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tv   Artists of the American Revolution  CSPAN  December 22, 2016 9:20pm-10:31pm EST

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friday night american history tv and prime time continues with visits to archives, museums and historic sites. at 8:00 p.m., programs on the pearl harbor attack and memorials. then a look at world war ii aircraft. and president woodrow wilson. and later a tour of the ellis island immigration museum. and the history of african-americans in congress. american artifacts, 8:00 p.m. eastern, here on c-span 3. >> friday night on c-span, senate tributes and farewell speeches. we have tributes to outgoing senate democratic leader harry reid, remarks from senator box earn kelly ayotte. senator reid's tribute to president obama and later senator dan koet on his career. senate tributes and farewell
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eats 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. >> every weekend, book tv brings you 48 hours of non-fiction books and authors. here's what's coming up this weekend. saturday at 5:45 p.m. eastern, photographer matthew christopher tells the stories behind his series of photos of abandoned schools, factories, zoos and beach front properties across the u.s. abandoned america, dismantling the dream. at 8:00 p.m. joseph book talks about his book, my father and attius finch. about 1930s alabama. he spoke at the 28th southern festival of books in nashville. at 10:00 p.m., professor ellen silvergeld looks at farming methods and technology and the impact on the environment and workers on her latest book chickenizing farms and food how industrial meat production
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endangers workers, animals and consumers. professor silvergeld is interviewed by former u.s. secretary of agriculture dan glickman. >> most people in america haven't really been on a farm. maybe they go to the county fair but they don't know what it is to be a farmer. which is an romance. so there is this kind of p romantic view of agriculture which i find skas pi race t rating, because it makes it impossible to think about agriculture clearly. >> sunday at 11:00 a.m., fox news anchor megyn kelly talks about her life and career as a journalist, in her book "settle for more." she spoke with catty kay. james rosen and christopher buckley, son of late william f. buckley discuss their book a torch kept lit great lives of the 20th century which examines essays on famous figurers written by christopher buckley's
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father. executi exec editor the national review. then at 6:15 p.m., lydia b benjamin looks at the u.s. and saudi arabia and in her book "kingdom of the unjust." go to baooktv.org for a complet schedule. now arms and artists. the revolution through painters eyes talks about the lives and works of five american artist of the revolutionary period. the fraunces tavern museum hosts this hour-long event. >> we are delighted to have paul steady presenting of arms and artist, american revolution through painters eyees. paul teach eats mount holo college and is the auj our of sell ral books and esrays on american artists. he is a curator of the fine arts
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in boston. he is a two-time senior fellow at the met. paul has spoken internationally on the intersection of american art and history. and with that, i would like to welcome paul. [ applause ] >> thank you very much. it's a pleasure to be here this evening. i want to thank my hosts here at the tavern. and i want to thank my publicshr who is represented here, tara kennedy, for publishing this book of "arms and artists." this is the book here. it is a hybrid book in the sense that it atepts to dotempts to d of things at the same time. it meant to be read by anybody. anyone interested in 18th century america. anyone interested in founding. anyone interested in the revolution. i think you would find things many things in here that would
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be a bit of, quite a bit aftof revelation to you. this is an aspect of that era that hadn't been previously treated. at the same time i had been intending to appeal to professional historians. they might learn a few things from this. and my colleagues in art history might learn a lot from the books as well. i like to think of this as my effort to execute a triple steal since the world series was on last night, a triple steal. i may be out at all three bases but i would be happy with a double steal or single steal here. last successful strip el steal was by the cleveland indians of 2008.trip el steal was by the cleveland indians of 2008.el steal was by the cleveland indians of 2008. this is a book about five artist. but equally, it is a book about
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george washington, thomas jefferson and john adams. john adams and john singleton coply, the two family webs they became the best of friend. trumbull, john trumbull, lived with thomas jefferson in paris at the american embassy in paris. trumbull was privy to the most aspects of jeffson's life. he became a go-between in jefferson's wild romantic pursuit of maria causeway, an artist in paris at the time. trumbull delivered letters between them. showing tremendous discretion. their lives were utterly wrapped up in the event of the revolution. charles wilson fought, he was in a militia company. from philadelphia. he was on the banks of the delaware with washington. with his musket and his painting
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kit. john trumbull is the son of the governor of connecticut. and he watched from a distance the fire bombing and burning of charlestown at battle of bunker hill. he became washington's aid. he was friends with all of these people. and so it's all those stories woven together within the book. and that was the fun of really writing it. so what's the book about, you're wondering. and i'm going to mention four principles or four building blocks of this book. and if you read the book, if you, you know, go through the book of arms and artist from front to back, you're never going to hear me say oh, here's building block number 2. it's all kind of buried in there. but there is what was on my mind when i was researching and
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writing the book. and the fir thing is kind of the obvious thing. which was that i propose that works of art were essential to the founding of the united states. that's actually quite a bold statement. but i'll explain why i think they are utterly important. and that's big one. i'll give you a couple of examples and maybe for starters i take to you independence hall which was known then as the state house that didn't become known as independence hall until later and they common wealth of pennsylvania commissioned the artist charles wilson peel -- sorry, moving this in the right position. artist charles wilson peel to mant a picture for independence hall for the state of pennsylvania in 1779. and here in fact is this picture
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which is an eight-foot tall painting, big impressive painting showing george washington after the battle of princeton which was fought early in 1777. not long after a few days, after the passage of the delaware river. the crossing of the delaware. and this is what this state of pennsylvania, this was the commission for the work of art and in the bad position here it read it but i think i have a copy of it. and where is the wisest freest and bravest in the most virtuous times of endeavor to those who have rendered the country distinguished services by preserving their resemblances and statues and painting et cetera, et cetera. we wish po place in the council chamber, not only as a mark of the great respect which we bear it him but that contemplation
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may excite others to tread m the same glorious steps that lead to happiness and private honor. there are a couple things about that that are quite remarkable. that the freest wisest and bravest nations such as the brand-new freshly minted united states, now wishing to follow in the foot steps of all great nations before it, feels an obligation to commemorate and have portraits painted of important individuals such as washington. so that's rather remarkable. the second thing about it i think that is important, is that the contemplation of the picture may excite others to tread in the same glorious steps. that is that it will inspire imu la i'm u lags, just one look, seeing washington, a man of wealth and standing was willing to do to sacrifice, to do
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whatever was necessary that this will inspire others to join the war effort. when this picture was painted, the war is on, so maybe it will stimulate others to follow as well. so works of art as inspiring as motivational. so it was an important picture in that regard. let's flash forward two years. this is painted in '79. let's flash forward to september 9th, 1781. the british are losing at yorktown. there is no future. there is no hope for the british. surrender is imminent and everybody understands that the surrender at yorktown is essentially the end of the war. everybody knows this and they know this in london perfectly well too. on september 9th, a group of loyalists broke into independent hall and slashed charles wilson
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peel's picture with the knife. they shredded the head and face. that is, it had so much symbolic importance as to draw defacement of an image. they could least wipe that smile off of his face. they could at least slash the values represented in the picture. they could turn something like this, something attractive like this into something repulsive. so works of art were that incendiary at the time. in 176 th9, before the resoluti of the stamp act and towns end acts, some radical activists went into a building in cambridge and they walked up to john singleton coply's portrait
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of the british governor of massachusetts and they cut the heart area out of the portrait. leaving a hole. coply is tuned. he is called in. calleded upon to repair it. newspapers say as great as artist as coply might be, it could be impossible for him to restore a heart to the heartless governor barnard. so again, destroying a work of art as a political statement. and of course most famous one which is like what a stone's throw away from here, summer of 1776, washington is marching through here and heading uptown. and the british have invaded and his soldiers are demoralized and camped near where city hall is today.
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and washington is delivered a copy of the declaration of independence. he has it read to the troops and upon that, that moment then, they spontaneously, not by order, but by spontaneously, come down here to bowling green and lash ropes around a huge equestrian statue of george iii. they drag it down to the ground. they drag it through the street. and then, they melt down the led, led covered in gold. they melt down the led in order to make musket balls so that they can kill the british. so again, a work of art. that's what it was. a work of art. and the political statements that were made around it, works of art matter. there are statements of political belief at a time when statements immediated to be made and when statements were made. okay, let's go back to this
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statute, the statute of this painting for a second here. this is not -- there was another painting originally intended to hang in the state house in independence hall before the revolution began. and never quite made it there. but if you went to any of the colonial capitals of america you would find one of the endless numbers of copies of this portrait hanging in all of the colonial capitals. and what would you see and with a is intended for independence hall is the picture you see on the right, which is the equestrian -- the coronation portrait of king george iii. that's what was intended for him independence hall. look tagt on the left is what eventually gets hung in independence hall. and can you see the similarities? between the two pictures? right, the kind of pose.
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weight heavily on one leg, pretty much off of the other. granted the lightweight leg is doing different things in the two men. which tosses the body to one side. the body is dressed by the sitter's left arm which is resting on either the barrel of a cannon or on a table and then the right arm is up on the hip docking the elbow outward in a pose that would be called akimbo. they are remarkably similar in that regard. why is that? because charles wilson peel studied art in london in the 1760s before the war. and would he have seen, not this one specifically, but the artist alan ramsay made these like, you know, he and his studio were making these all the time. and so that's the point of similarity. yet i'd say that peel has transformed it into a revolutionary portrait.
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because washington is so different from george iii and in the charles wilson peel portrait. i find him to be approachable. george iii, you don't ever look george iii in the eye. so he's always -- he can be looked at but he doesn't make eye contact. but george washington eye to eye, face-to-face, here. approachable. understated. i like it use the word benevolent. a little bit awkward. very direct. confident. and calm after a brutal battle. prince top battle was awful. it was fought in early january. the fields were covered with ice. there were many injured. many killed. there are stories about how the blood froze on the ice and what you saw was a red field.
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of course you do not see that in this picture. and i'll come back to the reasons for that in just a moment. so he has painted this picture with the idea that he's going to more or less say that this is a new day in the history of north america. and he has condensed the new order of rule into this picture. the first great public portrait in america in the out. this one. full of the values and principles of the new american republic. washington versus george wisconsin iii, clear cut difference between the two men. difference on the left between america and britain. difference between a republic and a monarchy. difference between today and yesterday. so there it all is in a quick look. anybody looking at this in 1779 or afterwards would immediately grasp the import of it all.
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and that's the revolutionary aspect of that particular pain. okay. second, building block in arms of artists, the united states desperately needed pictures, images, things like this. not just by charles wilson peel but by all these artist. this was a complicated moment during the revolution and after the revolution transformative. compelling. captivating. confusing. frightening. utterly imcomprehensionible. not being able to understand what's happening. while it's happening. or what it is going to lead to. certain things were clear. british rule was over. british images. british rituals. british kings. british governors. all of british history were
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instantly offensive and completely obsolete. so good-bye to all of that. and now what was required were american images, american rituals, american heroes. american history. even though the history is, you know, 15 minutes long. and especially in a new country, that is not united. fractured into state with local identities. new yorkers thought of themselves first and foremost as new yorkers, not as oh, i'm a citizen of the united states, whatever that is. same thing with south carolynians or georgians or anything from a -- or virginia or you name it. their identities are local. now they are being asked to become citizens of a greater entity. and how do they -- how are they persuaded by that?
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how are they persuaded after new national identity for themselves? and i think this is a task that would face any kind of what i tell my student, any sort of a microwave nation. microwave like, well, you know, you pop it in, press a few buttons, hit declaration of independence. you hit warfare. and so on, constitution. you pop it out and here it is. but what is it, exactly? so how do people come to understand this? how do they find common ground amongst themselves? across the thousand miles of atlanta coastline. and this is where i think the artists come in. in short order chaz wilson peel paints, we're not sure exactly, somewhere between 17 and 24 of these full length portraits of washington. they paappear in state capitols
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now. one of them is sent to thomas jefferson in paris to hang in the american embassy. perfect. another copy is sent to king louies xvi. the french are writing the checks for the american revolution. they've sent soldiers, sent the navy. they are writing checks. you imagine this picture showing up with in front of lou exvi as if so say things are going very well here, as you can see. we are confident, calm, no problem. write checks. gilbert stewart i want washington on the right more than a hundred times over the course of 30 years. and pictures other artist copy his pictures and i'll say more about this in a minute. they go on and on and on. they appear everywhere.
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in other words these works of art become objects of national faith. believe in them. believe in the people that you see in them. in this case, washington, who is the glue of the nation. but in order to understand that in south carolina, in order to understand that in new hampshire, you've got to see something. you're not going to see him in person. something has to occur. the third building block of the book, of art and artist, is that i'm thinking that these works of art were and are, and still are, to america what the illiad and aniad were to the ancient greeks and ancient proromanians. in this works, check out the
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gallery in the next room, these are latter day versions of the same thing. but these are the found diegsal stories of the out told over and over again. seeing over and over again full of heroes. the difference being is that you can never be sure in reading mythology or reading homer or hearing about scandinavian mythology where whether any of it was remotely true or any of the characters ever actually existed. but in the united states, they did. flesh and blood. events actually occurred. there were accounts of it all. there was something palpable about the foundation stories that we experienced back then and we still rely upon today. so if i were asking folks to conjure up an image, go ahead. what did it look like in independence hall in the summer of 1776?
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most likely, you conjure up the painting of the declaration of independence which you see here on the screen. this is the version of it at yale. university art gallery. gigantic, colossal version of it in the rotunda of the united states capitol. there it is. or if i said, oh, that battle of bunker hill, in the summer of 1775, what did that look like? here's john trumbull's painting of bunker hill that painted ten years after the event. that get us about as close to it as we can possibly get. if we want it thank about what washington looked like when he was president, well -- or what it looked like when washington, this is washington's resignation in the annapolis state house, in 1783, or what washington looked like when he was president of
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the united states, we might want to rely on gilbert stewart's portrait of washington. taken from light when he was red president of the united states. so they sort of directly connect us back to the nation's origins and that's been their power ever since. they have set the stage for the american republic for 240 years. another example. you are in the u.s. capitol building. and this is the rotunda. and you are under the great dome of the rotunda of the capitol even you're looking at, this is june of 2004. the casket burying the body of president ronald raeg grab has been carried from california to
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washington. there has been a procession of pennsylvania avenue and at the bottom of the steps of the capitol, the casket is picked up by a military honor guard. the casket is carried up the steps of the capitol. a military band is playing the b battle hymn of the republic. the casket is carried inside the dome. you can't see it here. it is just under that door way there. it is brought into the dome of the capitol and it is placed where one laid abraham lincoln's body. this set the stage for this, they connect 2004 back to the origins of the nation. the symbolism was intense and was meant to be intense.
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we are -- who are these people? this is the entire united states congress has come out there. there it is. it is like the summation of everything in one place. this is not a church. but it's kind of a church. this is where the sacred images, sacred moments of the past are laid out there. if you go into a catholic church, you'll find all their pieces. find stations of the cross. stations of the revolution. something like that. that ring the back wall. the declaration of independence that surrender at saratoga, surrender at yorktown, washington's resignation. there it is. and i could go on, but i'm not going to go on, one more thing here about it, i'm going to take you to the north carolina house of representatives. this is the chamber that served as the -- for the house until
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there got to be too many representatives and they had to build something else. this is the chamber that existed through most of the 19th century and into the early 20th century. and you see the desks of the congressmen here, the center aisle. you see the speakers -- you know, i really want to say pulpit. podium. and behind it, the alt piece, which is a copy of gilbert stewart's presidential washington. the analogy to a church is powerful and that's deliberate. it is a kind of sacred moment. you walk into this room, and this is, you understand the responsibility that you must live up to. stewart's washington, the full length and one of the full length ones was hung in the white house in 1800 and every
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president since john adams has had to be president under the whithering gaze of stewart's washington. there's another one in there too. i think sometimes it's in the oval office.ç÷úç÷úç÷úzvçç÷ç
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this is exactly the way it happened, which is subjected to that kind of standard. piece ofç works of art. make no mistake about it. but all of 18th century artistic
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abilities built into them. that is to say, the facts -- i'm sorry.ym no. no. no. i'm getting myself ahead of myself. it also appears on the $1 bill frq-'1869. i'm backtracking now. from 1869 it's the number one dollar bill, how many exactly have youç printed since 1869 a don't really know. maybe i could have found out. but hundredsç of trillions. by far the most reproduced image in history by a long shot. my÷ú guess was that you're carryingko it'sç kind of an
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intimate relationship that you have going on with washington and gilbert stewart. so every time you buy something, you know,v: you're not thinking about it, but there it is. standard. standard. so, proceed withzv caution, tha is to say, research the facts as much as possible as was done áh the battle of bunker hil. he worked very very hard to get all the portraits corrected as possible could get zvthem. when it came down to it he couldn't depict events as they actually occurred. what you see here is general joseph warren whoç has been wounded on the battlefield. it's boston that's out there and the÷ú har bar. . there were ships in the har
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board thauç finally ended the battle. the american retreatç warren i dying and man is holdingç up h body about ready to deliver to warren. but he --÷ú but the american pushes it off, more or less saying, let this man die honorably. he should not die that ua29ñ not only is that happening, but a british major, major small whom you see here, he steps ovev one of his own soldiers so that he can reach out with his right hand and he grabs the barrel as warren should die in a piece. -- peace.
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isn'tzv that something.s@r(t&há% and it happened that way.÷ú . as soon as he walked on the battlefield. he was hit with the ball in the back of his head. his brain÷ú exploded. the skull exploded. he died instantly. his body was abandoned. the british blew÷ú it into open gray. that's what happened to him. 18th century artistic rules, this picture÷ú must be made int something inspirational, something epic, something inspiring and showingzv warren destroy isn't going to do it. so the fact that he's idlized
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theç picture, according to the rules as they existed in the 18th centuries and centuries before this as well.ym the same is also true of the declaration of independence which is the closest any artist, thatym started in '86 and it wa sta started when he was living with jefferson in paris aídç he had o plans for painting this subject, but jefferson whispering in one year, you know, that will be a and maybe show me handing the document in on theç table ther and. jefferson -- jefferson draws th8 picture of the floor plan. the jeffersons already forgetting we're scrambling. looks what it looks like in s!=
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walk over from so already, this is not accurate. f five, including adams and jefferson and franklin turning in the document to john hancock. well, that never happened quite that way. the document was on the desk, but youç don't get up and turnt in, you sit down like everybody else and then it is when the time comes, it's read out loud. it murd have taken about 12 or 14 minutes to read the declaration of independence out loud. then they go next order of business. it was tozv see whether they wod be willing to raise enough money to buy some more nails, they needed nails, can we buy some more÷ú nails. or maybe improve on the chesapeake. it had its momentsç but this
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looks like the grand moment. everybody in the room at that time, they're all talking to each other, they'reç bickering they can't get order in here at all, but in the painting, they all politely sit in rows, observing the ÷úevents, the gre event of the sacred document, nobody thought of it as a sacred document into2a 1776. but now it's being made into that. in fact, the analogy here is that, you know, when you get a groupym of wise men attending a sacred birth, we're usuallyç talking about the ab -- the birth of christ, those sorts of subjects that heç knows perfecy well and he's adapted to that here and it's the birth of the united states. and these are the wise men and these are÷ú those who sit sileny
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in ÷úattendance. . he worked hard over years and years and years. and heswants this to be an epic painting. so he takes artistic ÷úçlighti. and first thing my students say, well, he's boring. he is ÷ústoic. >> he's a man of tremendous energy, a man ofsego, when
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stewart met washington in philadelphia, he was blown away. it was overwhelming.ç . he had been -- he would be the fiercest man of allbihe tribe. this is the philosophy of washingtonb and he opens the dor andç stewart writes about this. and throwing themym across the room and and that's not the one youç see here.
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this is the one for --÷ú%d i realized washington simple, plain inym a black suit. surrounded guilt, furniture, columns and draperyç and so on like a new england minister who lives straight intoç the court luis the 16th. plain and simple. that was the idea. >> about what these pictures when -- let me go çback.
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>> when he wanted to get the federal government to pay him to paint those four pictures in thç ro tun da. he began public relations campaign. and in this campaign he writesy letter to congressman and senators. he swallows his pride and he talks to president james madisoa who really dislikes and he writes letters to his old pal, old john adamsç and old thomas jefferson asking for their endorsement of this project. would you be so kind to write the president and congress to endorse my pictures that i would be hired to do this. and both adams and jeffersonç write back.
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adams is 81 years old andu@ adams -- he opened his reply with expressions of pleasure adhering from him which he had not seen when they had crossed paths in new york and philadelphia. best wishes with theu! project, after adams then launched a frontal attack on trumbulls painting in allv: forms of stat are past, present and future. you are pleased to remember he lectured theç artist, that the burn and the pencil, they happen in all ages of which we have any information that enlisted on thy side of super stigs for centuries, architecture, sculpture, painting and poet tri havezv conspired against the li of man kind. and adams was more universe, art
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was the supreme instrument. he warned trumbull,ç the great artist of american independence that, he, too, on the threshold of becoming an enemy of human rights.y+ adam felt obliged to tell him, in his words, i am therefore more inclined to despair than to hope for your success inç congress. as he put it, were honorable and noble, yes. make it honorable and noble, but at thu "5 about whether he understood the moral gravity of a project in, in his words, destined to transmit÷ú to the most celebrat events from the american revolution, this is in the year 1818 this is happening. the pv!lem, as adam saw it, all art by his very nature tells an imperfect story, however strenuksvthe result is always a semi fiction, a story
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version, a nostalgic glance backwards or a building÷ú block in some ideological agenda. as adams knew well, history is so complex, it is never amenablp to documentary painting. characters and action, he advised trumbull, are always neglected and ÷úforgotten, nuans lost, art distort. but given the subject as fundamentalal to the american republican÷ú revolution, the burden on all artist to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth was magnified. future placement in the capitol ro tun da multiplied further the artist responsibility.ç adams wrote, historical should fall prey to the allure of a fable, that would be azv ka t catastrop
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catastrophe. he was long enough to see his worstç emerge as a nags mation reality. he predicted that it would become in his word -- this is )ms-ing, one continued lie from one end to the other, the essence of the whole movie that dr. franklin's electrical rod smoked theç earth and out spra george washington that franklin electrofied him and hence forward these conducted all the policy negotiation, legislature and çwar. john adams, what about me. part of this is his htego, but this idea of electrofiing. he took it a number of places makes references toym michael angelo 16th chapel ceiling.
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and john adams tested the history surmise when he went to seeç this picture in samuel ha of december 5th, 1818 after the . we don't know exactly what he thought and no record of it. but surely uph>ñ finally seeing the picture, even though he's in the middle of the picture, he must have thought it depicted american independence as it might hw6t occurred in heraven instead of how it happened on earth. consensual and scripted. not improvised, chaotic, tested, filled with false starts. he hadym flattened the bumpy ro to independence, making it smooth and çstraight. the same day that he wrote to adams he wrote to jefferson and
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jefferson writes back to him as well. veryç interesting. jefferson was in full agreement with crumble and what he had done in this painting. jefferson writes to thenb artis it would be of noç value. >> so in jefferson's htview, th plaintiff good painting was to stimulate strong sentiment not to log in the ÷úç÷úçfacts.
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for adam thatp meant representig for adam thatp meant representig was absolute anda deception as 18th century critics might have described it because the painter had never witnessed or recorded theym eve. of the koj intou! roman senator sternly adopted it. this pictureç dignified 1776 b converting bickering congressman and stoic republican governing
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se zvdashslit's resolved here u time was come of the american olympics.ym he deliberately iconic shame and to adam, that was a tragedy. but for v:jefferson, the equali past of the present was to shrine the republican values that had emerged during the revolution so they might be÷ú sustained in propagated÷ú -- of
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1776. >> done at the american embassy and sozv they're altogether -- 9 foot portrait of johnçzv ada- thank you. [ applause ]ç >> you need the microphone, right? >> okay.ç okay.ç
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here. >> and i know you don't have three hours to ÷útalk. >> oh, yes, i did. >> did you say a little more, connection with thezv resolutio. happy to. i've got five artist and they break into three different, i guess if i want to categorize zv them. they are the bug eyed patriots that are peeled, fight for the resolution, they pick up the they will do whateverç it take. and, you know, appeal becomes the lieutenant and trumbull becomes thev: colonel. gilbert stewart seems to have had no political opinion whatsoever, he's in london during much of the wa'i he comes back in the 1790s with the express purpose of painting washington because he's going to
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make his fortune, he u2rtqák and he does. and he's not -- not necessarily like, oh, i'm so happy that the united states is a free and independent nation.ym he's an entrepreneur, so your great artist of washington is an entrepreneur, he's erratic. he's running from the law.ç he's p he's -- he's anç alcoholic. -- he's one of the reasons he has trouble with washington is because stewart's method to loosen it upsis a big picture of nadira and as they drink and drink and drink that wasiñ the idea and -- stewart was never boring. . he's a separate kind of person, pure entrepreneur. . they wanted to see american ym
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independence. they wanted british abuse to end, but they thought that war was completely incompatible with art zvmaking. now, it's already in london from 1760 onward and he is so #aa%9qsful he becomes court which put him in a bit of a pickle during the war because he had to, basically, navigate his way throughzv london during the war even though he had the patriotic sentiment and he knew it. in fact, in one instance wherez there were a lot of in london who wanted to call out west as the trader and his biggest defenders inç london was georg theç÷ú third the craziest.
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they're ripping out the art of this picture. think ear pounving on his door at night. have you seen so and so, we know you painted this portrait, where is he today.ç . i don't know. he writes. we could be murdered by these people. he doesn'tko want to pick up a gun. so he goes to london and even while he's in london he's writing letters and saying, america would bel-ee in independence. he and west, together, decide tú go to parliament to listen -- they listen to the capitulation speech and there the two of them with a couple of other americans walking out feeling really, really good about this.
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but they had -- and that's anu! interesting part of the book is how they weave their way through the most explosive moments of their lives,zv you know, how th conduct their career. >> you're welcome. vyou. >> how common was it for÷ú one these five artist to have duplicate paintings of the subjects depending on the demand, i ymsuppose, and one is you know, looks like george washington, he was -- he stood in as his face, everything was painted around him and@ would show up for -- how long would he show for that painting. >> maybe an hour or two hours, something like that. but the best record is when --
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was the capital, he goes -- he paints hiszv portrait here and d if we have, you know, washington's diary entry and he goes to see trumbullp about 13 times about an hour, and he writes this is washington and i. we're going to trumbull. about anç our out of wack. he gets hiccups for this. he says i feel like aç horse going over and over çagain. >> 1776. >> yes. >> i think around 15 exists. there's one in the metropolitan museum if you want to see oneç
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quickly. and the run of brooklyn. they're some in rhode island state capitol. capitol. so they're here and there. there are some under sized ones. some of÷ú them lost. and they painted most of these things from washington. he chargedv: 100 bucks for each one. cha ching. and they were -- they showed up! everywhere. who made copies of the 100 some odd. there were prints -- official prints made after theç stewart. there were unofficial -- even back then for the $1 bill. everywhere. a couple of the american traders working in india, brought to india with them washington as the gift toym rumble all day.
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as a token of our nation to you, kudos that happened toç that o. so they saw it kind of saturate the visual landscapeover this period. what was the other÷ú part of th question i haven't zvv:answered? >> the most famous one is in city hall here in the governor's room. >> no questionsç over here. >> thank you. obviously youzv focused on the p five -- five of the top leading most famous painters that were contemporary to theç revolutio.
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i was wondering, obviously, one or more well-known painters was wondering if he can tell anything, about the relationship and how he inspired his son to, you know,ç go and the recognizable portraits. >> here is an interesting littlç story. .a >> they became. >> one of the older÷ú kids, tel us about it. it's a great art of philadelphia. >> but steward is traveling around whereverh4$u$e capitol i. he's in new york, philadelphia and then essentially in d.c. the capitol of philadelphia hey
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goes there. and this is my city in washington is my man and he's  and all that. and makes him feel less that stewart arranges withzv washington. he's a teenager come to from thç president's house in philadelphia to paint washington. that's the appeal paints his one life portrait ofç washington. and he's getting in on the 1790. i didn't include him in it because he's really the later generation and isreally dislike the picture, too. it's to make this into azv business. he then goes on and makes this oval portrait of washington. you can see it around. there's one in the oval÷ú offic of the white house, it's usually
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behind obama at the back of the oval office. you see it çthere. to help it from the own portrait. the best from stewart's portrait. the best feature from hisym father's portrait so that he can create what he calls the standard likeness with the hopes that everybody would ask himç paint copy after copy after copy because he's going to help with all of these guys. so he can carry this÷ú on into e 1830s and 1840s and 1850s. in the 1850s he"c9 say, i painted them for like. they're real entrepreneurs, ÷út. you know, portrait gallery in philadelphia, the second floor. and when he died, most of÷ú it t thrown off by the peachy bottom.
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but the portrait still exist and they're on display.v: along with the remains at eagle which is sitting pthere. alive and he stopped him when he died. 60 or 60 portraits hanging in there. it's a great place to çgo. and regular new york, the new york historical society right now, there's benjamin when peel came to study a bit. it's a beautifulsportrait. it's a beautiful portrait. and next to it is this fabulous peel family painting that was worked on for like 20 or÷ú 30 years that had an entire family in it. up in the corner there's of both peel and benjamin v:west. there are three different of peel on display next to each other. so, yeah, he managed the work himself is the main thing. >> oh, yeah, you need to getv: extra credit for that.
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that's all true. he decided to --÷ú from 1780 ofn ward he wanted to basically an american hol half of fame where he take portraiz3÷ of the great americans of the era. they're all men. they're all men, you know, i teach everyone in college. they're÷ú all çmen. -- it became better at conversation at reading at letters. things like that. butym public virtue was entirel new. so ultimately hef painted about 200 of those pictures, about 50 of them are on the secondç ban of the united states, which is next door at independence hall. they're great. and when he had his museum on the÷ú second floor of -- they
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lined the upper level and on the lower level he had cases andzv the cases you could find turkey, eagles, stuffed. them stuffing animals. he could find gems and shells and all kind of mineral there is contained everything that was unique about the united states, about america because it would be an americang# turkey and american eagle and american minerals and american leaders. who look÷ú different from europn leaders here, approachable and ç direct. he estimated and heym assembledn the museum. that's why he was interested.
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eventually they went bankrupt and went toç the sons and ther was a branch in baltimore and got complicated. and the whole thing was meant to american museum.nally called the this would be a point of inspiration where you look at these great figures and you look at the things that make america special place and youç thought that this would inspire, you know, his citizens. >> yeah, thank you forç mentioning that. >> where you can go back for jt bunker hill. >> bunker hill. >> that's probably, i will say, the best thing he ever ÷úpainte >> the figures in the lower corner there, are very different looking than the rest. what's the significance of those twoç figures?
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that is thomas grove ner and his --ym we don't know for his black servant or black slave who holds it for himmy as he leaves the picture. he's leaving the scene. i'm not sure it's painted differently. but certainly it's on another note. i can ke how in the picture it kind of helps to close off the right side of the ÷úzvnbpicture. this is right out of michael angelo. with the wounds and theko whole
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thing.ç he's holding up his right hand. and he's been wounded here and so so, again, that's ref'aq= c. so the wounds -- so÷ú -- long after he died, this picture was used byç boston am bolitionist make a case for black participation, not only in the revolution, but absolute necessity thatyñ the time has e to end slavery and they sometimes reference this picture. and it was at the dedication o@ the bunker hill monument. and at that event, daniel webster was there and president holder, having his black servant
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hold up his umbrella,ym the abolitionist, john quincy adams who wanted to impeach, stayed home in quincy massachusettsç that day. shortly after that there were prints made of this where the 4ks(eliminated from the picture you only see the black servant who then is basically promoted into theç position of being participant at the event. and this became an abolitionist. you know, in the picture, all of the pictures were÷ú reminders o you know, they'll welcome the revolution is not over by a long shot. let's keep in mind that this is not ap fixed thing, be u the united states is a -- is a work rogress.
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[ applause ]çzv friday night american history÷ú and tv continues with visits to prime time continue museums and [iues. then a look at world war ii aircraft and president wood row wilson. and later a tour of the ellisym island immigration museum and the history of african-americans in ÷úcongress. tonight book tv prime time features politicians onç afterwards. at 8:00 p.m. senator majority leader

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