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tv   Cavalry at Gettysburg  CSPAN  November 12, 2016 6:00pm-7:06pm EST

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is one of the founding fathers in which many myths are frequently propagated. thank you all for some terrific questions. [applause] stephen: thank you. >> you're watching american history tv all weekend every weekend on c-span3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at c-span history. author eric wittenberg talks about the calvary action on july 3 at the 1863 battle of
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gettysburg. he describes the action on east cavalry field and argues against the theory that confederate general jb stewart had orders to get around the union flank. instead, he suggests he was supposed to protect the confederate flank. this is an hour-long event. have six lectures today, or six talks. eric wittenberg's out-of-the-box with the 8:30 slot. he is such know him, a good friend of the heritage area. he is an attorney working in the business development and litigation arenas. born in the philadelphia suburbs, he was raised in southeastern pennsylvania. as many of us did, he made his first trip to gettysburg in the
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third grade and has been hooked on the history of the american civil war ever since. he went to college in carlisle pennsylvania and has two degrees from the university of pittsburgh. and a a masters degree doctorate from the university of pittsburgh school of law. he is also an award-winning civil war historian. his specialty is calvary operations with an emphasis on the army of potomac's calvary court. he is the author of 19 published books. i can't imagine what he does as a lawyer. of a book about john buford at gettysburg, which won the round tables 2014 book world -- award. is also the author of a book
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about protecting the flank at gettysburg. his first book, "gettysburg for gun calvary actions," was named the third winner of the robert e. lee roundtable literary award as the best new work interpreting the battle of gettysburg, 1998. the 2011 edition one the u.s. army histories foundation distinguished writing award. a number of his titles have been chosen as the main selections of the history and military book clubs. in addition to his books, he is the author of more than two dozen public articles on civil war calvary operations. these articles have appeared in and "north" magazine
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and south." he also has battlefield preservation work. he is part of the battlefield foundation and readily works with the civil war trust in helping to save hallowed ground. he maintains a popular and well-regarded blog entitled open "rantings- entitled of a civil war historian." we are honored to have him back with us. about east cemetery field. please welcome eric. [applause] always a pleasure for me to attend this event. i have lost count, but this is the 11th or 12th time i've been invited to speak here. one of the things i enjoy so
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much about this event is i get to see the same faces every year and it is like having a reunion sergeantfriends, like wheeler here in the front row. that is one of the reasons i'm always so glad to come to this event. thank you for having me back and hopefully you of not grown too weary of hearing me. i want to think c-span for coming out this morning. it takes something pretty extraordinary for me to put on a suit and tie on a saturday morning. [laughter] eric: on the afternoon of july 2, 1863, the commander of the army of the potomac's second calvary division was order to make an advance on gettysburg from the east, specifically from hanover, pennsylvania along hanover road. with two of his three brigades, one had been left in maryland with the east pennsylvania
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calvary -- with two brigades, he will make his advance along the hanover road. he is a career calvary officer, a tall and quiet, modest fellow, very capable. not the sort of guy who was flashy by any stretch. that is one of the most spectacular beards you will ever see. the only one i've seen significantly better is that of john c robinson. but that is pretty darned close. he will have two of his three bygades, commanded macintosh, and another commanded gregg.nel irvin he was a mexican war vet who had no formal training as a soldier but was very capable as a calvary officer. he was six foot four inches and
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they called him "long john." commissioned after the war, that is how well-regarded he was. hehas two full brigades and will attack in the direction of 'splace called brinckerhoff ridge. .t is on the far flank those of you who heard me do my talk on stewart's ride in the past, that is one area where i have said stewart's absence made a significant difference because we have two great of infantry performing the role calvary is supposed to cover, which is guarding the flanks of the army. because jenkins is wounded in the morning of july 2 and there is a breakdown in the chain of communications and no one advises colonel ferguson that
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jenkins's down, guys, we don't know what they did that afternoon. there are no accounts, there are no reports. nobody knows. it is one of the great mysteries of the battle of gettysburg. but we know they were not picketing the rose, and because of that two brigades of infantry had to do that. one was smith's brigade, picketing the road from carlisle to harrisburg, and then the stonewall brigade, the legendary brigade commanded by james walker, is getting to the west. it is elements of the stonewall for gate that were going to engage on breakoff -- brinckerhoff's ridge.
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the second of virginia industry -- infantry will engage in protected -- protracted skirmishing, ending when it got dark. minimal casualties but an important fight for the simple reason that kept the stonewall brigade out of the attacks on colts hill. they were not able to participate, and having that extra 1200 soldiers might have tipped the balance. the stonewall dividing the two sides, it will end up being the bone of contention, gregg's men will win the fight. after having a meeting with robert e. lee, the commander of the calvary division assigned to the army of northern virginia
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will make a ride over to and alongff's ridge, with one of his brigade commanders, stewart will sit and watch some of the heaviest fighting that takes place in that sector. sitting on that high ground and looking in the distance, he can see in front of him and open plain on the next ridge line over, called crest ridge. he sees it is good for calvary operations. what is important to note is with two ofe gregg his brigade operating on the far confederate left rank on brinckerhoff's ridge. late in the afternoon about 2.5 miles away, the two brigades of kilpatrick's division and of having a nasty skirmish with wade hampton's brigade, escorting the infamous wagon train on the back to gettysburg.
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there were eight brigades of calvary assigned to the army of the atomic -- of the potomac. maryland, but the ps, withthe calvary cor in exception of one mechanics town, fully half is either operating on robert e , or is beyondnk the flank and partly around the fight. fully half. thesen't understand calvary fields unless you understand that point, it is that simple. surprise that robert ely was worried about having half of the potomac's calvary sitting on or around his flank late in the day on july 2? and heurprise at all him
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was so worried about it that on the morning of july 3, he summoned a brigadier general to come to the battlefield for the first time. he places it right behind the center of his line so that they are there in case the union calvary sweeps around his point and gets into his rear, he has a force of calvary imposition to defend against it -- in position to defend against it. when you hear about stewart and what he is going to be doing on july 2 -- excuse me, july 3, you have to understand, his job was to contact -- protect the confederate flag. there was a book published a number of years ago and i will borrow a line from one of my favorite military philosophers, shermantine parter -- sherman t. h."ter from "mas
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key.s bull hoc he was supposed to sweep down the road, he was to send his horse artillery is up colts hill , and stewart was then to make chaos in the union rear. never mind that there isn't a single shred of evidence to support this nonsense anywhere on the face of this planet. i am a lawyer, my job is to analyze evidence. there is not any, it is nonsense. theory thatr this stewart was supposed to be operating in concert with pickett's charge in all of these grand, coordinated attacks, and stewart will have his artillery fire shot and could be heard by robert e lee that would tell him he was in position and ready to go. it's talk about this.
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this calvary was seven miles as the crow flies from where we was. the ability of robert e lee to hear for artillery shots at a distance of seven miles with fighting in between is a physical impossibility. it simply is not possible. when you hear about this nonsensical theory, if you take nothing else away from this talk today, i hope you take away with you the fact that it is nonsense and nothing more than nonsense. let's talk about what actually did happen. 2, thenight of july division of kilpatrick will move from hundreds town and go down in the direction of two taverns and along with farnsworth's spend --they will kilpatrick's and farnsworth gates will camp together.
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farnsworth's brigades will camp together. fellowwas an interesting and knew he wasn't going to finish first so i figured he might as well finish last. in yourinished last closet west point, they considered you and you mortal. it really was by his own choice. he would get so many demerits he was in jeopardy of being kicked out of school, he would pull extra guard duty and work them off. he succeeded and finished dead last in his class in 1861. tall, extremely athletic, brave has lion, george custer caught the attention of pleasanton, who had an eye for talent.
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you heard in the discussion yesterday, the promotion of the boy generals, and i believe his analysis of the reasons for that and why those three officers were selected was right on the money. custer was promoted from lieutenant in the regular army, general and he takes control of the calvary brigade on the night of june 29, 1863. he reports to their camp in little town, pennsylvania, he is wearing a garish outfits made of black velvet. one of the troopers described him as looking like a circus rider gone wild. his reasoning was he wanted them in to see him and know where he was on the battlefield, that he is a stranger and they do not know this man. he will lead him -- them in battle on hanover, and then on the morning of july 2, george
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custer and his brigade were given the task of holding the critical intersection of hanover and dutch roads about a mile to the west of brinckerhoff's ridge. they get up in the morning to saddle up and move out. them to move out and he writes over to find over -- find out what is going on. gregg says, i need you here, i don't have sufficient troops. , if youays, very well will take responsibility, i will be happy to stay. gregg accepts that responsibility and sends a note to pleasanton saying we cannot afford to let them go, and and pleasanton will ultimately change his mind and give custer the discretion to serve under gregg. this means that gregg will have to brigades there. in cousin john's brigade is
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a position where it is not very near the battlefield. it will extend basically from to where it's ridge connects with the six corporate gate, extending the union far right flank. they will not be available to fight on east calvary fields. this means gregg has john thentosh's brigade, and ichigan calvaryssio brigade. , and alsoce artillery the battery of captains allinson and randall. these guys are career west point trained regular artillery is.
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,hey are as good as they come the unsung heroes of the civil war. these west point soldiers did the union artillery it's significant qualitative advantage over the confederates and in many ways played a critical role in ultimately winning the war for the union. randall's guys in particular perform an extraordinary service on july 3. stuart receives orders from leave to come around and guard this point position. he moves out on the morning of july 3. he has three brigades of calvary. he has the brigade of john , andlph chambliss junior -- he was severely wounded at the battle of brandy station and
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was taken to virginia and when the union high command found out , they sent people with the express purpose to capture roomie lee. chambliss, who was ultimately promoted to brigadier general and would be killed in combat in the petersburg campaign. as an interesting footnote, wasbliss' best friend gregg. ,e has the chambliss brigade and the brigade of lee and hampton. then we have which are -- witcher.
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you heard me mention early on the brigade of jenkins, half his brigade was assigned to do provost duty at the army of virginia headquarters on seminary ridge. ferguson is assigned to do that task. the other half of the brigade was out under jenkins, jenkins is wounded on july 2, this means brigader half of the is committed by this fellow, vincent witcher. he is a colorful fellow. coatre a swallow tailed and was called claw hammer. there is no other way to describe them as backwoods, ruffian types. they were given a calvary duty after doing partisan duty. in thed done well
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advance on harrisburg, but they are untrained, largely, they .on't carry traditional weapons there are approximately 400 of them that will go on this expedition with jeb stewart. stewart will arrive on crest ridge. ofyou stand at the crest crest ridge, because of undulations and the terrain and the fact it is lower, you cannot see the intersection of hamilton and low dutch road. you cannot see it. there is no way for you to stand out there and see who is at the intersection of hanover and low dutch road. when stewart arrives, he orders a battery of artillery to fire for shots, one in each direction of the compass. this is not a signal to robert e
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lee, it is attacked it -- it is a tactic called reconnaissance by fire. hope they shot and will draw a response. that is what the purposes. these for shots will be fired, and the guns of randall will answer. and now stewart knows where gregg's command is. that is the purpose of the so-called signal guns, as many have labeled them. so stewart is going to order his command to take position and he will online them in an interesting alignment. it will look like this, almost in an l shape. they will help the rumble farm buildings am a particularly the barn. next of them is the brigade of hampton, and in this part of the lee.the brigade of
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that is an odd configuration. let's think about what stewart had in mind. his plan, and it is obvious from the way he deploys his troops, into draw the yankee calvary but opening fire with the artillery, he's going to draw them in with dismounted fire around the buildings, and once he has them fully engage, he's going to mount an attack around their flank and encircle them. in other words, he's going to use the mounted portion as the hammer to drive them against the anvil of the mounted portions of the command. that is what stewart's plan is. it seems very obvious if you know anything about the way these troops are deployed. the barn here will become a critical landmark in the course menhe day because witcher's
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will use it as a snipers nest. --re will be a protected protracted firefight. daughters will be sent away. tell thet want them to confederates position. ultimately, troops will be pushed forward by gregg. he will send forward the entire fifth calvary, and roughly half of the six calvary of the michigan for gate. -- brigade. why is he sending forward the fifth and sixth michigan? those men are armed with spencer repeating rifles, seven shot repeating rifles. they are all armed with
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spencers. they fire seven shots before they have to be reloaded. the confederates called them seven shooting devils. it is such a good story, we have to share the story, they used to say they could load on sunday and fire all week before having to reload. of the michigan calvary brigade are going to engage in a heavy firefight with witcher's men. mensome reason, witcher's were not supplied with enough ammunition and he will have to go get it himself. they're taking heavy fire, he had 292 officers and men of his own virginia cavalry with him. to the official historian of the battle of gettysburg after the war that muster the next morning, only 90 men showed up.
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that tells you how severe this firefight was, significant losses. it will go on for a while. there is the disposition of the confederates. you see here, i don't have a laser pointer. you see the farm buildings, you can see where it says witcher's headquarters, and you see that almost l shaped deployment we talked about. the fifth michigan will attack in the direction of the run newe, elements of the jersey, elements of the third pennsylvania, there will be an extended firefight. to the court -- during the course of that firefight, major ferry stands up on a tree stump and waves his sword to rally the troops, and he is hit
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literally right between the eyes and drops dead. as he dies, his men are demoralized and pull back, and this enables witcher to resupply his command. we -- fitz lee, you've heard me say he is the greatest example of nepotism and the american civil war with the exception of joe this davis -- joseph davis. had he not been the favorite nephew of the commanding general of the army of northern virginia, he might've been a good surgeon general. over 40 years studying cavalry operations in the civil war, and i have identified for good days he is had in the entire war. of thed up in command
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virginia calvary corps because he was the favorite nephew of robert e. lee. him the laughing cavalier, he loved to have fun and laugh. he was five foot four inches, was chunky and overweight. he weighed over 300 pounds by the time of the spanish-american war. he was one of those old confederate generals who were asked to rejoin the army to help rally the south to the cause in the spanish-american war and was unable to take the field because he was too fat. but he has with him a veteran brigade of virginians. alongside him is the veteran general wade hampton the third, reputedly the wealthiest man in the south. he paid out of his own pocket to raise the hampton legion.
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those four companies become the nucleus of a second south carolina calvary, which is part of his command. that was commanded by butler, who was wounded at brady station. he was very proud of the fact as killed a bear he with his bare hands. this is a man who personally killed 13 yankee troopers and hand to hand camombat. extremely capable, even though he had no formal military training. andould be the successor the commander of the northern army of virginia and one of two officers the confederacy will promote to lieutenant general. wade hampton was the highest ranking calvary officer of the american civil war by 1855. very good at what he did.
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of georgians and south carolinians. there is a miscommunication that leeens between hampdon, and jeb stuart. that miscommunication means wade hampton in particular are going to make a mounted charge. is headeded charge right in the direction of the hanover and low dutch road. when david gregg sees this, he knows he has the first and seventh michigan calvary, the first maine calvary that have not been committed to the fight. he rides over to a very colorful fellow. are you here? for those of you who are interested in colonel william
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dalton man, bob wrote a good article a couple of issues ago about william don'dalton mann. this guy ends up writing a muckraking newspaper, owning and editing a muckraking newspaper in new york city. his stated mission was to tweak the nose of the aristocracy in new york city. he called himself the sau nterer. a really interesting by thi ography. he was a fellow who had an interesting life. he will order his men of the seventh michigan calvary to draw their sabers and able draw a mounted charge and they will meet up by the confederates. they will be hung up by a fence line. you can see the big tree there. that represents a fence line
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that existed to separate a couple of farm fields. caught you will end up having a personal duel -- you can see hampton is armed with a long broadsword. having a personal duel with a couple of troopers from the first new jersey. he would be severely wounded. hamptonhem would hit across the head with his saber. he was also shot in the leg. only because of a color sergeant from one of the nort south carolina units was he rescued. he would be out of commission until september of 1863 when he becomes commander of the division of calvary. the seventh michigan crashes into this charge of fitz lee and an hampton.
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very fierce melee, but they do stop the charge. hampton and fitz lee fallback and a wall falls over the battlefield as they continue to have dismounted fighting. stuart sees how close of this impromptu charge has gotten to making its way to the intersection of the road. he will end up ordering an all out charge by his command. you will see this in the map. primarily by hampton and fits fitz lee. they form up and the union troopers universally left a very detailed descriptions of the site of the confederate calvary that comes out of the wood line. their sabers glinting in the afternoon sunlight, their batter flapping, they
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begin to move forward. first as they walk, then a trot, then a gallop and then the charge. david gregg sees them coming. tosends a courier over lieutenant carl woodruff. he tells woodruff you have to move your guns. who will be ultimately awarded a medal of honor three weeks later during the faces of the campaign after the crossing of the potomac river, would tell the courier to tell general gregg to go to help. l. the guns would blast away at the advancing confederates. david gregg would ride over to charles h. town who was dying of tuberculosis. you can see how gaunt he looks. only a few months left to
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live. his voice was a little but a harsh croak. town orders his men to form up, rides over shortly thereafter. he falls ahead of the first michigan calvary, draws his saber and says come you, wolverines. he leads them across the open fields headed directly towards the oncoming confederates. they collidelide, with so much force that calvary horses are being flipped over backwards from the violence of the collision. hand to hand maelee, just a brutal fight. the yard offound in his farm two troopers, one union, one confederate, who had killed each other in hand to
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hand combat but were still intertwined. that should tell you the type of fight this was. , two companies -- a squadron of the third pennsylvania calvary led by captain william e. miller of pennsylvania. yet been given orders to hold his position on the flank. miller sees that the confederates are charging and he also sees that they have no idea he is there. he recognizes that he has got an opportunity here to crash into the confederate flag completely undetected. sitting alongside him is williamold lieutenant rawl rawle, the second ranking officer in his company. he turns to rawle and he says
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i see an opportunity. if i order a charge, would you support me? miller fully expected to be court-martialed. rawle said of course i will support you. captain miller orders his men to charge. they come out of the tree line, yelling with their sabers drawn and crash into the unsuspected left flank of fitz lee's charge. in the meantime, lieutenant woodruff's guns in particular are ripping holes in the ranks of the charging confederates as they make their way across the field. they are doing extraordinary work. the union artillery was so good, it literally blasted the confederate horse artillery off the crest ridge. it drove the confederate artillery off the ridge and a shell disabled one of the guns. it broke the spokes on one of the wheels and left it that it
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could not be moved. that is how accurate the union fire was that they. colonel john mcintosh rallies troopers of the first new jersey calvary, he ralliesies troopersf the third pennsylvanry,ia he rallies some scattered elements of the seventh michigan and he is joined by troopers of the sixth michigan, he cobbles together a scratch force. this scratch force will also charge into the other flank. what happens? getting hit from the left, getting hit from the right, getting hit from the front, severe artillery fire. first new jersey had a difficult day because they had the brunt of the fighting over the rummel farm. john bailey mcintosh orders them to leave. the commander, major hugh gainway, refuses to leave.
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we will stay right here. they stay there and it is those men who turn and join mcintosh in making this charge into the flank. ultimately, the confederate charge is stopped dead in its tracks and a pull back and withdraw back to the tree line. let me circle back to mythology for a minute. if it is in fact true that jeb stuart's orders were to get around the union flank and go down the low dutch road to the baltimore pike, don't you think that stuart would have made more than one concerted attack out there? don't you think he would have? don't you know jeb stuart well enough that he is a guy that would keep going. stuart stopped. he tried it, saw he was not
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going to get through. his orders were to guard the flank and that is what he did. i can promise you it stuart's orders were to get around the flank and get into the rear, there would have been at least one more all out assault but there wasn't. stuart was content and keeping downnion calvary panneinned in place because if they did that they were not able to get into robert e. lee's rear. that is what the fight on east calvary field was all about, my friends. that is not to say stuart would not have been opportunistic. understood that the low dutch road would intersect with the baltimore pike. if he could in fact break ere, you could make all kinds of mischief in the union rear. what he was supposed to do does not take into account that if
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stuart had broken through gregg's line, gone through the intersection of low dutch road, been simplyul would have doing picket duty. they could have come. they would have run a gauntlet with gregg's brigade. the likelihood of them ever doing anything productive was almost nil. mind whenp that in you think about the fight on east calvary field. that is what i want you to take away. day, jebd of the stuart lost over 400 casualties, killed, wounded. aboutl heard me talking the casualties in witcher's
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command. interestingly enough, only one man killed in john bailey mcintosh's brigade, a trooper of the first maine and that was the only regiment that was not engaged. go figure. that is not the same men were not wounded. there was an officer of the third pennsylvania calvary by the name of william newhall from pennsylvania. newhalls were world-famous cricket players. walter was a world-renowned cricket player. walter ended up in a fencing match trying to capture the confederate battle flag. the confederate trooper who had the battle flag ended up jousting with him with it and walter newhall had his face torn up at the end of this confederate battle flag. it was a ghastly wound. these are the types of injuries
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you will have when you have these type of bloody hand to hand combat. the fighting on the main was about 6:00 in the evening. stuart withdrew and returned to headquarters on seminary ridge. gregg did not know he was gone but was happy to let him go. thus ending the fight on east calvary field. i want to address a couple of things with you. one of the things you here, one of the criticisms you hear towards jeb stuart, he should have left the wagon train behind. it was captured in rockville, maryland on its way to gettysburg. it was 150 wagons, brand-new, lled blled by -- each cold bpu
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y four mules. stuart's orders were to capture supplies of the enemy for use of the army. fodder will be important to a force with horses, right? it is not good nutrition for horses to eat nothing but grass. they need oats and grain. inart's engineering officer the years after the war w rote had it not been for those 150 wagons of high-grade fodder, stuart's command would not have been in any condition to engage. constantly in an the saddle, constantly moving for eight days. along the way, they have had encounters first with union infantry at the very outset of
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the ride with the 11th new york withry at fairfax station, the first delaware calvary at westminster. a full day of heavy fighting in hanover on june 30. they then make a brutal all night march over south mountain to carlisle where they had an encounter with union infantry. then they have to march to gettysburg. these men were at the limits of their endurance. there is only so much you can go without taking a break and getting some rest. horses for all of their size and strength are fragile beasts. they need water, food, proper nutrition and they need to rest. all the long stuarts's ride,
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horses are breaking down. some of his troopers are riding horses they have captured in the pennsylvania countryside that are not well-suited to calvary. some of them are even riding mules. stuart's command to do what dr. carhart says they were tasked to do is asking more of them than they were physically capable of doing. let me repeat that -- asking them to do what carhart says they were asked to do is more than can be reasonably expected from this command. let's not forget the fight of hunters town. it's asking them to do more than the horses or the men at the physical capacity to do. the only task they can realistically perform and be
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expected to do in any reasonable fashion is to guard the flank. they did so brilliantly. they kept the union calvary tied up. they prevented them from getting lee'sd robert e. 'e rear. boden's brigade come of able perform magnificently during the retreat from gettysburg. that was what the fight at ease cap revealed was abou -- east calvary field was about. east's calvary monument on calvary field and you can see the third monument where captain miller's charge crashed into the confederates. what is unique about this particular monument is it is one of the few monuments at the battle of gettysburg that is dedicated to the soldiers of both sides that fought on background. it is dedicated to both union and confederate calvary who
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fought there. the 25thdicated in anniversary of the battle. the dedication speech was given by captain james kidd who fought there. in the years after the war, kidd became a newspaper editor and later publisher, a great writer. he wrote one of the best regarded memoirs of the civil war. kidd gave a speech and that is included verbatim in his memoirs. the veterans all came back from both sides. you see there is a white wrought-iron fence. that was supposed to be melted down during world war ii to make munition. a local guy rescued it and hid it in its barn so it could not be melted down. in the years after world war ii, it was restored and you can still go out and see it to this day.
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it should not be there but there it is. i would like to finish with this simply because this slide and this monument shows the spirit of reconciliation that took place in the years after the civil war when our country was reunited and the old vets who had fought tooth and nail came together again as friends. me abouthat soothes going to gettysburg. monumenttes like this where you can understand that those rifts eventually healed. the men that fought the war were able to come together as brothers even after such vicious fighting. they ended up killing each other in hand to hand combat and their bodies lying intertwined on the battlefield afterwards. never again after the battle of
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gettysburg and the gettysburg campaign would you hear the old statement weber saw a dead calvary men because there were plenty of them. beginning at brandy station, and, upperville finally on the east calvary field. at the end of that day on july 3, the union calvary fully come of age. from that day forward, the union calvary was on an equal footing with the confederates such that by agency for, the end of 1864, it was at the zenith of its power. if you want to see the union calvary at its finest, look at its performance in the shenandoah valley campaign of 1864 where in two different battles, they delivered a decisive blow. winchester and cedar creek. in the winteregan of 1863 and it ended when james manrison wilson's 16,000-
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mounted army that tore heart the part of the deep south in the spring of 1865. with that, i thank you for your time and attention and i will be more than happy to take your questions. [applause] questions? go ahead, ji, m. >> any thoughts or comments as to stuart's frame of mind after what people would say a sharp rebuke with lee? . did that influence him at all? eric: interesting question. jim's question was what do i think was stuart's state of mind after supposedly being rebuked sharply by robert e. lee on november 2.
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the answer is i don't think that happened. there are four people that know what happened. robert e. lee, jeb stuart, charles marshall and charles venable. nobody left behind an account of any sort that discusses what happened when they had their encounter. this legend that there was an ugly confrontation between stuart and lee comes two was from colonel thomas taylor mumford who was probably 15 miles away when this happened. what weying on hearsay, lawyers called double hearsay, which is unreliable. stuart was a sort that had he had his butt chewed out by generall lee as is depicted in the movie, would have told flora about it.
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when you read stuart's letters to flora, the letters he wrote to her immediately after the battle of gettysburg, you talked about what a grand time he had in pennsylvania. there is no mention of anything. i don't think that happened. there is no proof that it happened. forlee unhappy with stuart having been out of communication for as long as he was? yes, he was. lee in particular was extremely concerned, not so much about the state of his calvary although that was important, but he had come to rely very heavily on jeb stuart himself. i think he was very concerned that stuart was out of communication as long as he was. i think he was worried about his fate. you have to keep in mind that adequate calvary and elected not to make
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effective use of it in the form of jenkins. had beverly robertson obeyed the orders he was given by stuart, the other two brigades, robinson and jones, would have been in chambersburg by june 30. disobeyedexpressly his orders and did not get there until the morning of july 3. is that stuart's fault? hardly. that is right. they were still in the south of the potomac river. do i think of the ugly confrontation that is depicted in mr. turner's movie happened? i do not. which consequently means i don't think that stuart's supposedly fragile ego, which i don't buy that for a moment either, was not in such a condition that he felt like he had to do something to redeem himself. let's say for the sake of argument that he did. i will submit to you and you
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will hear later today when my friend talks about it, the retreat from gettysburg was stuart's finest hour. he performed magnificently. for nearly six days, he kept the army of the potomac away. i will submit to you that if it had not been for the fodder and the 150 wagon that was captured, his command would not have been perform thetion to way they did during the retreat of gettysburg. that is a very long answer to your question. anybody else? until she gets to you with the microphone. >> the condition of the horses. stuart's horses had to be exceedingly tired. they had been on the road at least eight days, pretty much
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all the time. how bad was the condition of the union horse calvary at the same time? was do wequestion know the condition of stuart's horses which was pretty rough, what was the condition of the union forces? the answer is almost as bad. one of the reasons why john buford was ordered to leave the battlefield and go to westminster on the morning of july 2 was because his command was constantly marching and almostg since the raid without a break and his forces were in rough shape. about this time, coming online was the calvary outside of washington, d.c. which was formed and created for the specific person of supplying remount for the calvary horses. logistical chain isa
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better that the confederates but out in the field it did not matter. their horses were almost in as bad as a condition. it is not as well documented. anybody else? hang on. let her come to you with the microphone. up here in the front row. go ahead. >> it's not going to go off is it? [laughter] comes andfigure, he ago. he was a maryland officer. you said that he came to gettysburg, which i knew that, when did he come under the
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command of stuart? gillman? eric: the question is about harry gilmore who is a maryland calvary officer. was actually on the battlefield on july 2 because he leads in his memoir the account of him doing provost duty guarding union pows. they are there, but they are doing provost duty at army headquarters. >> [indiscernible] sarge's point was not only the wagons that were captured at rockville, maryland provided fodder for the horses, but all 150 of those wagons ended up being used as
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ambulances in the 17 mile-long wagon train of wounded, moving the wounded. you are absolutely correct about that. sarge.rgue with the [laughter] anybody else? thank you very much. [applause] >> interested in american history tv? visit our website, you can see our upcoming schedule or watch our recent coverage. lectures in history and more at >> this is a film record of a few moments in time. the veterans day ceremony at arlington national cemetery on november 11, 1963. for those who were there, these
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moments were burned forever in their memories. actse of his last official on behalf of our war veterans, president john f. kennedy placed a wreath on the tomb of the unknowns. two weeks later to the day, the mortal remains of president kennedy were brought to arlington national cemetery to rest among those he had honored. the tomb of the unknowns overlooks the city of washington. it is guarded in honor every day of the year. every day of the year, not only on veterans day, people come to pay their respects, to look, to remember. but veterans day is special.
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a day to honor the dead and the living. a day of rededication.
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[horn playing]
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>> what is guarded here goes on. it is not a stone, or flesh, or any substance. minds inthe hearts and men that will never die. a flame that will burn forever.
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>> president franklin d roosevelt appointed general george c. marshall army chief of staff. next, professor andrew roberts discusses marshall's role in america's world war ii victories. he argues that he is a strategist and a transformed the u.s. army despite opposition from president roosevelt and winston churchill. the new york historical society hosted this event. it is just over 50 minutes. >> we are so very pleased to welcome back andrew roberts, the this thing wished fellow -- distinguished fellow at the new york historical society. in london and a recipient of the 2016 award. he serves as a visiting professor at king's college london.


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