tv Nome Cult Trail CSPAN April 2, 2017 9:06am-9:16am EDT
folks and increasingly interested in protecting corporations. >> watch afterwords tonight at 9:00 eastern on book tv. 9 > >> all weekend, american history tv is featuring chico, california. c-span cities tour staff recently visited sites showcasing this history. general john bidwell founded the city in 1860. the town of 92,000 residents is now home to california state university. learn more on american history tv all weekend. prof. dizard: we're standing at a place that holds profound significance for the indigenous people here in this part of what we now call butte county. these people regard this very place as the particular location
where in their cosmology the creator had humans emerge into the world. it is also alumni glenn. with the discovery of gold not too far south of here and the inability to keep that discovery secret, the news quickly spread. and the ratio of settlers to native people began to radically shift. prior to the gold rush, there would have been somewhere on the order of maybe under 5000 settlers in all of california. by 1855, that would have skyrocketed to above 50,000 settlers. and the relations were fraught. not for every group at every
moment, but there was a profound sense of racism towards native peoples. the general epithet used was "digger indians." in other words, they were regarded as sub human. because they did not have the kind of technological accoutrements that european american settlers considered standard. it's not because they were not clever enough to figure it out. because those things were irrelevant to their daily lives. they were able to go, on the coast, you know, when the tide went out -- their table was set. here in this part of north central valley, the mass crops of acorns provided very important, calorie rich food source for them. wild game, deer, small animals, insects were a staple of the regular diet.
and, of course, fish. there were abundant salmon runs and steelhead. in some cases, two different runs of the same species up the rivers. so, there was no need, really, to have complicated technology. the critical issue became access to subsistence resources, because, with is a huge influx of settlers, miners, and then merchants who were essentially mining the miners, selling them the equipment that they thought they needed, game the game to be -- began to be scarce. rivers were diverted and in some cases completely upended. as food sources began to disappear for native people in their traditional subsistence regime, they naturally look towards stock. one of the main industries here
in this part of california as well as elsewhere, in fact, was the hide trade. the idea was to raise a lot of cattle to sell the skins and meat. well, these cattle were critical resources for the settlers but also viewed as food sources. hungry native folks would have may be poached a cow here and there. and slowly, over the course of several months to a year and a half, between 1850 and 1852, these kinds of depredations began to rankle deeper and deeper in the white settler community and began to be punished more and more systematically, and ultimately, the rational for outright murder if not genocide of indigenous groups was held to be kind of like this, we're going to teach
you a lesson. here in butte county, the attitude was these people can't be trusted. we need to exterminate them for their own good. this is rhetoric that existed at the time. one effort to try and minimize these kinds of assault was to move california indians to reservations, what were called rancheria. in this area, the idea was to move local people 100 miles west of here on the other side of what is now the mendocino national forest in round valley. approximately 470 people and various other tribelets in the area were essentially corralled just west of chico. then marched over the course of two weeks in mid-september 1863,
100 miles to their new home, a reservation out over the mountains in the coast range. the forced relocation of 1863 is remembered as the nome cult walk. it was the name of the reservation that was essentially created in round valley. this series of forced relocations is kind of a not very well known aspect of american history in general, and california history in particular, because, as one might imagine, it's not a pleasant chapter. it's a very brutal and violent series of events that took place between approximately 1850 and 1875, and resulted in a
radically reduced population of indigenous people in california, not zeroed out by any means, but definitely dramatically reduced through sheer, outright genocidal methods. it was about 18 years ago that folks from both -- in round valley decided to organize a memorial walk. they decided that in september they would retrace the steps their ancestors were forced to take. and so, ever since then, for the last 18 years or so, every september, folks gather in chico and take a week to walk 100 miles. a very meaningful, profound ceremony. it's regarded as a spiritually healing effort to not just commemorate the fact that their ancestors survived this arduous
journey and they the descendents are here now today, but also to think deeply about why this happened and to try and instill values of sort of mutual respect and tolerance. our cities tour staffed recently traveled to chico, california, to learn about its rich history. learn more about other stops on our tour at c-span.org/cities tour. you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3. noon,e today at investigative journalist and best-selling author annie jacobson is our guest on in depth. >> from these documents what is clear is that it is moving humans in the military environment toward being comfortable with the idea of merging man and machine.
>> she's known for her writings on war, weapons and government secrets and will discuss her four books, " area 51," "the pentagon's brain," and " phenomena." join our live three hour conversations live today at noon eastern on in depth on c-span 2. 1994, george mitchell announced the end of efforts to pass a health care bill that year. press conference followed a year and a half long effort by the clinton administration and members of congress. up next on american is your tv, senator mitchell's press conference followed by reaction from republican leader robert dold. e. it is about an hour. sen. mitchell: at the beginning of this congress, i said the