Skip to main content

tv   C-SPAN3 Programming  CSPAN  November 11, 2016 12:00am-12:58am EST

12:00 am
atomic secret. that bore was very close towards the edge of mortal crimes and churchill wondered if perhaps he ought to be locked up. anderson was rather shocked by his attack on an honorable man and did his best to put the pm straight and succeeded to the extent that bore retained his liberty for the rest of the war
12:01 am
12:02 am
to her close friends as becky, with the lifestyle she admitted on her ministerial lifestyle. ava was the widow of the foreign office official who in the 1930s applied churchill with vital
12:03 am
information on german rearmament before his untimely death. anderson did, however, accept a -- he continued to advise the government informally on atomic matters. he died age 76 in 1958. so then, shortly before his death, anderson fell to reminiscing about the war with j. robert oppenheimer. of hours, the director of the manhattan project, los alamos bomb lab. anderson, a really sweet guy, oppenheimer recalled, had never, and i'm still quoting oppenheimer, had never been reconciled to the fact that bore's counsel had not been followed by churchill or roosevelt in 1944. nor anderson might have added, his own counsel. i think however one regards the atomic aspect of sir john
12:04 am
anderson's career, and his outlook does now seem idealistic, unrealistic, naive, even. knowing what we know about stalin's nuclear ambitions, i hope you'll agree that anderson's importance to churchill and churchill's dependence on him at times makes anderson deserving of being remembered for something more. important though it was, but something more than a garden based bomb shelter. thank you very much for your time and attention. [ applause ] good morning. thank you, ted, for those initial words. william mckenzie king. well, the major participants on
12:05 am
the allied side in the second world war were britain, the united states and the soviet union. the contribution by what could be called the second division was a significant factor in the successful outcome of the war. this sector included the members of the british empire and commonwealth. of the dominions, the major contributor in the war was canada. the contribution of that country and the war was opined by the british historian richard holmes in his book, in the footsteps of churchill. holmes wrote in 1940, 1941, britain would not have survived as an independent nation, had it not been for the agricultural, the industrial and financial aid received from canada.
12:06 am
holmes also wrote in that book the canadian contribution was remarkable. in terms of manpower, it produced over a million volunteers for the allied armed forces with 42,000 killed out of a population of 11 million. as usual, only the squeaking wheels get the grease. the quietly competent canadians and their low-key prime minister deserve more credit than they have received or than i can give here. the low-key prime minister was william lion mackenzie king born december 17th, 1874, just 17 days after the birth of winston churchill. they were similar in height, 5'6", and in the color of their eyes, blue.
12:07 am
however, that similarity did not extend to their scholarly achievements. whereas churchill was an indifferent scholar, king was a brilliant student with degrees from the universities of toronto, chicago and harvard. harvard wished him to join its faculty and it took an intervension by canada's prime minister to insist that king's future was in canada. although only 26 years of age, king occupied the senior civil service position of deputy minister of labor when winston churchill arrived in ottawa in december 1900 to speak on his war exploits. the two men met, but it was not a success. king found churchill drinking champagne at 11:00 in the
12:08 am
morning and the rather priggish ging was not impressed. king had achieved success in solving dispupts this came to the attention of the president of the united states, theodore, teddy, roosevelt. the president was concerned with the numbers of japanese arriving in the united states. and he invited king to meet him. the result of the meeting was a request that king intercede with the british government which had a friendly relationship with the japanese government to put pressure on japan in that regard. in march 1908, king sailed to england and met with sir edward gray, the british foreign minister. the result was a much-reduced flow of immigrants and
12:09 am
improvement in anglo and american japanese relations. on that trip to britain, king met churchill again, and his diary showed that his opinion of churchill had much improved. he wrote, one cannot talk with him without being impressed with the nimbleness of his mind. his quickness of perception and his undoubted ability. that same year, 1908, king was elected as a member of parliament. appointed canada's first minister of labor. just three years later, the governing liberal party was defeated, and king lost his seat. with the coming of war in 1914, the almost 40-year-old king was an unlikely candidate for the military. another prospect soon presented
12:10 am
itself, however. his impressive record in solving labor disputes had come to the attention of the rockefeller foundation, which was involved in a serious and bloody dispute in colorado. and king was invited to join the foundation as director of research with the salary of $12,000 a year, a substantial income in those days. king solved the colorado dispute, and he later worked for other u.s. companies, such as bethlehem steel, general electric, standard oil and the carnegie corporation. but he returned to ottawa in 1919 to contest the leadership of the liberal party, and he was successful. two years later, a general election was held with the liberal party assuming office, and king was now prime minister.
12:11 am
just nine months later, in september 1922, britain in the form of the colonial minister, winston churchill, requested that canada pledge troops to a possible military action against the turkish army. king responded that the request would be considered by canada's parliament. however, king had no intention of exceeding to the request. canada had suffered 61,000 fatalities in world war i with a further 172,000 wounded out of a population of just 8 million. and king knew that people would not stand for the further shedding of blood. that matter blew over but it emphasized to king that canada could no longer continue in a
12:12 am
subservient position. when britain had declared war on germany in 1914, canada was automatically at war. and king was determined to change the basis of the relationship. at the imperial conference of 1923, the autocratic british foreign minister, lord kearsen, put forward a resolution that when the british foreign minister spoke, he spoke not just for britain but for the whole of the empire. countries such as australia and new zealand agreed, as they looked for britain's protection. but canada in the form of mackenzie king disagreed. king won the day, and his further efforts resulted in the balfour deck larician of 1926 which stated that the united kingdom and the dominions are,
12:13 am
quote, autonomous communities within the british empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another. in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs. king's liberal party lost a general election held in 1930, which was fortuitous as the conservative government had to deal with a great depression. the liberal party was re-elected in 1935, and king was again prime minister. the following year, he was in london, and he met with churchill. and he was told britain was never in greater danger. and that inside of five years, it was possible that she would be a vasile state of germany. king was not supportive of churchill's efforts to sway the
12:14 am
government. and with his background in labor negotiations, he fully supported the appeasement policy of neville chamberlain. in may 1937, king was in london for the coronation of king george vi and met with the german ambassador to britain, von riventrop. it was a common link at von riventrop had worked in england prior to the firt world war. he suggested that king should meet with hitler. that was arranged, and in june 1937, king presented himself at the hindenberg palace. king recorded the conversation in his diary. and he makes an astonishing reading and went to great lengths to portray himself as a man of peace. quoting from king's diary, he went on to say, as far as war is
12:15 am
concerned, you need have no fear of war at the instance of germany. we have no desire for war, and we don't want war. it is i myself who have been through a war and not one of us wants to see another war. he was impressed and relieved by hitler's statement, but to his credit, he did state that if britain was attacked, he would come to britain's aid. whether that made any impression on hitler is -- but it certainly made no impact on his future decisions. on september 3rd, 1939 with britain declaring war on germany, king broadcast to the people of canada. this included the forces of evil have been loosed in the world.
12:16 am
i appeal to my fellow canadians to unite in a national effort to save from destruction all that makes life worth living. and to preserve for future generations those institutions which others have bequeathed to us. and september the 9th, canada's parliament passed legislation declaring war on germany. it is one thing to be at war and another to be able to wage war. canada in 1939 was totally unprepared. however, deficiencies were quickly remedied. on september the 26th, canada agreed to be a training ground for airmen from britain, australia, new zealand and
12:17 am
canada. it achieved spectacular results with 130,000 pilots and air crew trained, and with canada assuming three-quarters of the cost, of $1.6 billion. president franklin roosevelt later declared that canada was the aero droem of democracy. king's liberal party won in a landslide. churchill cable came the next day, sincere personal congratulations on your victory. i am very glad we shall continue our work for the common cause. when churchill became prime minister in may 1940, king sent him a telegram assuring him of the wholehearted support and cooperation of canada and his government colleagues and
12:18 am
himself. and wishing him, quote, vision and endurance in guiding public affairs at this most critical of hou hours. though churchill and king knew that to win the war the united states had to join the allies. but in the spring of 1940, president roosevelt was far from convinced that britain would survive. this was illustrated by secretary of state kordell hall requesting that king line up the dominions to bring pressure on britain, not to make a soft peace with hitler. and if britain was to be defeated, then prior to this happening, the british fleet should be sailed to ports in the north american hemisphere. king wrote to churchill explaining the united states
12:19 am
concerns. the following day, churchill responded pointing out that if the united states within the war and britain was conquered, then the fleet would be transferred from the clutches of germany. but if the united states continued to be neutral and britain was overpowered, then he couldn't tell what policy would be adopted by a pro-german administration. king forwarded churchill's response to washington. needless to say, roosevelt and hall were most concerned with churchill's attitude which they considered was, quote, alarming and distressing. and they asked king to continue to dialogue with churchill giving the dubious reason not on the basis of an american plan, but primariy iey ies to save th
12:20 am
british empire. king was uncomfortable being the linchpin in the correspondence, and he assured churchill of canada's continued support. which he illustrated in a radio broadcast on june the 7th, 1940. i speak the heart and mind of our country when i say that every fort in canada will be another calais. and every harbor will be another dunker before the men and women of our land allow the light and life of their christian faith to be extinguished by the powers of evil or yield their libertiors to nazi brutality. the following month, the attitude of roosevelt had changes after churchill's action in attacking the french fleet to
12:21 am
keep it out of hitler's control. the president was now determined to provide support which initially came in an innovative plan to provide britain with 40 destroyers. this action was welcomed by king as was roosevelt's proposal of the establishment of a joint board comprosed of an equal number of representatives from the united states and canada to devise strategies for ensuring protection of the northern half of the western hemisphere. what became known as the ogdensberg agreement basically agreed that the united states would help protect canada's territory. king and roosevelt kept in regular communications and at the request of king, they met in
12:22 am
april 1941 at the president's home hyde park, new york. king pointed out that britain was basically bankrupt, and canada had a serious shortage of u.s. dollars. king suggested a form of barter. canada would manufacture ammunitions for the u.s. in exchange for the purchase of american war material. while roosevelt was initially against the agreement, as it might be going too far, something manufactured in canada for the united states to lend lease to britain. however, the concerns were overcome and the hyde park declaration was a significant achievement, and ended canada's financial difficulties for the remainder of the war. on june the 1st, 1941, king
12:23 am
broadcast to the people of britain, and this included, we have been inspired by your bravery, your undaunted courage and your determination to fight to the end. may i send to you mr. churchill warmest greetings and remembrances. and what, to me, has been a valued friendship of many years. to us, you are the personification of britain in this, the greatest hour. churchill responded the next day to the people of canada, and this included your comradeship in this mortal struggle. cheers and fortifies of these islands. it must seem that canada, free from all pressure, so many thousands of miles away, should hasten forward into the van of
12:24 am
the battle against the evil forces of the world. the people of great britain are proud of the fact that the liberty of action they have won through their long romantic history should have taken root throughout the length and breadth of a continent from halifax to victoria. in august 1941, king flew to britain and spoke in a dinner in the mansion house. he started by speaking of the courage and commitment of the british people and especially of the londoners. he then addressed churchill. by the power of your eloquence, by the energy of your conduct, and by the genius of your leadership, you have galvanized a great people into heroic action. rarely equaled and never excelled in the history of
12:25 am
warfare. king concluded with a familiar theme. that to win the war, it was necessary for the united states to be a full participant. the united states did enter the war in december 1941, and churchill arrived to discuss strategy and speak to congress. he then traveled to ottawa to address the canadian parliament. the toronto globe and mail reported, puffing a big cigar and smiling broadly, winston churchill, the empire's great war leader, arrived today in the senior dominion to receive a welcome which he will remember to his dying day. his speech to the canadian parliament included his some chicken, some neck reference. s after he was followed by -- and the roaring lion portrait
12:26 am
resulted one of the most famous photos in the annuls of that medium. clementine churchill later told king that she did not like the picture and neither did winston. well, king kept a low profile. in december 1941, he addressed the pilgrims of new york. and he took the opportunity of pointing out the contribution that canada was making in the war. he gave many statistics on the canadian war production. and while many facts were difficult to assimilate, one statistic was easily understood. we are supplying 200 pounds of food per annum for every man, woman and child in the
12:27 am
king was content to let churchill and roosevelt make the maj major war decisions with canada accepting whatever it was allotted. however, when canada was not given recognition on its imparting both the invasion of sicily in june 1943 and motherern france in june 1944, he reacted with fury and corrections were made. with the end of the war, a general election was held in canada. the conservative opposition built its campaign and criticism of the government's handling of the war effort. where as king adopted a positive program, of future prosperity and they won a clear victory. in november 1947, king was if london for the marriage of princess elizabeth and prince phillip.
12:28 am
he dine with churchill and by this time his opinion had changed. he wrote in his diary, i confess that as i looked at him across the table, i felt that perhaps in more respects than one he was the greatest man of our times. king, his health deteriorating, retired in the summer of 1948 after 21 years as prime minister. this was and still is a record for longevity of a prime minister in all of british and common wealth history. king died in 1950. on january 14, 1952, winston ch churchill spoke at a dinner in ottawa on king. i made a life-long friendship with him. and i shared my grief with all canada and indeed the free world.
12:29 am
at his death, after so many years of the faithful and skillful service to the grate clauses which we uphold today. thank you. [ applause ] >> thank you for your kind introduction. i think my mother would have been delighted. but on the other hand, my father would have been amazed. as you might imagine, there's a lot of ground to be covered here and you'll find that i will not always read the text on the slides. so i ask you to read them as you listen to my additional comments with your active listening and talent. we've got the slides up?
12:30 am
we going or not? go ahead, sorry. >> thank you, john. in some 50 years this year since warren published his diary and created an uproar. yet his son tried do something about it, though he died a couple years ago, published his father's book in two volumes. in 2003 his volumes 1940, years 1940, 1945, and in 2006,
12:31 am
covering the years 1945 to 1920. with several -- with several additions and rewriting of the last five chapters of the book where the essay was one of a few pages, and he omitted the word decrepit and which upset the family very much. that quote, the controversy be put to rest. the controversy played out in the times in many different ways and the correspondents sort of concludes with trying to defend himself in this way saying simply he doesn't understand churchill's health issues, you don't understand churchill the last 25 years of his life.
12:32 am
this was complete in june 1951 and hangs in the royal college of physicians. which he was president from 1941-1950 and succeeded by his friend, lord bram. some of his friends and detractors commented that this pour tr portrait reveils much about his character and his personality thought to be somewhat cunning. and yes some 75 years since churchill met morin or morin met churchill, as would he put it. he made his way it add my rmira hous house. he stood there for some time waiting for a response and eventually the churchill made the comment, i don't know why anyone will bother to see me. this is right ridiculous. all i have is dispepsia. that's not all together true.
12:33 am
an orthopedic surgeon published in a book about his issues. later he goes on to say that morin was a self-promotor and a matter of the spin citing culver's comment that morin was rarely a center of event but would be invited to lunch the next day and told what happened. >> they were poej patient of morin in his private practice. each of them had pulmonary and chest problems. familiar with the general notion that churchill had a quote, weak chest. we know also that he didn't like either of these gentlemen which i suspect was someone significant as well.
12:34 am
and he had something besides dispepsia in his past history and we don't know if morin got a full accounting of all of thesish ice. what was this weak chest? he nearly died of pneumonia. it affected lungs while at school in brighton in 1896. hence he went to harrah's school and not to eaton which is where his father went. the sense is, why? because harris school is on a hill where the air would be less putrid. you can read this along as i go with a few comments. he was a writer before his father, general practice, insisted he two to medical school. he did go to medical school there at st. mary's. i think the most interesting correlation here is the remark
12:35 am
that morin makes about himself here. churchill wrote also in the biography of marlboro about churchill. mr. churchill, the compression of circumstances, twinges of adversity, spur of slights and taunts -- sorry, am i flicking on? in early years i needed to evoke that ruthless purpose and tenacious mother wit without great actions are seldom accomplished. a hint here that both of them had some sense about their own childhood. so what of his personality and his character? he served in the first world war in the trenches. he wasn't particularly interested in people coming from the front to be examined and was thought there were skrim shankers and sent back to the front. later on he catches on maybe that there is something -- sorry, i beg your pardon.
12:36 am
later on he catches on that something else is going on here. when he is researching there, poisoning with mustard gas and bringing along a number of these young people. he gets to the sense that maybe something different is going on. and so, coming to the end of things with the ravages of war, he really has a serious effect on the sense that this is a serious effect on the innate ability to soldier on. it is the first time you really get the sense of this comment of battle fatigue and shell shock and now what we understand to be ptsd. he wanted to get churchill's blessing on his book. he thought this would be something to be very useful in getting it published. churchill once invited a preface to the book. unfortunately morin was mistaken and churchill declined after he dipped into the text saying they might injury recruiting and
12:37 am
besides he had no patience with all of the damned psychological nonsense. maybe this was a shadow of his black dog. oh, his plaqblack dog? oh, my goodness. one of the things that upset people most in the family is that for the first time, or they thought it was the first time, this black dog was surfacing and had some sense of a stigma attached to that. maybe some remembered churchill's observation of psychiatrist. i shall restrict as much as possible the work of these gentlemen, capable of doing an immense amount of harm. may very easily degenerate into shy try. the ties of hand shall be kept over them. so what really did morin believe about this business of his black dog? is this more than just in fact a reaction to circumstances and thwarted ambition? or was there a trait going back as far as first two?
12:38 am
suffice it to say that churchill was a moody man and they had to upgrade the belligerent streak and his son is eloquent in his interview with a psychiatrist about his father's mood swings. well was morin any good as a private care physician in collecting good doctors? probably for the most part he did. so thomas dunhill was 71 years old when he operated on church and was a pioneer in thyroid surgery. he was doing a hernia. sew practiced on several national health service patients before he cut on churchill in 1947. an expert in the use of medication of mmb and was flown in from italy to consult on this drug for churchill's pneumonia in 1943.
12:39 am
morin does not mention the bottle or his vital role in his diary. what did he think of those he chose? well, this his diary, he wasn't exactly the nicest about his two colleagues. chuck kul vin and his diary, downing street diaries, published in 1985 comments on morin, though morin is vein, egotistical and indiscrete, his judgment is often shrewd but by all means always right. he did have some good friends. and lord richardson is the second to churchill and here he is with his wife dorothy who had become a great friend of lord richardson's wife, cybill. richardson's daughters, ann and claire to his right, both still alive. was he any good as a doctor?
12:40 am
well, this is a particularly interesting incident. ch churchill said, well, he had a heart attack. morin is on his own. he is if washington and in the white house in december white house in december 1941. w white house in december 1941. churchill calls the next morning and said i was trying to lift a window and i got this pain in my left arm. warren jumped on it. he didn't have access to an ekg machine but concluded by the description that churchill had indeed add heart attack. he said, you got to rest.hdd he. he said, you got to rest.add he. he said, you got to rest. d hea. he said, you got to hea. he said, you got to rest. heart. he said, you got to rest. the next day he is in front of congress giving talk. then in ottawa giving a talk. then churchill thought possibly he did not have a heart take.
12:41 am
so john parkinson's notes, which do not appear in morin's diary, he makes the point to churchill, you think you add coronary thrombosis? sir, you didn't. your ekg shows you have no damage to your heart. the best i can imagine is you have a slight embarrassment to your heart circulation maybe angina. this leads out the idea i think a lot of people had had -- i didn't advance. i beg your pardon. sorry, i should have shown that slide. and the lead to the myth that
12:42 am
churchill had a dicky heart. that maeneans he had to have medications for his heart very soon after that. only time he had to have digitalis is when he had double pneumonia and his heart was in fact failing. so what about the last 25 years of the churchill's medical issues? these are pretty straight forward and the family add comment all along and that was when they felt that churchill had something wrong with him, you first called lord morin who then called for the real doctor. a lot of other things that lord morin didn't mention in his book at all, little copy to these other things, that there is very little in the diary of specific medical issues, such as blood pressure, heart rates or temperatures. one exception in january 1947 where he says, when i examined
12:43 am
winston's arteries, i found definite hardening of the arteries but not more than one would expect after the stress of the war. i i ma'am inabout the various medications churchill was give kwen by lord morin, as can coming on and i don't think morin was a bender of no, sir trums, he gave churchill his pills whom he put in his own pill box that he took when he felt like he needed them. fortunately there were different colors. so when it was a red, he was able to find the red. when it was green he was able to find the green. the actual pill box does exist. it is in a collection in the university of charlston south carolina. john, i just messed up again. i'm sorry. just hit that? i got it. i got it. sorry. >> the one interesting thing
12:44 am
that warren gave to morin was amphetamines. he had his stroke in 1953. the question is would he be able no go to the conference and did a spectacular performance. two days before, he gave him his amphetamines and he said, oh, my head is clear. he gave a spectacular performance. even smiling and laughing and in fact his son-in-law, very concerned, i'm not sure if you can see it in the back with the grim face but he was very, very anxious that that his final was going to be able to pull it off. so what does this tell us of moran's character? he was trying to get organized
12:45 am
with the national health service coming on board. he wanted to make sure they got more money than the general practitioners. british association add different view and was very angry when he was able to succeed in that. so they thought he demonstrated excellent skills and his opponent thought he was devious and got the nick make brings charming. and did this dog him the rest of his life? this is a portrait by lady li cybill richardson. he said, when i put down my pen, i want it make suto make sure t reported faithfully those who have talked to me about churchill. for instance, the hip repair in 1962 does not appear in the diary. certainly the event are are completely inaccurate. some physicians are not in the
12:46 am
source notes and some are written out. just as i mentioned. but will a reason for many to be upset with the publishing of another book. lord brooke published another book in 1957 which surprised churchill. and there were comments by lord am brooke that i don't think churchill would have appreciated. he said, churchill is the most difficult man i have worked with but i would not miss the chance of working with him for anything on earth. quickly after churchill's death, in august of 1945, publishing her book and maybe she is be absolved as she was known to be a close friend of winston. likely, agree be with the tone of her book, with churchill's statement, we are all worms but i believe i'm a glow worm. so what might be said in some
12:47 am
degrees of commentary of others about this furor? i think to get some insight into who was as mad as all get out about the book being published, though morian said he told her and there is no efd that he dev that he did not tell her. there is some sense that there is support in no uncertain terms of winston and so she just in general would be upset with the book being published. randolph was mad. as he was the official buying fer and felt that moran compromised the publishing of his first volume. the rest of the family, the words appear, they felt bemur muched and stig my advertised. his political colleagues eventually published a book in 1968 entitled "action this day working with churchill" to correct jer oes of perception and historic inaccuracies.
12:48 am
what about the british medical association? well there's a resolution of abstention which he just brushed off. that the bma. but today, the release of confidential medical information on public figures is controversial. there is an article recently in the journal of medicine tracing out fdr's medical recently release end attitude and again criticized the notion of people revealing things in a confidential thing about their patients. okay, what does this finally conclude? others have identified moran's correctness in hpublishing his diary, besides the historians, the topical question will a patient's confidence has been
12:49 am
outraged by a physicians account of him both in his strength and in his weakness will no longerage state the reader. this is an article of about year ago when this historian really looked at the issue of confidentiality. and said probably when everything was done, moran publishing his diary broke the code on confidentiality with notable people. is that the last word? well, i don't think so. lady psalms herself probably should have had the last word. she commented always the gracious lady you would maybe some misgivings lord moran understood winston thoroughly and was man that understood not only the medical considerations and risk to his patient but who is also fully aware of the implications with regard to the office he held and his condition at any time. i think churchill should have the last word. he relied heavily on lord moran
12:50 am
and add great affection for him saying you kept me going for so long and actually 85 when he said this and you know he lived another five years. i think moran did become very close to churchill. as moran himself claims did help churchill open his heart and feel better for his candor. this is closing of such intimacy of moran may have especially disturbed his family and colleagues. his revelations opened up the possibility that churchill was human after all and worthy of admiration and honor. both men's lives will be admired for generations to come. yes, admired. churchill's reputation still remains undiminished. thank you for your attention, and it's question time. [ applause ]
12:51 am
>> thank you very much. thank you to all three the presenters for staying so closely to time. that gives us about 15 minutes or so for questions, and of course answers. so if you can raise your hand i'll identify you and if you have a question for everyone, that's excellent. if you would like to direct it to a particular speaker, please say so. the gentleman right at the back. thank you. >> thank you. i would like to just ask a question about the atomic bomb diplomacy. you mentioned the break down in the relationship with moran's proposal but you didn't have a chaps i guess to continue what happened with the u.s./british relationship after the war. you mentioned the joint agreement signed but did the same way that perhaps bore was too idealistic, was churchill too idealistic in terms of expecting the united states to actually continue sharing the atomic diplomacy? or was he bitter when it was
12:52 am
all -- when it broke down? thank you. >> that's a good question. >> can you hear me? is this working? can you hear me now? no? yes. okay. okay, right. false start. it's a good question. i've reached the conclusion that for somebody who loved america so well, that sometimes i felt the churchill didn't always understand the american rules of governance. and constitutional niceties. and there are two critical agreements he reached with roosevelt during the war. one is august 1943. at quebec. that's a very important one. that's the mutual consent agreement. in other words, the bomb will not be used against a third party unless both america and the uk agree. that's one.
12:53 am
the other one is in september 1944. that's the one i showed on the slide. and what that refers to is the desire of both fdr and churchill to continue atomic collaboration going into the peace times. so it wasn't just a war time expedient. now what happens after 1945, of course, is that, a, fdr is dead. b, churchill kicked out of office. and c in 1946 the u.s. congress in what you could call sort of nationalist spasm decides that the bomb and whatever wart on agreements existed were immaterial. and i think probably constitutionally it was absolutely right that the executive agreements hammered out in war time did not have standing in the peace time. now churchill is aghast by the act. when he comes back in 1951 it is
12:54 am
his firm desire, he felt those two fdr agreements were the bedrock of future -- and it had not been passed had he been in power and was a way to protect themselves against a socialistic government in the uk. and after 1951 especially when eisenhower comes back it try to get back to those kinds of thing. was he idealistic? i think the idealism is toward the end of his life. where if you read, if you're aware of his brilliant march 1955 h bomb speeches, where he is virtually coming up with destruction, he's a nuclear visionary himself. he is coming very close to embracing towards the end of his political career the kind of things that i think anderson would have liked him to embrace earlier on. i hope that answers in some way your question. that's a great question.
12:55 am
>> let's go to the gentleman on the close front side of the room. >> good morning. this question is directed to john. often you hear from not churchillians, and i often hear this from churchillians, that winston churchill was an alcoholic and a drunk. and we know the famous quote that churchill said, that said something to the effect that he gets more out of the effect of alcohol than alcohol out of him. being a physician and reviewing a lot of the medical information winston churchill, was there any indication that had any of the medical problems we lated to alcohol consumption?rwe lated t alcohol consumption?ewe lated t alcohol consumption?e lated to alcohol consumption? lated to alcohol consumption?lated to alcohol consumption? >> i tried to leave that out. it is an interesting question because he clearly had a lot of
12:56 am
alcoholic beverage. clearly he was able to handle it very well. we do know of a situation that if you steadily envibe alcohol especially as man, you are able to do more to process the alcohol as you invibe more and more. he rarely drank quote alcoholic beverage outside of meals. when he did, he had this little whiskey snifter that lady mary showed me one day, taking a large glass and filling it up with ice and putting i think maybe more than a thimble full of scotch and soda. he would sip on it all day. probably keeping his coronaries open all day anyway. was's classic alcoholic? the answer is we only know of one time when he was completely
12:57 am
as they say, s-canned. that is when he was actually in moscow and was meeting wi stali. they were plying them with alcohol. and eaton and churchill were licking back the vodka. unfortunately, stalin licking back the water in his glass. in the end they walk out and his sergeant, manners, who i believe still lives in california and had the role of being his security adviser, watched them. he says, wobble down the street to their hotel and refused to get into their taxi. so that the only time i know of for sure there's an eyewitness to the fact that he was an alcoholic. one other time alluded to. lord moran caught him, thought he was drunk in the war room, so here was the barbitol on board and yes indeed he probably did wobble out from bedak


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on