tv American Artifacts CSPAN December 4, 2016 6:00pm-6:32pm EST
even a restaurant, where you can do so along with every other person regardless of their race. that they must come. it took 90 years for that day to come. grant was less american president to hold as kind of use. c-span, where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television companies, and is brought to you today by your cable or satellite providers. yesterday, december 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy. wased states of america suddenly and deliberately
attacked by naval and air forces of the empire of japan. >> each week, american artifacts takes viewers into museums and historic sites around the country. on the morning of december 7, 1941, planes from six japanese aircraft carriers attacked the island of a wahoo in hawaii -- oahu in hawaii, targeting the pacific fleet at pearl harbor. i mostly 400 americans were killed, and 1200 wounded. vessels, and and almost 350 aircraft were destroyed or damaged. the surprise attack led to u.s. entry in world war ii. ust, american history tv to some of the attack sites and memorials at pearl harbor, part of the national park service world war ii valor in the pacific national monument, including several stops within the bounds of the pearl harbor naval station, and off-limits to the general public. >> aloha, and welcome to pearl
harbor. my name is dana martinez, and i serve as the chief historian. we are here today to take you on of this to her --tour historic resource of the attack on pearl harbor, and the attack oahu to of who -- place. we're standing at ground zero. this is where it all began at pearl harbor. the attack had actually unfolded most 10 minutes earlier at the airfields at wheeler. and the marine base. at 7:55, the time that everybody remembers, the attack happened here. below me is a bomb crater. this bomb crater is a 500 pound bomb that is in circular
patterns with shrapnel scraps running out on either side. it is the most tangible bomb crater we have here at pearl harbor. this is where the dive bombers came in, and dropping these 500 pound bombs on what is known as the pb wide ramp. ist is over the shoulders hangar number six. following up would be the zero fighters, strafing this with 20 millimeter cannon. these nine aircraft wreaked havoc on an apron of aircraft of seaplanes and assorted utility aircraft that were now being consumed by the devastation of the attack. when the bomb hit, it blew shrapnel through the air and along a path here on the concrete. you can see the holes dug into
this concrete. was patched.is concrete does not like to be prepared -- repaired. we can see shrapnel running in every direction. not only that, but the strafing that took place is easily visible. to give you an idea of the kind of damage one of these zero fighters could inflict, we are standing on the concrete apron asked to hunger number six -- hangar number six. we're right in the center of the ramp. when the japanese fighters came down, they could fire two types of weapons. machine guns located on the wings, or the cannon located right on the howling of the aircraft. these strike patterns go right into the anger. -- the hangar. nearly 75 years after the event, they are as fresh and the payment as one they struck.
asked what the pb right ramp was. this concrete slopes toward the water. a pby was a long-range patrol plane. be way it happened was they coming here towing to the water. once in the water, the sailors would get in that water and detach the gear from it. it was the wheel gear that got on that ramp. then they would foot the plane out, it would take off, and that the tractor comes here with the sailors and comes into the water. the sailors attached that beaching gear. and i have an explanation of the ramp. from here we are going to head over to the uss utah and its memorial. there are only two ships here left from the attack, the uss arizona and the uss utah.
welltah is special as because 52 souls are still resting inside. is the uss utah. she was the first ship torpedoed in pearl harbor she was struck by two torpedoes. when they hit, it did catastrophic damage to the ship. within 12 minutes, she had capsized. those that survived were swimming out of these waters. the ship today is in the salvage mode this is as far as they got on the salvage. you can only see the bottom of the hole. from that hall they removed later that afternoon the only crew member rescued from the ship. the utah lost 58 men. 52 are still the ship. this memorial is in that remembrance. the memorial was an aspiration for a senator from utah, and also for the surviving crew.
in 1971, he came here to dedicate the ground in which this memorial will be built. he said these words which in my terms still hot me to this day. honor those who here gave the last full measure of devotion, all of us hope and pray that the time will come when we know the -- when we no longer need to dedicate memorials to men who died in battle. that we will dedicate memorials to those who live in peace. to all nations and all men." frank moscow the united states senator, utah, groundbreaking december 7, 1971. true.ream came memorial was dedicated on memorial day, 1972. this memorial is that. it is a testimony to the forgotten ship and forgot memorial. the public doesn't come here, because they are not allowed yet to come here.
as a treatment the park service that in the near future, we will have transportation out here so they can this this memorial at the next memorial we are going to, the uss oklahoma memorial. the uss utah,of the crew of the uss oklahoma sought a memorial to remember their 429 sailors, marines, and officers that were lost aboard the ship. she represents the second greatest loss of life at pearl harbor. 32 men were rescued from the ship the following day. the idea of the uss oklahoma ever fighting again was lost when she capsized. andwas raised and placed then sold for scrap after the war. she sunk in a storm. the uss oklahoma and its memorial is one of those places where you can stand among pillars of marble and see names
of those that lost their lives on december 7, 1941. we are going to move to our next stop, and that is the chief petty officer bungalows that were part of the naval air station at pearl harbor. we are here in the general area of the chief petty officer bungalows that were here on december 7, 1981. .his was family housing it was important not only to the men who served here, but for families that worked here and went to school here. this was a complex that was unique to ford island and this naval air station. it was important on december 7. these homes are in the proximity. right behind them is battleship row. the torpedo planes came over and torpedoed the ships, they flew right over these houses. one can only imagine what their sunday morning was like. we took a young girl's oral history. she remembers vividly what it was like and the care of her -- the terror her family endured
that sunday morning. these cbo structures -- cpo structures are ones that have been reconstructed. on the other side is one of the original one. is the hope of the national park service to continue to care take for these structures and return them to a 1941 neighborhood. our next up after this will be battleship row, the main battle line of the pacific fleet. behind me is the famous battleship row. the white concrete blocks represent foreign places that secured -- mooring places that secured each ship. it took two for each battleship. they started at the end with the uss nevada. just ahead of the nevada was the uss arizona and the repair ship.
tennesseehere, uss and west virginia. to where the uss missouri as would be the maryland and the oklahoma. a little bit further down, uss california. seven battleships that made up battleship row. row isre at battleship the uss missouri. the missouri was actually commissioned in 1944 and saw action in the pacific. she is often a member for one event -- that at the surrender of japan at tokyo bay. this museum ship was brought here in 1998, and is one of the key visits for people that come to pearl harbor. she now rests in the place where the uss oklahoma was sunk at pearl harbor. history is membered and history is revisited.
we have just come from ford island. hind me is battleship row. in the distance, you can see the uss missouri and an element of the uss arizona memorial. we are here at hospital point, one of the most historic site at pearl harbor. it is here where one of the most historic events during the pearl harbor attack -- often neglected -- the documentaries gallant sortie of the uss nevada. i would like to share with you verythis place is where famous chinese-american photographer took pictures in the 1930's and 40's. they did the portraits of the ships as we came into port. thenew the uss arizona had picture taken late 1940, just a year before she was lost here at pearl harbor. the drama of pearl harbor unfolded here in the latter
stages of the attack. we are at the uss nevada memorial. it would placed in 1983. the uss nevada had witnessed the beginning of the attack on 7:55.ship row, just about the harbor was fully being struck by the japanese navy. part of that assault was a torpedo that was dropped and struck the nevada. she would actually suffered during the attack six bomb hits and a torpedo hit. at a quarter to 9:00, the uss nevada had made a decision with the crew that was frightened and yet wanted to get out of the harbor. it was decided by the crew and its officers that it would try to get underway. it was extremely fortunate that two of her boilers were already let. -- already lit. usually it would take 2.5 hours to get a ship of that way -- that size underway.
led by a lieutenant, he directs the chief quartermaster to wheel her out and pull away. at that same moment, chief hill goes over to the moorings and drops the line. they now look at the uss nevada as her bows arts to swing out. they can hear the cheers coming up from the ship as the ship is underway like a football game. the cheering in the movement is now going to be stymied by the japanese second wave attack that is now coming over diamondhead. seeing that battleship underway is now a prime target for that attack. as if it is a hive, the bees of japan now descend upon the uss nevada. just as she approaches the shipyard area, she now suffers a number of attacks from dive bombers that are sending bombs into the ship from the bow to ship.hip -- the midh
she will now be ordered to go ground near hospital point. there she will knows her bow in. tradewinds will move her along with the current, and she'll be side-by-side along hospital point. the movement of the nevada is over. , thebefore that last act nevada is right next to the uss shaw that is in flowing drydock. one of the most dramatic pictures taken is the explosion of the shaw with the bow of the nevada in it. it is as if the drama of the explosion extinguishes the horror of what has happened on seventh of december, 1941. 1983, it was decided that a memorial would be placed here. the crew of the nevada wanted working withn, and
a local construction company and the navy league, this memorial was placed here. this plaque denotes the history of the attack on the nevada during the pearl harbor assault, and listed over here are those killed in action, and the two medal of honor recipients which mate, chief boatswain's the one who removed the ropes from the moorings. and then he was working to put andours -- put out fires yvonne came and he literally disappeared. the other is a machinist's mate who went down to the engine room, even though he passed out several times. he kept reviving and making sure that the engines were under power and the ship could forward. my only contribution to the story when it was placed here
1983 is that there were a number of ships that went by here. at that time, you could actually have two wrist chips that came ships that came by. does the navy -- those in the navy wanted with them mine was for. they have the ships title embossed in black and the name so that everybody would notice what it is, and they did that. this monument and memorial with this leg behind me and earl here as- pearl harbor well is one of the destination points for those that seek out the history of this pearl harbor onack and what happened december 7, 1941. leaving here from the uss nevada memorial, we're going back over to ford island. we are going to the uss arizona memorial overlook, one of those
secret places that very few visitors get to see. we're just above battleship row. this is the first memorial built to honor those that died on december 7. decemberought here in 7, 19 55 by the navy club of the united states of america. aboven see an inscription . it has a reverent recognition of the internal memory of those who gave their last full measure of devotion to their country. this money is dedicated humbly to the sacrifice in defending our freedom. if you look at the artistic impression there, you will see the ship of state held by columbia in the background. the many faces of those that died that day. this rock is very special. you would not find it here on ford island. it was brought here.
is a veryian rock special rock. whoever picked it, make sure that it had all of the relevance to the hawaiian culture. , unlikefind this rock any of the island, brought here to remember the first december 7 monument. we're going to move her cells over to the uss arizona memorial 1952 anddedicated in tell that story, and take a personal walking to her to one of the first and most revered world war ii memorials in the united states. we have just come from the uss arizona overlook and battleship row.
we are on the uss arizona memorial. this memorial was a dream for many years, to build something substantial and the memory of those that fell here. 1100 77 officers, sailors and marines were lost in that fatal moment. perhaps as many as 900 still serve the ship. the uss arizona memorial started , and also a an idea design in the late 1950's. the initial planner for this was an admiral. he had started with a platform being placed on the arizona in 1950. he and hope there be something more formal later, and the pacific war commission went forward with the design and with funding to build the uss arizona memorial in the late 1950's. the designer of this memorial was an interesting fellow, alfred price.
he was a refugee from austria, and had come here before the war to flee the nazis that had now occupied his country. when the war breaks out, he is an enemy alien, because he is of german austrian ancestry. he is arrested and held for nearly six months. they find out he is not an enemy of the state, but rather a ready to helpant, the navy with design of buildings during world war ii. after the war is over, he will create his own firm, and he will be one of the architects asked to submit as a design for the new uss arizona memorial. his design was the winning submission. it called for a memorial to span the wreck of the arizona, but not touch it. and yetgn was simple, extremely effective. it was designed as a suspension
bridge. 36 peers on either side of this ship suspend the memorial about it. the design is basically one that reflects whatand had happened at pearl harbor. initially the only purposeful design in a memorial where these openings here on either side. we found that in our research and years later that this design represents peace and harmony. not only is the memorial a war grave at a final resting place for those that parish that day day, but it ist also a piece memorial. behind me are the names of the crew of the uss arizona and not only the officers and sailors, but the marine detachment as well. they represent that great loss of life. there was really nothing like this in america. survive,y, those that
many of them had asked that their ashes be brought back to the ship and placed in the whole of it -- the hull of it. it does remind me of the purpose of the memorial. over here marine named dw fincher. recent land looked at his record and found that his father had wondered and asked if there would ever be a memorial built to honor those that fell here. in particular, that his son would be remembered. it was written in 1943. is uss arizona memorial visited by nearly 1.6 million visitors per year. nearly 2 million come to the visitors center. it is the most visited site on the island of oahu and the hawaiian islands. .ere the memory is kept alive
not at this point look back at the war with anger, but rather we look back at the war for those that served and gave their lives, and for those that survived. we now celebrate nearly 70 years of peace between the united states and japan. this memorial for the japanese is a remembrance of the war that they were once involved in, and for the friendship that they now have a drink countries that were formally their enemies -- between countries that were formally their enemies. albert price -- alford price achieved that goal. it -- me is the gunter gun turret.
it is the most visible portion of the ship. depending on the tide, part of the ship will be exposed. this particular piece of the wreckage is the largest. this plaque before me is the first plaque ever placed on the uss arizona. when they built the memorial, they made sure that the plaque came here. it's a dedicated to the internal memory of our government shipmates -- talent -- gallant shipmates who gave her life and action december 7, 1941. this exhibit shows the uss arizona as she was on the morning of december 7. it gives you the entire length and her height. this shows you what the ship looked like from above. her main gun terrorists -- turrets. right there whenever three was.
this is the ship today. the red portions you see here are what is above water. you can see how the memorial stresses across the mid-ships of the arizona. you can see the deterioration of the ship from the explosion, and you see this turret almost intact, but not quite, because she has dropped the three feet from her mounting three decks. it blew out this way. all of the smoothness is not as smooth as you think it might be. it is sand that has filled in the crevasses from this explosion. when the bombs struck, it landed right here. it lifted the ship nearly 50 feet out of the water, fracturing her completely around in this manner. she then settled down and sank within nine minutes. she now rests in 40 feet of water and 23 feet of mud.
this ship was so badly damaged that she never served her country again. in many ways, she still does surfer country with the simplest and she evokes with the ship itself here and it's memorial. this portion of the uss arizona memorial is commonly referred to as the dedication well. it is at this very spot that america's first president stood john f. kennedy came here in 1963 in the summer to be the first to come aboard the memorial. ,e stood here next to a senator and it is current practice at ort time to drop leis flowers or reefs in the water for the dead of pearl harbor and the crew of the uss arizona. this tradition continues to this day. it is also a place for people stop and contemplate as they look down on the remains of the
ship, looking down at the quarter deck and watch the oil flow by. it is interesting also to point out that this is not only a tomb, but a shipwreck, and a reef. three kind of strata are formed here. if comes from the reef -- new .ife comes from the reef a shipwreck that is still setting today to learn about how the arizona was lost and retain the artifacts that are still on the ship. one of the questions that is often asked the park rangers out here is what is that floating on the water? it is oil from the ship. it has been linking substance of sinceventh -- leaking december 7.
we are often asked how i will continue. we do not know. a ship of this size took on almost a million gallons of fuel. ship, aft section of the it remained intact. environmentally, it dissipates quite rapidly across the water. one of the local photographers host of a study of just all the different shapes and colors from the oil patterns. for those of us, we keep a sharp eye, along with the people that we are partnered with, to make sure that if there is any expansion of the soil that we can corral it and keep the environment clean. it is a message to many that visit here, to the uss arizona survivors. the was a message to remember pearl harbor and to keep up -- to keep america alert.
two japanese pilot -- to a japanese pilot, when asked what might need to him, he said perhaps it is a warning to all who come here to never repeat the mistakes of world war ii. here, the oil still leaks, and the ship in many ways still lives. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] this at anyatch time by visiting our website, c-span.org/history. american history tv is marking the 75th anniversary of the japanese attack on pearl harbor throughout this weekend and next. saturday, december 10th, beginning at 11:00 a.m. eastern,
we will be live to take your calls and tweets. that is live next saturday here on american history tv. long, we join our medications partners to showcase the history of tempe, arizona. visit c-span.org/cities tour. we continue now with our look at the history of tempe. >> we visited town lake to know more about the city's growth from public information officer chris baxter. >> ok, chris, we are typically in a van not driving around not on water in a boat, where are we right now? what is the significance of the water? >> we don't do things the normal way.