normandy breakout is happening. the france campaign, which is considered the global priority among the allies is heating up and beginning to advanced towards the german border. there is no way nimitz is getting resources from europe. that decidesand the decision tht mcarthur will go back to the philippines. the fact that the united states, alone among all of the powers kept that promise, influences the united states positions in in asia today. you have to understand this history of world war ii, you have to understand douglas
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macarthur's role. that brings us to one of the iconic pictures and iconic moments in the pacific war. the return of douglas macarthur to the philippines in 1944. here he is waiting ashore with his staff. to his right, partly cut off is the president of the philippines commonwealth. that is a piece of strategic communication. macarthur is waiting ashore with the philippines commonwealth president on his right. morning, october 20, 1944, you can see in the picture below, he broadcasted a message to the philippine people. people of the philippines, i have returned. three days later he sets up the philippine commonwealth government. is the hand that he is using to broadcast his return to the philippines. achieves aarthur personal success here, but it is
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not one that is finished until the end of the war. he will spend basically the rest of the war devoting energy to the forces under his command, deliberating all of the philippines islands. a task that is not complete until august 15, 1945 when japan surrenders. at the end of the war, they are planning the invasion of japan, which plans purports to be one of the great battles in history, also one of the bloodiest battles in the history of the war. with the atomic bombs of hiroshima, that results in the invasion not needing to be done. you would need a supreme commander for the allied powers to rule japan. that job goes to general macarthur. this is an example of general macarthur understanding japan. he lived in asia for a while, but it is his ability to
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understand the values of symbols. that brings me to this display behind me, which we will walk over to now. this is another one of the the japanesehows signing the surrender of japan on the deck of the uss missouri in 1945. he did see some of the principles involved. or is general macarthur, chief of staff general richard sutherland. the gentleman to the right not was ag the peach cap friend of general macarthur. behind macarthur are some of the international delegates representing the other countries at war with japan. one of the japanese delegates told the emperor how could we ever have expected to defeat the whole world. notable people here, the soviet france and youa,
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could see some of the others trailing off in the distance. the australians are there, new zealand's, canada and great britain as well. this is the japanese foreign minister in the western-style signing, then the chairman of the joint chiefs for them will sign as well. thenmcarthur will sign, each of the nation following will sign as well. this is an amazing moment in the history of the world, because macarthur stage manages symbolism here. it is anchored at the same spot that commoner will in -- william perry did when he opened his ships in 1853. the flag is represented in this picture, it is. flag which had been flown out from annapolis. the japanese did not miss the symbolism of that.
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the other thing macarthur does is to make sure it is broadcast to the world. audio. video and he makes comments about how we are not meeting here in a spirit of malice or hatred, we have two divergent ideas that have met on the battlefield. the japanese agree, we were be in into the superior idea. macarthur also says we have had our last chance. we do not now find a better and more equitable way of resolving disputes between nations, armageddon will be at our door. it is of the spirit if we are to save the flesh. what is he talking about? he is advocating for the abolition of nuclear weapons. what other general, through the great triumphs of his life would make a statement might that? he also set the tone by talking about the defeat of japan and
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will come later in the address, and the ceremony itself, which takes about 20 minutes with a massive flyover of allied aircraft's. one of the last great symbols of allied power. it is worth pointing out that the war in the pacific was very american. there are australians of all, canadians, it was the first time canadians were involved in the first idc ground forces in action. they were all represented here on the deck of the missouri. represented all of the nations that helped plate a role in defeating imperial japan. this ceremony ends the war. macarthur also use it to set the right tone. what will come is one of the great stories of reconstruction and occupation in our history. this corridor focuses on the occupation of japan.
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in macarthur's time, basically as the spring commander from 1945 japanese surrendered until his release in 1961. he was de facto the chief of state of japan until that time. and how hen power quickly became known. when visiting and bassett's would come to tokyo and be stationed in october -- in tokyo and reopen their embassies, they would present their credentials to general macarthur. general macarthur set up his shops in the insurance building in downtown tokyo. it also -- his office overlooks the square where radio tokyo said they would hang general macarthur as a war criminal. the symbolism of that phase is nobody. one of the first moments that macarthur has to set the tone of the occupation of japan, is how
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he chooses to face the emperor. japanese society in 1945 had far more in common with medieval europe, in terms of eating a fugal society and how they in socialasses structure, to what it does today. the japanese also believes there emperor was a living this is how he treats the emperor. it will make or break what happens. macarthur's's is convinced, call on the emperor and show strength. he says if i do that it will debase him in the eyes of his people. our -- let the patient's of east serve our purposes. macarthur met him. in the a picture of them
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u.s. embassy. they sat and talked for a few minutes. this photograph was taken by the press before the meeting happened. and it is a very important photograph because both men use it to send messages to their people about how they are supposed to regard the other side and the occupation. this is an example of macarthur being able to manage the optics of the situation. look at how macarthur is standing -- very casual. uniform he wears every day. kind of relaxing. view this asences an expression of power and superiority. take a look at hirohito.
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he is dressed through the nines. he is almost standing at attention. he is obviously uncomfortable. the japanese view this as a sign of respect and deference for the americans. the emperor uses this as a way to show how we should treat the americans. work with them. treat them with deference and respect and we will get through this process and be able to move forward again. this photograph is reproduced through the united states. it is one of the most famous pictures of the occupation, and an extremely significant moment. macarthur and hirohito signed three copies of this picture. two of them are here and one in the imperial palace. this is a tremendous moment. macarthur later said the success of the occupation was in large part to the attitude of
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hirohito. the japanese people are fascinated by their new ruler. this is what this little panel shows here. some of the tribute artwork you would find with general mac arthur. one of the first things macarthur does, notice in the picture how destroyed japan is. japan faces a famine in the winter of 1946. macarthur orders his men to eat their own rations. this is at variance with all previous occupation policies in asia and endears the japanese forever. elementary and middle school kids send an album to general macarthur, tribute artwork .they doing they start editorial cartoons about what he is doing.
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this is just a very small tip of the iceberg type look. we will show you a few more here in a few minutes. there is some guidance from the state department. he has plenty of freedom of action to do what he needs to do to reform japanese society. macarthur decides we are going to disband the secret police, enfranchise women, educate people. we are going to break the class system. basically remake japan into a democratic nation and bring it forward to a democratic republic. one of the ways they do that is through the writing of the japanese constitution. it governs japan to this day. macarthur and his staff wrote that constitution and enshrines those values in the japanese constitution. the japanese viewed this as so
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important. one viewed it as so important, fan of the entire text of the constitution and presented it to general macarthur as a token of thanks. this has ramifications today. because of article nine, which the macarthur constitution contains. it awards the sovereign right of the nation and renounces the use of force from settling disputes with other nation. land, sea, and other forces will never be authorized. the fact the japanese have been reinterpreting this to mean collective defense against some of the geopolitical issues in asia these days has become something of a political issue in asia, because it raises the specter of japanese soldiers, sailors, and airmen operating in
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areas they haven't operated in since world war ii. this is like yesterday over there. this remains a geopolitical issue in asia to this day directly tied to the occupation. the occupation continued to work. it continued to reform japan culturally and a lot of different ways. these items show a little more about how the effect has. the first photo is of mrs. macarthur on a tour. she was something of the first lady of japan. douglas did not leave tokyo that much. she would travel the country and was a tremendous goodwill ambassador between the american occupiers and the japanese.
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goings general macarthur to his limo after a day at work. trying to japanese get a glimpse of the great general macarthur. every january 26, on macarthur's birthday, a group of japanese would sing happy birthday with the rising sun and u.s. flags, which, if you think about it, was completely unthinkable. it says something about how the country converted and the extent of the occupation. baseball items here. macarthur reintroduced baseball to the islands. really made it a very popular game. this gives you a sense of japan under macarthur in the late 1940's. the connection that is made here
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remains strong between the united states and japan. douglas macarthur is the most famous non-native in those countries. what i am going to show you illustrates exactly what i am talking about. one of the things to keep in mind is that, in the cultures sacarthur is working in, gift to cement relationships are absolutely important. re,t is what these cases he the amazing asian art -- and this is just the tip of the iceberg. of the 15,000 objects in our collection, 4000 or more are asian objects. some handmade themselves. these pieces, which you see here, the ceramic and prints and everything else, is a perfect
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whiche of the esteem with douglas macarthur was held by japan and the philippines. the fact they would give him objects of this value, objects of sentimental and monetary howe means a lot about macarthur was regarded in that part of the world. of course, the occupation is not it. of thenately, the end war was not the end of conflict, which would erupt again on the korean peninsula. that is the next-door. -- next story. been divided had between the soviet union and the united states at the 38th parallel. the idea is that soviets would surrender troops, and americans would do the same.
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parallel soon hardened into an international line. invaded theth korea republic of korea, south korea. both of these countries had been created in 1948. and that started the korean war. the korean war is very much a watershed. mainly because it is the first united nations war. immediately after the war starts, the united nations security council meets and votes to help the republic of korea. it asked its members to continue forces under the overall command of an american officer. harry truman designates macarthur as that officer and creates a u.n. command. on july 14, 1950, macarthur raises the u.n. flag on top of the headquarters building.
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this is the first u.n. war, this is the first real mission for the security council. it makes it something of a watershed. by the time the korean war is over in 1953 and the time the armistice was signed, australia, new zealand, turkey, france, greece, belgium, the ethiopia,s, columbia, denmark and sweden have contributed combat or medical units to the united nations committee. today, south korea, if you count the nations that rebuild it, forh korea holds the record nations that sustained independence and rebuilt it after the war. a flag saying thank
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you for what has been done. one of the things that needs to be noted is that the korean people could have chosen to have knuckled under. instead they chose to fight. they committed themselves to the defense of korea. for reasons we will see, the commitment remains intact to this day. we set up the korean war. let's talk about the korean war, 1950 to 1953. june 25, 1950. the 38th parallel runs right here. for those in the united states, charlottesville virginia is just north of the 38th parallel. interstate 64 in kentucky runs along the 30th parallel. just to give you an idea of where this it's geographically. north korea attacked southward.
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here is the south korean capital. japan is just barely on the map right here. they attacked southward. push into thekly perimeter. an area 100 miles long. they control 85% of the peninsula by august of 1950, just six weeks after the war starts. in one of the great defensive stands in the history of the united states army, the united states army holds off all korean attacks and holds the perimeter august 1, 1950. in a couple cases, they are down to their last reserves. absolutely incredible stand. macarthur haslas
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troops in japan trying to figure out what to do. he can lead them in, but he is planning on a counterstrike. he has to advance just a little bit to seoul, cut the north korean supply line, and he has a good chance of destroying the north korean army. the problem is they have some of the highest tides in the world and can only be landed on a couple days a month. the next day is on september 15. joint chiefs of staff in washington are convinced this is not a good idea. mcarthur says they would not expect it. it is a crazy place to land. that means it is a great idea. the first marine division land here september 15, 1950. they retake seoul two weeks later and destroy the bulk of the north korean army right here.
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they are pushed back to the 48th parallel by october 1. at this point, the un security council has a new resolution. if you can, unify the korean peninsula. macarthur pushed north into north korea. china, which had gone communist the year before, sends and does not have relations with the united states, with a lot of countries in the u.s. command, sends a notice through india. if you approach the river, you will be forced back. macarthur meets with truman at island october 15 and discounts notions of intervention. push north and take pyonjgjang. corps finds chinese
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volunteers and discounts them. they launch an attack and our home before christmas 1950. 350,000 chinese attack. the u.s. army faces a desperate about -- battle on the river. the u.s. marines in the reservoir are surrounded by the chinese and fight their way down is not retreat. it is attack in another direction. the seventh division, which reached the river here, turned around and retreated back. in the dunkirk, 105,000 americans and koreans pull out september 12 through 24, 1950. this is an important moment of history. there were 100,000 korean refugees that has lived in the north and do not want to stay. they show up in the port, and
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there are no notions of what to do. edward almond, who was a controversial figure, says whatever spare shipping is, i want you to take refugees. 98,000 people get out and evacuate to pusan. five children are born at sea on the way. this has a profound impact on the korean psyche. they made a movie about it. there are a lot of people that say this cemented our relationship with the korean people. we were there for the korean people. this remains a big moment in our relationship. that does not disguise the fact this is the biggest retreat from the north korean army back down to seoul.
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the u.n. forces are pushed south of seoul. wayon walker fights his back north in a series of intense battles. he finally makes his way to the peninsula. at this point, macarthur and truman have gone back and forth on policy. macarthur once the finish. there is no substitute for victory. truman realizes if we go north and start bombing china, the soviet union is right here. they have a mutual defense pact with the chinese. that means world war iii. wrong war, wrong time, wrong place. this dispute becomes public. on april 11, 1951, truman release macarthur. take two yearsey
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to hammer out an agreement. battle lines don't move significantly from where they stopped the summer of 1951. and in july 27, 1953 the armistice takes effect. there has never been a peace treaty, technically. the two koreas remain at war. one of the negotiating points for north korea about the nuclear armaments is give us a us diplomaticgive recognition. it remains a geopolitical issue today. there has not been able to change. how we handle macarthur's firing , mcarthur's side account. behind me is truman's account.
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there is something to keep in mind. the fundamental tension is they were both right, and they were also both wrong. truman was right. third world war was definitely avoided. but there is no substitute for victory. it is still a tripwire. this is still the most heavily militarized border in the world. north korea remains a dangerous foe and dangerous geopolitical force in northeast asia, just as 1953. in 1951, 1952, after truman relieved macarthur, he addressed congress on 1951. april 15, one of the lines was old soldiers never die. they just fade away. macarthur chose to fade away for the next 13 years of his life in new york city, where he his
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wife, and their son became a fixture. macarthur was an avid baseball fan. he would go to yankee stadium, at its field. he was very interested in what was going on on the athletic field. 1953, general macarthur wrote, if you notice on the scan, we have the entire handwritten manuscript. if you look real carefully, you'll notice there is almost no correction. mindthur had a very sharp and was known to have a photographic memory. it seems the thoughts came out of his head fully formed. it is absolutely an amazing manuscript when you flip through all the pages, handwritten yellow pages. counseled the
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president and became an elder statesman. he met with john kennedy in 1962 and lyndon johnson in 1964. in both cases, he told them, stay out of a country called vietnam. robe you see over in the gallery here. macarthur, between old age and liver problems, begins to fade shortly after his 84th birthday. he lays in state in the u.s. capitol at the seventh regiment army and at the rotunda of the mormon -- memorial, which opened in 1964. mcarthur said i would be at the dedication, which was originally memorial day,e 1964. he said i will be there alive or dead.
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the funeral was considered the de facto dedication of the macarthur memorial. macarthur always felt this place -- even though we have been talking about general macarthur primarily -- he always felt this place was not always just about him. this was from his dedication speech which he never gave. he always felt very strongly it was to the millions of men and women who fought the world wars. that is part of this. we are about the men and women with whom he served telling , their stories as well. we certainly hope you will come and explore that. these are some items from the funeral. this is the flag. they are folding it in this picture. it is the flag that draped his coffin. it has never been unfolded and never will be unfolded. this is the bugle that played
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taps, and the funeral proclamation from president johnson, marking the passing of general macarthur. we will show you the general's medals and some of the iconic items to give you a sense of the man and who he was. this is our concluding gallery. in many ways, it was the essence of macarthur, what he symbolized, but also the marks of what he did. the first thing i want to show you is three of our absolute iconic pieces. general macarthur's hat from his field marshal of the philippines, which she wore -- he wore through japan and the philippines. that is the hat he is wearing. corncob pipe.
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he was an avid pipe smoker and collector. and general macarthur's rayban sunglasses. --se are tremendous city symbols of who this man was. the other thing i want to show you is general macarthur's medals. the first is the foreign decorations. we have a reconstruction of his full dress uniform. on the right is his u.s. decorations. general macarthur is one of the most highly decorated soldiers in history. two of the items are extremely evocative. both because of what they are and also because of what the stories contained. the first is general macarthur's medal of honor, which is in the center. macarthur got it in the spring of 1942.
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macarthur himself understood, i accept this not on my behalf but on behalf of the men and women, it was my honor and privilege to command. macarthur was always ambivalent about this because it reminded him about batan. he never had a public ceremony awarding the metal honor. honor.l of he only mentioned it once in his memoir. this was also a personal milestone for general macarthur. his father had earned the medal of honor for the battle of chattanooga. his father arthur at age 18. they became the first father-son medal of honor domination in the history of the country. honor ande medal of do something his father had done was personally very gratifying. at the same time, the
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circumstances under which it was veneer undoubtedly had a of emotion that might not have been there. that is the first one, the medal of honor. the second one is the purple heart, originally created as a valor award by george washington. fell intoon -- it disuse, and general macarthur reinstituted it. macarthur, having been gassed twice in world war i, was entitled to two purple hearts. he made it retroactive to the first world war. they used to be serial numbered. purple heart number one was given to general macarthur in world war i. this is purple heart number one here.
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take a close look. there is a bust of george washington. gou'll notice some scrapin around the portrait of general washington. this was in the manila hotel when the macarthur penthouse was destroyed. this was one of the very few survivors of macarthur's things. we have it on display here. it tells the story of the re-creation of the american medal and the story of survival and disruption of manila. the last piece that gives you the essence of macarthur and the thing i really want to leave you with is our rotunda, which is the final resting place of general macarthur and his wife, jean. we will conclude over there. this is our rotunda. it is actually the centerpiece of the macarthur memorial building.
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it contains the last resting place of general macarthur and his wife surrounded by emblematic quotes from his career along with personal flags and the units that fell under his command. this is the other room that gives you the essence of macarthur, who he was and what he stood for. we hope you enjoy this tour of some great history that remains relevant to this very day. we invite you to come on down and visit us in downtown norfolk here at the memorial. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] you can watch this and other american artifacts programs by visiting our website at >> election night on c-span. watch results and be part of a national conversation about the outcome. on location at the donald trump and hillary clinton headquarters and watch victory
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and concessions pieces -- concession speeches in key races. watch live on c-span, on demand at, or listen the coverage using the c-span radio app. next on american history tv, was john quincy adams a realist? the author of john quincy adams appears on stage with robert kagen to discuss foreign-policy views and the legacy of the president at the new york historical society. [applause] >> thanks very much. tonight bob and i are having a debate, but it won't be that kind of debate. i promised to tell you not to
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publish your tax returns if you ask me not to publish my e-mails. >> and i won't deny things i said in the past. i will admit everything i said. >> we will try to work our way towards shedding light on something we both think about and write about and talk about a lot. i'm going to take the privilege, since it is my book of going first and saying a few things and bob will tell you why what i said was wrong. our subject is was john quincy adams a realist? we are talking about his worldview. in my book i say not only did johnnc


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