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tv   Reel America  CSPAN  December 3, 2016 10:00pm-11:06pm EST

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this december 7 marks the 75th anniversary of the japanese attack on pearl harbor in 1940 one. up next on american history tv's ,eal america, "know your enemy" an hour-long u.s. army film directed by frank capra. it portrays japan as a nation determined to rule the world through military conquest. production began in 1942, but there were several delays and revisions, and the film was released until august of 1945, too late to use the film to encourage u.s. soldiers and the american public to make sacrifices for the war effort. this film from the national archives contains many graphic scenes of four and racially insensitive language that some viewers may find disturbing.
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♪ ♪
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zai.onsa ♪
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[chanting] ♪ [bells ringing] [chanting] ♪ ringing]
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[chanting] ♪ we shall never completely understand the japanese mind, but then i don't understand ours either. otherwise there never would have in a pearl harbor. but we must try to understand japan because we have become locked in the closest of all relationships, war. not, wewe like it or and the japanese will be at close range for a long time. so let's see what kind of people these japanese really are, what they believe in, what they want, and how they get it. if this tale gets a little fantastic, bear with us, we are dealing with a fantastic people. examine a typical japanese soldier.
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his average height is five feet three inches. his average weight is 117 pounds. arend his brother soldiers as much alike as photographic prints on the same negative. his pay as about $2.36 a month. his personal quitman to simple but practical. the load he carries ways about 60 pounds, more than half his weight. his uniform is ill fitting, his appearance on soldierly, even comic according to western standards him and though he may hard,recision, but he is he is able. he knows his job. his endurance is phenomenal. he would just as soon go over the mountain as around it. rice andon rice,
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alone,ut often on rice and he is proud of it. he is proud of the fact to be a soldier is the highest human achievement in japan. he has been to be a soldier almost from birth and the belief that japanese are descendents of gods and dustin to rule the destined to rule the earth. are justified and used against non-japanese. and combat, his single aim is to close with the enemy in hand-to-hand fighting. he believes in the attack itself there is some mystic virtually by which greater numbers can be vanquished.
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in his mind, there is usually no question of choice between death and surrender. battle is thein attainment of an ideal. followss flag leads, he in a blind emotional rush. his flag not only represents its country, it is also the image is the rising sun, the rising sun is the symbol of the emperor. emperorapanese, there is the most holy of holies. he is also the political river, the natural and supernatural, religion and politics all done up in one man. to one man, the powers of the president of the united states, the prime minister of great britain, the pope, the archbishop of canterbury,
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the head of the russian orthodox church, then top it all with the divine authority of our own son of god, and you will begin to meanstand what hirohito to the japanese, why they call him the god emperor. he is a direct descendent of the us so high,brought so mighty, so brilliant as the sun. accordingly, no one can stand above or look down upon the emperor. when he passes above the windows must be tightly shuttered on the streets. tokyo fromg to anywhere in japan is the up train to tokyo because the emperor lives there. be imitatedemperor in any way. not even his tailor-made touch the person of the emperor, for who would lay hands upon the sun?
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if you were japanese, it would hurt your eyes to look at hirohito, just as it would hurt your eyes to look at the blazing sun. know would anyone handle his uncovered picture. when hirohito's face appeared on the front cover of an american magazine, the japanese government filed an official protest with the american state department. takes place in japan, it is he, the god emperor, that causes it did from him, all things emanate, and in him all things subsist. he makes the japanese rice grow, makes japanese soldiers conquer the world. in his name, they bring to other people justice, enlightenment, truth, prosperity, and peace. ♪
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>> the year 1940 was a holy year in japan, celebrating the 2600th of its founding by its first got emperor. [chanting] narrator: if you are japanese, you believe he was the grandson saidsun goddess, and she rulee prince, go down and over luxuriant land of read planes as mine.
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palace and took the wife the daughter of a mountain deity, and sheep or his son, and she took and turned the god of the sea, and they had a son. exactly 2600 years ago, he landed and proclaimed himself emperor over all the islands, saying let us extend our capital and tell it covers the eight corners of the world under one roof. in this way, the japanese empire was created. hirohito is the 120th descendent, and since beginning, ,t follows that all japanese the soldier, the wrestler, the wrestler and the priests, the fields, the rice
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factory worker, the businessman, the diplomat, the fisherman off california, all are members of one family whose blood is superior to the blood of any other race on earth because it is mixed with the liquid sunshine of the gods, and what's more, they believe it. being of divine origin, all their acts full into a divine pattern called the way of the gods. which brings us to the national religion of japan. ♪ shintoism. ♪
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>> shintoism will not be easy to understand, but since it is the heart, brain, and soul of the nation and dictates all action for the living and for the dead, it is important that we try to understand it. according to shinto, the population of japan is the emperor, 9 million minor gods, 75 million living people, and billions upon billions of ghosts, this of all japanese who have died in the past. these spirits stand watch over all japan and serenely float around in every japanese house, where guests are frequently introduced to them. livinge so near, the merely have to clap their hands intentio
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each living japanese is merely a link and this chain of ghosts, identical except for the unimportant fact that he breathes and can be seen. japanese knows he has constantly surrounded by these spirits who guard him and watch over him to see that he obeys the emperor and follows the way of the gods. japaneseover special activities, there is a host of minor gods. a volcano is a god. the lightning. god of the silkworm, the night wind. a god.earl divers have and annually day hold a ceremony for him. god toarmers have a rice whom they offer prayers for a good harvest.
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these scarecrows are all gods of one kind or another. there are over 100,000 shinto in which these local gods and spirits are worshiped. living japanese, shinto decrees that all their actions must imitate the way of the gods , who handled chopsticks thusly, arrange flowers thusly, drink tea thusly, worship the emperor thusly --ter-a room enter a room thusly. now on the surface, shinto seems to be acclaimed religion. and the old days, it used to be just that, but today, there is something bad and shintoism.
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since 1870, the state has forced the teachings of shinto imad, fanatical doctrine, doctrine that has brought death to millions. and now to thousands upon thousands of americans. ♪ narrator: this doctrine is based on the divine command that the first got emperor was supposed to have given his people 2600 years ago. andus extend the capital cover the eight corners of the world under one roof. to cover the eight corners of the world under a japanese rupe, .he japs have a special name it has become the national ambition of japan. hakoom the viewpoint of
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ichiu, the emperor of japan is the emperor of all. modernr: in 1930, the american college-educated minister said -- >> to save humanity will with jimmuich jimm t founded the empire, japan should take over the world. narrator: to conquer all races and people and put them under japanese rule. believere japanese, you that i place of honor among the spirits is reserved for those who die in battle, for they become warrior gods and are enshrined in a sacred temple.
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the names of soldiers killed in battle are written on little tablets and placed in the inner recesses of this most holy shrine. that is the greatest honor that man can achieve in japan, to die in battle and be in shrine and, for even the emperor comes to bow to him. that is why soldiers when saying goodbye to each other often say, see you in -- that's why mothers and wives except the ashes of their dead soldiers with our grief or sorrow. the silent pictorials returned, it is called, for the dead are warrior gods who live on beside them to be cherished and cared for. to be given food and drink and a cigarette to smoke.
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that is why jap soldiers would rather be killed than surrender, for to be killed means they become warrior gods. to surrender brings everlasting shame and dishonor to them in all their family members. if you are japanese, you believe these things implicitly. , banzai, banzai. >> but if you are not japanese, what then is the real japan? japan of the geographer comedy anthropologist, the historian. the japan of which the japanese themselves know little or nothing. the name japan comes from two chinese words, the literal translation of which is the land where the sun comes from. the chinese called that because japan laid to the east.
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geographer said japan is a chain of volcanic islands 1200 miles long and an average of 120 miles wide, a total land mass being a little larger than the state of california. only 16% mountainous, of japan is suitable for farming. every human being in japan lives within sight of mountains, many of them 6000-12,000 feet high. there are some 50 active volcanoes throughout japan. an average of four times a day, severeas earthquakes, shocks once everyone and a half years to two years. ♪ there are some 45 cities with 400,000.ion of over tokyo, the capital, with a
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population of 7,000,009 hundred thousand is the third-largest city in the world, and what of the people of japan and their so-called divine origin? anthropologists say the original inhabitants wear a hairy, barbarian people. later on, fierce mongolian tribes moved in and began conquering. still later, other tribes from many sources arrived. diffusion of all these tribes in races resulted in the japanese today, not of one. love, but of a well mixed plasma -- not of pureblood, but of a well mixed plasma cocktail. they elevated to leadership a chief, a high priest, in this case the emperor, who claim to have an inside track with the gods. this is evolved into shintoism and the sun the myth became
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dominant. the early emperors had little political power because the islands were divided, rolled over by powerful barons. they each had large, well-paid called samurai. the samurai were the important and privilege class. real aristocrats who lived off the fat of the land without working. as a badge of rank, they wore two swords, a short sword for --mitting harry carey suicide, and a large two-handed sword they fought with. with this sort, it was their privilege to lop off the heads, arms, ears of the peasants for practice or amusement. the samurai developed a code of rules for themselves. the code of the warrior. it extolled absolute loyalty to one superior and reckless bravery and battle. , the code ofrtant
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the warrior not only sanction doubledealing and treachery, but looked upon it as an art to be cultivated, encouraged ambush, jump a man from behind when he is unarmed, when he is alone and arthave a gang, that is the of treachery and the double cross the national code of japan. suicide was also a privilege of the samurai, and they were allowed to kill themselves rather than the beheaded. for the commonas people. as a result, it became an elaborate ceremony that showed bravery and indifference to pain. a man's son or his best friend stood by with a large sword to chop his head off in case he lost his nerve. they and their paid samurai and engaged in unending bloody civil war with each other for the
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gun.t to become the show ♪ shogun meantng the being the top dog, the dictator of dictators. in the year 1592, the ogun thought they were strong enough to cover the world with the japanese rule, and they picked china as the first victim. ♪ he invaded korea, but chinese from other provinces came to the aid of the koreans. were stuck, and when the shogun died suddenly, the
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invasion was called off. 30,000so brought back tickled in years and koreans killed in battle. these they buried and what is now known as the -- in the city of kyoto. it was around this time that something new came into the midst of these warring, bloodthirsty people, something new and strange. in the year 1521, magellan had sailed around the world to the philippines. in his wake came spanish and portuguese missionaries, who eventually visited the japanese islands. thing they new brought was christianity, the revolutionary doctrine of peace on earth and the equality and brotherhood of man. some 200e were churches and over 200,000 converts. ♪
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believe: the warlords these foreign medicine men were teaching tolerance and even equality, so they acted. ♪ 137 churches were destroyed in nagasaki, all christian converts in tokyo were burned at the stake. out the west. throw out its poisonous doctrine of peace. with that, japan closed its doors. no one could enter.
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-- no one could leave japan. no one could enter. japan remained completely isolated, and in those 200 years, the word advanced more than the previous , washington,s , therson, franklin american start a revolution for the belief that all men were created equal. the french fought for liberty, equality, and fraternity. waspower of steam discovered, and the steamboat and steam engine began to narrow the oceans and continents. the telegraph was invented. china was opened up to the trade of the world, but during all this time, japan was closed, no news reached her shores. she remained a nation blacked out from the rest of the world, still living in the middle ages. ago,in 1853, just 92 years commodore perry's american fleet of four ships sheldon to
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yokohama bearing a message from president fillmore. the japanese warlords woke with a shock from their 200 years of isolation. whiterutalized that the barbarian had machines and weapons that made him powerful. if the sons of heaven were to rule the earth, they are spirits -- spears and swords would be of little avail. also, they realized how weak and divided the really were compared to western nations. hastily, they stopped fighting amongst themselves and joined together, but they needed a central figure around whom they could rally, available was the god emperor who up until now had been more or less of a stooge. in 1868, the warlords did away with the position of shogun and elevated the emperor to supreme dictatorship overall japan, reserving the right to speak for him and guide his policies.
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, paidr a strong military warriors, the samurai, were too few for a national army, so they introduced another revolutionary idea. peasants were suddenly permitted the great privilege of bearing arms. a soldier almost meant being a noble. to sell this program, the war used -- warlords used religion to suit their purpose force emperor worship, military glorify case and thoughts of conquests to be preached by all shinto priests. but their fanatical spirit was peasantn to the new soldier. the warlords now flung open west.doors to the posts and telegraphs were
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railroads, the photograph photography. the japanese invited other nations to help them build up military power rgs always with the thought, learn his then use them to destroy him. the old double-cross. the english having the best navy in the world were invited to build up and claim the japanese navy. the french, supposed to have the werearmy in the world, invited to train the japanese army. but when they saw the french the germans in the war, the japanese switched to german advisors for their army. ♪[music] >> from the english and the americans, they borrowed the democracy,ms of ministers and their
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representative body. but this was all a cruel joke. ministers, still above and beyond any law-making body. they have direct access to the emperor and can entirely bypass the civil government. in fact, whatever japan took from the west or the chinese, warlords never took the moral or ethical principles that went with them. all modern knowledge that has come to the japanese people, all all thinkingideas, has been filtered through from down.ople any new idea is first tried out by the ruling classes, changed their purpose. then, with the emperor's blessing, handed down to the people as divine law. in our western civilization, practically all the ideas, the forces that have changed our thinking, have come from the bottom up. evolution, or revolution, starts with the people. with the japs, evolution is
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handed down to the people. westernized by decree, not by popular desire. spite of westernization, everyone in japan still rules his inferior and in turn, bows down to his superiors, just ages.y did in the middle women have the least standing of all. all must obey the males in things. even today, there isn't any moral right or wrong in japan. merely, are you or are you not obedient to your superiors? instance, today a father still has the power to sell his 12.hter when she is 11 or go toll eat, sleep and school in the factory. but all her earnings will go to her father. or, if she is a little older and he needs money, the father can to a house ofght prostitution. and modernization has done even
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less than the standard of living. individual welfare still constitute count. this is supposed to be a divine virtue. that's why the people of japan all work as long as they can and can and as hard as they can, for they too as soldiersmselves of a siev divine mission. these women work day after day, month after month, in the rice fields. producing rice and soldiers. latesteir heads fly the planes to the wars. a diesel train thunders past. these farmers work and live and eat like they did in the 17th century. ♪[music]
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the income for the whole family, $150 a year, and as year. $16 a the jap peasant works harder, pays more taxes than any peasant on earth, but seldom complains, for he is carrying out the divine will of the emperor. the white collar peasant puts on kimono and lives as his ancestors did in the middle ages. japanese houses have no foundations. there are no walls as we know windows, no paints, no varnish, no curtains, no chairs. and no bears. couplep, they spread a of quilts on the floor and lay their heads on hard, round pillows. lacks albumin, fats and sugar. of living is the
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same as it was 100 years ago, earth.the lowest on for japan became industrialized not to raise the standard of prepare foro conquest. this man in the factory doesn't six-day, 40-hour-a-week for good wages. he works 72 hours a week for frequentlywages and dies of tuberculosis. they rebel? organize a labor union? well, first of all, having dedicated their lives to the emperor, belief in japan's commission to conquer runs through the whole people. this makes practically all of them willing prisoners of a vicious iron-clad social system so perfect it made hitler's mouth water. on top of the heap of this social structure are leaders of the army and navy. who surround the emperor. they are japan's first team.
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nearly equal in power are the familiesh aristocratic who own the wealth. they're the second team. the militaryl with rurals, because the war records give them cheap labor and they in turn provide the money for the war machine. next in line are the whoessional politicians, are appointed by the governors as rulers over the provinces. stoogeslitical slavishly follow orders. at the bottom of the heap, the peasants and workers, the masses. inmake sure the masses stay their place, there are the andce, the japanese gestapo the billions of ghosts of dead japanese ancestors who watch of the living. just in case some japanese don't anieve in ghosts, they have
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efficient japanese invention. the thought police. yes. police, whose business it is to arrest you if you think thoughts. who decides when your thinking is dangerous? they do. thought police. about 10,000 people a year are bad,ted for thinking selfish, dangerous thoughts. to keep the aristocrats and government officials from the japanese line, there is another strictly japanese invention. like theganizations dreaded black dragon society. gangsteret organization, made up of thousands of fanatics, was the world'se of most sinister characters, chief japan's murder incorporated. 90 years old when he died in 1944, this dreaded mass murderer held the threat of death over japan who dared to oppose the warlords too
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strongly. 1930. 1932. financenister, manufacture, head of the house mitsui. political leaders killed. shot.r-in-law but the main reason the warlords have been able to maintain their japan lies inn the educational system. education is compulsory in japan. 97% of the japs are illiterate. japanese school is not an institution for the development of the mind. it is a government-controlled to teachon designed only officially selected facts, and officially approved ideas. the object is to mass produce students who all think alike. to teach in the shortest
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possible time only the knowledge theskills necessary to make student an obedient, loyal divine emperor.ieve howchildren are taught only to do things. sponge, theyed give back the same water. teachers are trained only by the thosement and only fanatically loyal to the emperor are allowed to teach. divinee some of the thoughts hammered home every day. become sincere, only when they are offered to the emperor and the state! race has before it a great ideal, a great commission to assimilate the earth and universe. [cheering] >> thus, from childhood, the japanese are taught that they descendants of god, a race superior to all others, born for only one purpose.
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to dedicate their lives to the emperor. virtue?inal oa beaobedience to superiors. ambition?al to cover the earth under a japanese roof. briefly, the social structure of japan. that is the vicious system of and religious regimen the wholeat molds population until it becomes an obedient mass with but a single mind. >> by 1894, the warlords thought they were ready for a test of strength. move was against china. send their armies over and attack. the island first. 1904, the japs stepped into the big league. without warning, they attacked the russian fleet. declareds later, they
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war. by defeating russia, they temporarily obscured that country's influence in the pacific. the japanese were delirious. arrived, defeated their first major world power. and six years later, in 1910, simply marched in. the first world war, the japanese, correctly figuring the allies would win, declared war on germany. took the peninsula from the theans and grabbed off german-owned mariana islands. after the war, the japanese anything andgned everything, league of nations, disarmament agreement, nine treaty. but they insisted on keeping the carolines and declared them taboo to all foreigners. the japs couldn't seem to make
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mistakes. they won every war in the field. every time they tangled with the rest, they got new territory. warlords grew more popular than ever. them made out a secret modern blueprint to achieve this mad dream and handed it to the emperor. it is called the memorial. japan's mind count. it was a simple plan but carefully thought out. theover the earth with japanese rule. the japs had first to conquer asia. conquer asia, they needed manpower and raw materials. the manpower. been manchuria had iron and coal. would be first. then china. was siberia, with its vast resources of timber, and then south into malaysia and the with its fabulous
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oil and rubber. the united states was the last step. and when the orange groves of fieldsnia and the cotton of alabama were part of japan's factories ofthe los angeles and detroit were producing for japan's war machine, then the rest of the would fall like a ripe plum and the japs would have divineed the commandment, to cover the eight with a of the world japanese roof. that was the plan, the blueprint, the specifications for world conquest. >> but the japanese are careful people. there was much to do. many details to prepare. at home and abroad, before the plan into action. first make sure the home front, every conceivable method of thought trol control, certain western ideas were seeping into japan, especially among city people. so western music was banned. instead, the government approved
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this. was forbidden. western movies were thrown out. the people were made to see pictures about ancient war heros. musicals began singing the praises of the warlords. western card games were purged of this. a game of super chess. actually, it is a game of military strategy. western books and mags not in japanese mil military were banned. >> the attack on hawaii must be the first battle in the war of pacific ocean. if one snatches away, the certainlyavy will become weary in the wind of panic! therefore, attack! >> arguments against american policies.
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>> we can run it down, the andnity of san francisco, the vicinity of los angeles! but this is possible only after destroyed the american fleet. >> baseball was becoming japan's national sport. it was popularized in japan by visiting american teams. in 1931, an all-star team, led lou gehrig, played in tokyo, standing room only. warlords became afraid of baseball and tried to stop it. ruth wasr on babe brought over by a tokyo the hatchet men acted. one night, the newspaper man was death.utchered to to try to take the place of baseball, the rulers encouraged shinto-approved sports
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judo.umo and judo, or jujitsu, is the act of in, making your opponent lose his balance, then tripping hit, chop, orim, pull his vital spots. jap diplomats think in terms of judo. offer ofle, make an peace, just before you intend to attack. kendo means the way of the sword. kendo.s no defense in it's all offense. you either kill or are killed. the jap army thinks in terms of kendo. ]screaming >> japanese wrestling is the act of calmly waiting or stalling for time. then to overcome your opponent.
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japanese people think in terms of sumo, calm, peaceful, like their volcano, with violent eruptions in between. theiren as they hammered homefront into shape, the gentlemen of japan were softening up the rest of the world for their plan. to every country marked for conquest, they sent their agents. officers posing as laborers, shop keepers, gardeners. the coast, officers of the imperial japanese navy masquerading as fishermen, they for pearls off the south pacific islands, fished for tuna california.t of
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they made some good hauls. other japanese traveled widely as tourists. oftographing the sites honolulu and seattle. show the folks back home. inll others went to work barbershops. strange barbers who didn't talk. all this information was filed away,tudied, in tokyo. ready for use when the day came go into action. wherever japanese spies went, japanese propaganda followed. the message was simple. >> the white man is exploiting you. drive him out. asiatics.he japan is your protecter. the warime, to finance machine, the industrialists started their offensive. from the factories of o osaka, e
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the chemicalo, plants, the steel mills, the of nagasaki, came the economic books. these were not the real was the realr here machinery. the slums of the cities where 64% of japan's products were made in small, back-room factories employing five people or less. there are hundreds of thousands of these factories in the home father, mother and taking advantage of these low labor costs, the industrialists couldan knew they undersell every other nation on earth. and they did. the world, they dumped their cheap labor products. dumping, they added piratesy.
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two best-known american plugs, matches made in kobe were labeled "made in sweden." undersold silk to the silk-producing italians. they undersold england's cotton goods in this home of their own industry. they undersold beer to the beer-producing germans. american toothbrushes, retailing at 50 cents each, were copied in japan to retail in american chain stores at 10 cents each. undersold us with our own american flag. accumulated money in foreign countries with these did they inexports turn buy automobiles, ice boxes food, erect better homes or improve their living conditions? no, indeed. instead, they imported oil,
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rubber,on, tin, aluminum and secretly built up machines.r for war a fanatic nation turning its for conquest,pons sweat for guns. sweat for planes. sweat for ships. sweat for war. >> but the greatest weapon made in japan was the japanese soldier.
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remove, ore is melted to japan,ity, so in humanitarian impurities are burned out of the child. as the steel is shaped by hammering, so is the beaten intod and beaten the shape of the samurai. ♪[music] [yelling] [whistles blowing]
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snmplet horn >> the final product, the japanese soldier. ready to shoot, smash and slug allsuperiority into non-japanese people. september 18, 1931, the first team kicked off. warlords faithfully falling launched their
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shooting war in manchuria. prosperity. enlightenment. justice. truth. peace. peace. peace. [cheering]
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[speaking foreign language] >> in groups of 100, the sick, prisoners were lined up, beaten and searched.
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then herded together for what was to be, for them, the march of death. this march of death is a lasting monument to the insane arrogance and brutality of the japanese soldier. burning with malaria, racked dysentery.ea and dissen the men were marched for some food orys without water. their helmets were purposely knocked off to expose them to blistering sun. for hours at a time, they were given a torturing sun treatment. at night, they were packed into enclosures so tight, the men lay human defecation. in the daytime, they marched in the sun. dropped out and were bay netted and shot. it to camp were subjected to unspeakable humiliation and torture. when rescuedater,
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by macarthur, this is how they looked. macarthur,ng before the enraged japs wanted to burn of manila. city before our men could kill them all, the suns of heaven thousands of helpless filipino citizens in the inner city.
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>> coprosperity. peace. enlightenment. that's roughly your enemy, japan. a nation with a tough, seasoned of four million. a nation that can supply a conscripts a year, willing to die. willion that believes we throw it in, because they will outfight us, outlast us, outdie us. a nation hell-bent to rule the nationalcommit suicide.
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defeating this nation is as necessary as shooting down a mad dog in your neighborhood. with only a portion of our total strength, we have already cracked japan's outer defenses. ♪[music] hasral macarthur brilliantly retaken the philippines and cut their supply the indies. it was the payoff that thrilled hearts of american and filipino defenders of 1942.
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>> our marines topped their glorious fighting history by 20,000 japanese on awo. on okinawa, we trapped and 100,000 of their best troops.
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navy... airports sent and millions of tons of their shipping. japan,e airfields near paid for in american blood, our systematically blasting jap factories and war plants. gangsters have been blown apart, now we can ourentrate the full fury of total power on japan.
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a power of the navy bigger than all other navies combined. >> the power of an air force greater than all other air forces combined. the power of the best equipped hardest-hitting army the world has ever seen. >> we are going to destroy japan's armies, japan's navy, japan's air forces, japan's war japan's whole power to wage war.
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>> to mark the 75th anniversary of the attack on pearl harbor, the national park service and u.s. navy will host a ceremony wednesday in hawaii. at the world war ii memorial in washington, d.c., senator mccain is the keynote speaker. c-span cameras will be there and can watch the ceremonies here on american history t.v. on saturday, december 10, beginning 9:30 a.m. eastern. american history t.v., only on
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c-span 3. >> so i decided to spend much time on the grant. i spent a week at west point, trying to understand how this could finish 21st out of 39 at west point. sometimes viewed a these biographers as historical, intellectual lightweight. himself, i must apologize. i spent all my time reading novels. night, ronald wright talks about the life and career of the 18th u.s. president, in latest book, "the life of ulysses s. grant." >> he could be in a meeting one day, he said to them, i look forward to the day when you can in aon a railroad car, eat restaurant, when you can do so along with every other person, race.less of their that day must come. totook 90 years for that day
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come. grant was the last american president to hold those kind of views. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q&a. >> on december 7, 1941, japanese planes attacked the u.s. pacific hawaii. pearl harbor, almost 2400 americans were 1200 wounded.ost the next day, president franklin before a appeared joint session of congress to a declaration of war against japan. this year marks the anniversary the u.s. pearl harbor attack. from pearl hear harbor survivors who were on board the u.s.s. arizona during the attack. serviceonal park histories.hese oral >> helen took me up, met the admiral,


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